introduction the main area of ethics or moral philosophy is mainly focused on the definition and the concept of right and wrong and good and bad behaviour. today`s philosophers typically divided the theories of ethics into three different theoretical categories; meta-ethics normative ethics and applied ethics. meta-ethics studies our moral ethics principles to discover the cause of right and wrong and answer the universal truth by focusing on the expression of individuals feel. normative ethics focuses more on the real-world task to reach moral values.
this may include the consequence of our behaviors such as our duties and our good habits towards others. applied ethics is evolving in the real application of the ethical principle to look at the specific controversial subject since choosing an ethical action may give rise to various issues. applied ethics typically divided into diverse fields for instant occupational ethics professional ethics biomedical and environmental ethics etc. ethical theories contribute to part of the decision-making framework for decision making when ethics are in play these principles represent the aspects from which individuals seek support as they make decisions.
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every theory highlights diverse points for a different decision-making method or a decision rule such as predicting the outcome and following one’s duties to others in order to reach what the individual considers is an ethically right decision. in order to understand ethical decision-making it is important for us to understand that not everyone makes decisions in the same way by using the same message or applying the same decision rules. aristotle and Plato explained the morality as a type of interpretation.
they attempted to give fundamental details of moral and civil virtues by connecting one ethical principle to the others to summarise the main argument of moral as personal happiness. dworkin 2011 contemporary philosophers also use the terms moral and ethical in a differing way and they interpret moral values how we ought to treat others and how we ought to live ourselves Dworkin 2011 in the philosophy of ethics there are also four critical principles of ethics such as respect for autonomy which means to respect others` choices and human dignity. beneficence brings about good in every action justice is the obligation to treat others` equally and fairly and non-maleficence which controls the amounts of harm caused. furthermore, there are five main classes of ethical philosophies to discuss ethical issues. deontology utilitarianism social justice and social contract theory virtue ethical theory and right. these are included with another important perspective such as feminist perception of ethics and general perspective of justice in order to understand further an ethical principle.
the purpose of this paper is to look over and compare the deontological and utilitarian theories in terms of their judgmental applications to actions of the good life