INTRODUCTION1.1 MAIN ISSUE Educationis a standout amongst the most imperative factors that has an immediateconnection to the advancement of society from beginning and keeps on acceptingan indistinguishable part from long as society exists. Education is therefore aprocedure by which man transmits his experience, new discoveries and qualitiesgathered for a few centuries in his battle for survival. It is a base forfinancial, social and political advancement of a nation.
It empowers people andsociety to make full support in the improvement procedure by securing learning,aptitudes capacity and states of mind. This statement above indicates howimportant education has been throughout history. Asindicated by Panda and Mohanty (2003) great instructors were basic for thesuccessful working of training framework and for enhancing the nature oflearning process. Employment fulfillment empowers educators to put their mostextreme exertion up on their work. Job fulfillment and confidence has for quitesome time been a vital goal for teachers. Instructors create execution styleattributes to their methods for identifying with the world, perceptually and inaddition intellectually. An educator is, in this manner, liable to act in a waythat amplifies the utilization of his/her aptitudes. Motivatedteachers perform well and deliver great outcomes by conveying quality instructionsto their students.
Educators are the makers of future pioneers. In this way, itis essential to keep educators fulfilled from their occupation and duties. Theywon’t only deliver great quality pioneers of future but in addition willcontribute in the improvement of any nation by training the future age.
Despiteall the techniques that can be used by a teacher to make their classinteresting and informative there are various factors that can hinder their jobperformance such as the teaching methods, autonomy, work load, work lifebalance, personality of the instructor, motivation, relation with the students,planning and preparation, motivation, confidence, attitude towards students,working environment and peers attitude towards you and many more. However thisresearch will only focus on the following factors: Motivation, autonomy and work load. 1.1 Problem Statement Ateacher’s job performance can be portrayed as the obligations performed byinstructors at a specific period in the educational system in accomplishingschool/university objectives.
In such manner, (Adeyemi, 2010) translates ateachers job performance as means of bringing together suitable informationthat contributes to the upgradation of education and the learning process.Tutors are the most important resources of educational systems. Schools anduniversities can be more prosperous though the engagement of developmentprograms. This relates to the idea of quality education as showed in different academicrecords of UNESCO. Tolaunch the level of training standard in a nation, the role of instructorsought to be persistently upgraded as they are primary the pillars in the part.For the most part, instructors are expected to perform different obligations,for example, helping schools in regulatory assignments, assessing student’sdiscipline, participating in additional curricular exercises, observing studentsparticipation in class and assessing’ homework, teachers are also expected toget engaged with the Parent Teachers Affiliation (PTA), and imperatively tomeet the prerequisites of their jobs.
This therefore burdens the teacher andends up affecting the performance of a teacher. Thecore of this research is to evaluate how the determined factors which areMotivation, autonomy, and workload affect a teacher’s job performance. 1.2 Research Questions 1) Whatis the effect of motivation on a teacher’s job performance?2) Whatis the effect of autonomy on a teacher’s job performance?3) Whatis the effect of workload on a teacher’s performance? 1.
3 Objective of the study 1) Todetermine the effect of motivation on a teachers job performance?2) Todetermine the effect of autonomy on a teachers job performance?3) Todetermine the effect of workload on a teachers performance? 1.4 Significance of the study Inthe context of Pakistan, education is considered to be an extremely criticalissue in achieving quality and development (Akhter, S.N, Hashmi, M.A and Naqvi,S.
I.H, 2010). Past researches have indicated that the performance of teachershas a direct impact on the achievements of students (Ahsan, N. Abdullah, Z Fie,D.Y.G and Alam S.S, 2009).
The better the teachers perform on job, the higherthe students achieve. The role of this research was to study the factorsaffecting the job performance of teachers in the academic sector of Pakistan.Byleading this study, researchers can learn further about the factors affectingjob performance of teachers and produce more qualitative results regarding howmotivation, autonomy and workload impact the level of performance teacher’sshow.Itis expected that this study will empower the relevant authorities to determinethe factors influencing the job performance of teachers and in return affectingthe achievements of the students.
Furthermore, this research will clarify whatthe authorities need to do to improve the job performance in academic sector ofPakistan which as a multiplier effect would improve the education standards,workforce standards and play a significant role in the economic development ofthe country. 1.5 Scope of Study Thejob performance of employees is a common aspect that can be studied in anyorganization, sector or country. However, this research is only limited to theteaching faculty of schools and universities in the academic sector ofPakistan.
It focuses on investigating the factors affecting the job performanceof academic staff. The respondents for this study will consist of mainlyteachers and students from various schools and universities in Islamabad. Very little research has been carried outregarding this matter in Pakistan hence creating a large literature gap. Durthelimited size of the research and time availability, this study will be carriedout in Islamabad, Pakistan.
