Introduction:When the child starts to gain language? He starts earlier than most ofus think and ends much later than we think too, because there is an end ofsound and grammar acquisition, but there is always some new world learn,therefore, it is an ongoing process.The child starts learning language by imitation and exploring through babbling,then he uses a one word sentence, next atwo word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his languagewhich is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too.Many scientists studied languages acquisition and developed theories aboutvocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicableonly to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is notrestrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday lifein malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacypractice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use oflanguage, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written andspoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to theimage he wants to deliver to the people around him.The orthography system of the English has its downsides which cause somedifficulties that the child needs to conquer to have a good command over thelanguage, but it has its upsides that simplify the learning of this language.Currently English is an international language that is not just used by nativespeakers but also by non-native speakers.
Through the course of learning English there are identical ordivergent problems that both speakers face because two third of the childrenaround the world are born in bilingual environment.The language was among the first inventions of the human being, it hasits various system that represent people’s identity and history that has beenpassed on through generations. allowing the new generations to express theirown time by their own terms gives the language new words and uses, causing thelanguage to change constantly according to people’s need.
The theories about language acquisition were an effort of many scientiststhat study one language perspective at the time grammar ,discourse…etc. Gettingthose bits and pieces into the jigsaw of language acquisition gives us the bigpicture and its complexity and wondering nature. Language is a mean of communicating and expressingthoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by makingsounds that represent pictures which address the auditory system, then lettersand words that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessityof a writing system aroused from the need to record events and communicate itwith different people across the different period of time, different writingsystems were developed across the word which varies in its complexity.
(Webster,1806)It relates, letters, syllables and sentence to communicate written language. Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the childstarts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connectionbetween spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver themeaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.
ca). Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”(www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the properletter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.
com) . Ina perfect language, letters correspondwith sounds, but the English language is a syllabic language and has its characteristics,it consists of twenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways topto bottom. In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however,some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).
Theinconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging languageto acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and theirpresentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words. Historically the English language is a dialect;its position was elevated and became an international language spoken by manytongues as a mother language or second or foreign language, it came intocontact with English like Latin, German, French, Danish which brought manywords into the language and changing other words meaning pronunciation and use,For example: the word colonel has French and Italian origin, In French, it iscoronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now it is written in the Italian wayand spelled in the French way. Building on what is previously written thegrapheme-morpheme relationship in English is opaque due to the loan words,which were largely absorbed by the English language causing frozen spelling fora massive amount of word which makes the prediction of its pronunciation andwriting very hard.(www,youtube.com) There areother difficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some soundsstayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through orthought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology,Island.
Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable ispronounced vegtable (www.thought.com),and some English letters give many different pronunciations for the same letterfor e.
g. the words bear, ear, and heart.The English orthography stabilized through thecenturies mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helpedin the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document thepronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference betweendifferent standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help todifferentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes likeinflections stay the same with different words e.
g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012) Studies in various aspects of language led todevelopment of new methods of teaching the English language based on differentperspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for itsefficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,which depends on the need and the necessity of the child to express hisemotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken andwritten language are closely related literacy is a part of a widercommunicative practice, and using literacy in this sense involves exchangingknowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essentialrole the way the children acquire language, and getting involved in thesepractices that will help the children to gain literacy in a more effective waylike storybook reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,and literacy practice later in life.(www.
2.sfasu.edu) There are many other reasons that affecthow child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, thesociety that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, thelevel of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how hedeals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the childpsychology. The literacy of the child at an early ageis strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to hisor her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that isintertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices ona frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction oradventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring thelanguage in children is their relationship with their parents and their parentbeliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in schoolthat facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging childrenin songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting withchildren in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literarytexts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically tolearn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learningand make it more appealing to him(www.2.
sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed inbilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schoolsparent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have in common impedimentswith native speakers an different problems in learning English for example iftheir other language is written from right to left, not from left to right theymay start writing English from right to left, or they may think about thesubject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch duringwriting. In the end every child has the right to have the bestof his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life andhaving difficulties in learning and writing should be treated starts as a little human with theability and the need to express his thoughts, ambition and the right to definehimself as somebody with possibilities