Introduction: famous eight stages are: 1. Trust

Introduction:Erik Erikson was a German-American developmental psychologist and he developed a theory on psychological development of human beings. In his theory he covered eight stages from birth to death. He could be the most famous for fabricating “identity crisis”.

Like many other theorists, Erikson alleged that every personality develops in a certain order and in that order they build up upon pervious stages. It is called the epigenetic principle. During each stage of this theory, “The person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.”(McLeod, 2018).According to Erikson’s theory, if you pass a stage or a crisis successfully it will result in obtaining a healthy and positive personality trait but if you fail to pass a crisis successfully it will result in obtaining an unhealthy and negative personality trait. That does not mean that these stage cannot be resolved later in time. These famous eight stages are:1.

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Trust VS. Mistrust (Birth to 18 months):In this stage, infants learn to trust their surroundings and learn how to depend on other people for their needs. The sense of trust first starts with their mother. This trust usually develops through physical acts between the child and their mother.

If for some reason the mother was not able to take care and fulfil the child’s needs then the child will develop mistrust, not only towards the mother but also towards the world and everything around them. If the infant develops mistrust it will affect and continue throughout the remaining stages in their development.2. Autonomy VS. Shame (18 months to 3 years:In this stage children start to acknowledge their skills and abilities. They start to be more aware of their bodies. They start to assert their independence, they will try to walk away from their parents, pick their own toy and even pick what they want to eat.

They start to slowly make their own decisions. According to Erikson, it is very important for parents to encourage their children to explore their own abilities and more importantly, parents have to tolerate their failures and not criticise them all the time. An example would be trying to make them put their own clothes on and if they failed or asked for assistant it is okay and the parents should praise them for trying instead of criticising them for failing. If the child is supported in this stage and encouraged enough they will be more confident and even more independent but if they were constantly criticised for their failure, it will make them think that they will never do anything alone and they will always depend on others. They will develop a sense of shame and doubt. (McLeod, 2018)3.

Initiative VS. Guilt (3 to 5 years):It happens to be the stage that children start going to pre-school. In this stage, children gradually obtain a large amount of energy with the ability to act on it. They start having the desire to try new things and make their own choices. Nevertheless, children at this age are more open to mistakes and they get tremendously sensitive about feeling the guilt from committing mistakes, even if they were small or they had no control over. For instance, they may start feeling guilty if something bad happening to someone else they know.

Guilt is good to make children recognise their own mistakes; however, extravagant and extreme guilt can result in giving them unhealthy traits and it will cause them to be afraid of their own capabilities and make them feel uncertain of their own skills. 4. Industry VS.

Inferiority (5 to 12 years):In this stage, children start to question themselves if they are capable of doing what they’re asked or want to do. Children’s environment changes from their house to school and from being surrounded by family to being surrounded by teachers and friends. Their world is different now.

They start to think that others opinions are important and their self-concepts are developed. In order to obtain Industry, children need to be praised and they need their confidence boosted and thats where the teacher’s role comes in, when children produce good quality work and they’re rewarded for it, it will help achieve industry. On the other hand, failure will lead to inferiority. As a teacher, you must provide comfort and consultation with unconditional love towards your students when they fail in anything. 5. Identity VS.

Role Confusion (12 to 18 years):At this stage, they start having high exceptions of themselves. It is the stage where children find their sexual identity and who they are. They try to find their purpose and role in society. They must find a way to balance between their own expectations and what the society expects from them. If they were able to do that, they will get into adulthood with a great sense of individuality and self-confidence. If they fail, it usually leads to having identity crisis (which is being uncertain of who they are and becoming a stereotype).

6. Intimacy VS. Isolation (18 to 40 years):In this stage, teenagers become young adults. They start working, living their lives and developing more intimate relationships. Intimacy also encourages good physical and emotional health as a person’s identity changes. Failure to find a partner may cause someone to feel isolated, according to Erikson. This might start making them believe they’re not good enough or there is something wrong with them and it will lead to self-destructive tendencies.

7. Generatively VS. Stagnation (40 to 65 years):”People start to realise life isn’t just about themselves” (Psychology Notes HQ, 2015). With their actions they hope to make their contributions count and last with the rest of the world. When they achieve this goal they get the sense of accomplishment but if they don’t they start thinking that they haven’t achieved anything meaningful in their lives. 8.