1.6 Organization of StudyChapterone (Introduction)- The first chapter is theintroduction chapter which concentrates on the background, importance andproblems of the selected topic followed by the aim, objectives, questions, keywords and definition.ChapterTwo (Literature Review) – This chapter aims to expand on theinformation provided in the firstchapter by reviewing the literature of academic staff job satisfaction. The headingsof this chapter have been divided by following the research objectives in orderto meet the overall research aim.
This chapter starts reviewing the importanceand status of education in Pakistan, significance of academic job satisfactionin education sector and finally reviewing the factors that influences theacademic job satisfaction.Chapterthree (Conceptual Framework) – this chapter is considered to be acontinuous process of the literaturereview in which a conceptual framework will be developed that includesdependent and independent variables. The framework will be created through acombination of factors identified from the literature and any additionalfactors will be explored through an exploratory qualitative data approach.Chapterfour (Methodology) – this chapter is the researchmethodology section which aims to measurethe level of teachers’ job performance against the factors that have beenpresented in the conceptual framework. A quantitative methodology approach willbe utilized by circulating an electronic and printed questionnaire survey tothe academic schools and universities in Islamabad.Chapterfive (Empirical Evidence)-the results obtained from the questionnaire survey will be presentedin this chapter. It will be further analyzed through the SPSS software and therelationship between the dependent and indepo0endent variables is discovered.
Chaptersix (Conclusion)-a summary and conclusion derivedfrom the results analysis anddiscussion will be presented in this chapter. This chapter will further pointto answer the research questions that have been presented in chapter one.Furthermore, it aims to offer some recommendations and to improve the level ofjob performance of academic faculty members in Pakistan. Finally, this chapterwill end up with some proposals of future research in order to improve theperformance of academic staff in Pakistan. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Job Performance Jobemployment is one of the vital builds that has constantly been given genuineconsideration in the fields of both HR administration and organizational psychology.
Jamal (2007) characterized job performance as a person’s capacity toeffectively perform errands by utilizing assets accessible at work. Then again,Borman and Motowidlo (1993) proposed that activity execution is an idea thatincorporates both assignment execution and logical execution. The lastconcentrates on the significance of social aptitudes as indicators of jobperformance. Undertaking execution is characterized as the viability ofoccupation officeholders in performing exercises that add to the association’score (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). Griffin (2005) called attention to thatperformance of an individual is dictated by three elements, in particular:condition at work, inspiration, and the capacity to carry out the activity.This is supported by Chandrasekar (2011), who implied that work environmentcondition emphatically impacts representative confidence, profitability, andjob performance. If the working condition is not supported by representatives,they will be demotivated and their execution level will crumble.Forexample, ineffectively planned work timings, unsatisfactory obligations,absence of appreciation and the absence of individual basic leadershipopportunity would bring about disappointment among representatives.
Suchrequirements would make weight on representatives, which would haveantagonistic impacts on representatives’ job performance. As indicated byObilade (1999), teacher’s performance can be deciphered as the undertakings andduties completed by instructors in a specific timeframe in accordance with theeducational system in accomplishing authoritative objectives. Peretemode (1996)included that activity execution is resolved by the level of representatives’everyday interest in different exercises at their separate establishment. Asidefrom that, educators are additionally loaded with managerial work that ought notto be incorporated into their sets of expectations. Various errands at workwith uncertain parts and duties at the work environment would imperil thenature of work-life adjust among educators.
MOTIVATION Asper (Okumbe, 1998) inspiration is a scholarly or mental inadequacy thattriggers the conduct, a drive that urges to an objective or motivator. Oxfordword reference characterizes the idea as the physiological capacity that stirsa life form to activity to accomplish a coveted goal. Interestingly inspirationis characterized by Hornby (2000) as affectation to act or move.
Inside theliterature, Tomlinson (2000) contends that performance based pay is tied inwith inspiring individuals, and creating performance oriented societies.Instructors, who are not inspired by money related prizes, can be energizedwith non-monetary prizes these, prizes can incorporate, for instance:fulfillment from high student accomplishment, acknowledgment, impact, adaptingnew abilities, and self-improvement (Tomlinson, 2000; Odden 2000).Motivationcan then be divided into Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsicmotivation is gotten inside the individual or action and decidedly influencesconduct, execution, and prosperity (a placated condition of being cheerful andsound and prosperous). Intrinsic motivation is said to exist at the point whenthe conduct is performed for its own purpose, not for social or materialincreases. As per Mary (2010) intrinsic motivation of instructors incorporatescalling fulfillment, delight in the field, acknowledgment, controls overothers, the testing and focused nature of educating, profession advancement,and instructing as the essential objective in life.
For this investigationintrinsic motivation includes; fulfillment and delight in instructing,acknowledgment and educating as the essential objective in life.Asper Sansone and Harackiewicz (2000), the most well-known result from theaccomplishment of remotely controlled remuneration (extrinsic motivation)incorporates compensation/compensation/expenses, notoriety, material belongingand a positive appraisal by others. As per Mary 2010 extraneous inspiration ofeducators incorporate, remotely compensates like pay/compensation/expenses,free settlement, remuneration with the expectation of complimentary therapeuticcare, free dinners, leave and prepaid installments in instance of money relatedissues, and in addition additional instructing recompenses. With the end goalof this examination extrinsic motivation consists of; remittances, compensation,leave and material ownership. AUTONOMY Jobautonomy is characterized as the degree to which work can give awesomeopportunity, autonomy, self-reliance and discretion of the employee in decidethe techniques to be utilized as a part of actualizing them.
As indicated byPearson and Hall (1993), this idea has been characterized as instructor’srecognition on the level of control that they have over their workplace andfurthermore themselves. Also,Diab et al. (2011) in Gavriliuk (2010) characterized teacher autonomy as”the ability to take control of one’s own teaching”. In view of theoriginal work of Hackman and Oldham (1975), self-sufficiency (autonomy) is oneof five employment attributes that decide the level of motivation of anemployee. Hackman and Oldham (1975) attested that self-rule prompts a basicmental state whereby “experienced obligation regarding results of thework”, which thus leads to better outcomes, for example, better workeffectiveness and larger amount of inside occupation inspiration. At the end ofthe day, this factor is set to bring about expanded inspiration and viabilityof an occupation.
Literaturehas recorded reliable discoveries on the effect of independence on differentresults among workers. Davis and Wilson (2000) detailed that inspiration andindependence are the significant components in raising employment fulfillmentand mitigating work worry among instructors. Likewise, Bacharach (1986) foundthat imperatives, for example, absence of independence and feeling ofvulnerability are exceptionally connected with stress, dissatisfaction andnervousness among educators. Bandura (1997) had a similar thought that trust inexecuting errands will profoundly impact the quality of employment execution.
In parallel mold, Wang and Netemeyer (2002) detailed that job independence hasa positive association with job performance. An investigation by Saragih (2011)substantiated the experimental connection amongst independence and occupationexecution. This is on the grounds that higher activity self-rule prompts moreprominent trust in the execution of a specific undertaking. With regards toeducators, Lamb (2008) called attention to that teaching profession ought to beconceded adequate opportunity in deciding the best arrangement or techniques inguaranteeing understudies’ engagement in learning is set up. Critically,instructors are in the best position to comprehend students need and toovercome their learning issues.WORKLOADWorkloadalludes to all exercises including representatives’ chance spent in performingproficient obligations, duties and interests at work, either straightforwardlyor in a roundabout way. In an educational setting, comparative meaning ofworkload are advanced by different researchers in begetting this idea among teachers(Harold, 1984).
Shukri (1998) characterized workload as the duties given toinstructors, either in the classroom or outside the classroom. Azita(2012) pronounced that workload is the measure of time spent by instructors inperforming different assignments going from educating and learning,co-curricular exercises, gatherings, and so on that are identified withofficial obligations as an instructor amid or after school hours. Sharifah,Suhaida and Soaib (2014) and Punia and Kamboj (2013) likewise gave a muchindistinguishable definition on this idea in which workload is characterized asthe measure of time taken by educators to set up their official obligationsinside or outside school hours. Consequently, instructors’ workload requirestheir chance in schools as well as need to spend additional hours after workwith a specific end goal to be more viable and gainful in their educationalprofession.Asindicated by Easthope and Easthope (2000), increased workload incorporates theinstructor to learner proportion. This is because of the way that educators arepersistently loaded with new errands added to their sets of expectations.
Thiscircumstance declines job fulfillment and authoritative responsibility amonginstructors, which at last influences the quality of their job performance.This thought is certified by the experimental discoveries by Hassam, Tahir andMuhammad Aslam’s (2011), which announced that long working hours because ofadditional workload may inversely affect work fulfillment as this conditionmeddles with one’s prosperity at work and home. Comparable outcomes areresounded in the examinations by Nachreiner (1995), Oron-Gilad et al. (2008)and Yeh and Wickens (1988). CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Theconceptual framework has been shaped through a blend of the major factors thathave been determined in the literature, when reviewing job performance ofteachers.
The conceptual model presented below in figure 1 comprises ofdependent and independent variables. This exploration plans to recognize factorsthat impact work job performance of scholarly staff. Job performance is thoughtto be the dependent variable, motivation, autonomy, work load are considered tobe as independent Variables.