Ego Integrity VS. Despair (65+ years):Integrity happens when people are satisfied with the life they lived. They realise they did accomplish something in their life and that they’re valuable, not only to themselves but to people around them too.Despair however, happens when people are not satisfied with the life they lived and they think they haven’t accomplished enough.

They end up living in sadness and regret for the remainder of their life. Identity VS. Role Confusion (Personal Reflection):After the transition from childhood to adolescent, we start to feel confused and insecure about ourselves and we start to worry about how to fit into society. We start exploring with different activities, roles and behaviours.

In this stage, the main question we ask ourselves is “Who am I?”. Parents, family members and friends play a huge role in forming our personalities and who we are. You will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self independence only if you received the encouragement and the reinforcement through your personal exploration.

If not, you will remain unsure, confused and insecure about yourself and your future. Personally, In the beginning I wasn’t allowed to explore my choices. I was always uncertain of things and it would take me so long to take an action about anything. I always felt disappointed and confused about my place in life which made it extremely hard for me to accomplish anything or even make any decisions. However, now I have somewhat of a sense of identity and a sense of who I am. For instance, after failing to find the perfect major for me I finally found the best one that suits me so well and I am very happy with it. It is taking some time and effort to explore and do what is best for me but I believe that commitment and patience is the key to emerge with a strong identity.

Erikson’s theory states that it is possible for a person to pass a certain stage even if they were late or failed them before. Conclusion: We all encounter crisis that contributes to our psychosocial growth and according to Erikson’s theory, we encounter them in eight different stages from birth to death. These stages accompany us from the beginning till the end of our lives and it influences every aspect of it. Erikson’s theory emphasises on the sociocultural development and he presents them in eight stages and everyone has to overcome and resolve the crisis successfully to adjust well in life and environment.

Introduction: eggs hatch, producing free living and

Introduction:Schistosomiasis; sometimes known as snail fever or bilharzia, is an acute and chronic disease caused by a group of parasitic worms called schistosomes or blood flukes. The main three species of schistosome worms that are known to infect humans and cause schistosomiasis disease are: S. haematobium, S.

mansoni and S. japonicum. Schistosomes; predominantly found in rural areas upholding agriculture and inland fisheries, are mainly concentrated across Africa, Asia and South America. Following malaria, Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic infection; affecting an approximate 200 million people worldwide, and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is the primary cause of over 200,000 deaths each year.

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Schistosomiasis can be categorized into two main formats of the disease; intestinal and urogenital.The cause of infection:Schistosomes have a very intricate and complex lifecycle revolving around a list of hosts that includes: humans, snails and freshwater sources such as lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Schistosomes have five key developmental stages: eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae and adult worms.

The lifecycle of Schistosomes begins when an infected individual releases Schistosoma eggs into a freshwater environment through urine, faeces or other bodily secretions. Upon coming into direct contact with a freshwater environment, The Schistosoma eggs hatch, producing free living and ciliated forms of their earlier selves; named miracidium. Using unique ciliary movements, Miracidium can freely swim towards their target through propelling-like motion and penetrate the soft tissue of a suitable snail intermediate host; in which they develop into mother sporocysts. The mother sporocysts then reproduce asexually to produce daughter sporocysts which travel to and grow in the hepatic and gonadal tissue of the infected freshwater snail. After a period of time, daughter sporocysts undergo metamorphosis; a process of development by which sporocysts grow into adult forms known as cercariae. Eventually, sunlight stimulates the emergence of free-swimming, fork-tail cercariae from the mollusk of the infected snail into the contaminated freshwater. When an individual gets into direct contact with the contaminated water, the immature and infective cercariae penetrate the skin of the human host via mechanical activity and the action of proteolytic enzymes. During the process of penetration, the cercariae lose their tail; developing into schistosomules (adult worms) allowing easier entry through the epidermis and dermis before entering the blood or lymphatic vessels.

Once in the bloodstream, schistosmules begin to reproduce in the blood vessels where they remain in a set state of copulation throughout their adulthood. Blood vessels act as a strategic pathway for reproduction as newly formed eggs can easily migrate to a wide selection of organs, on which they can act. Upon deposition in organs and soft tissues, eggs may cause inflammation, chronic pain, scarring and in some cases, renal failure. A small fraction of other eggs are transported into the gut and are eventually excreted from the body via the individuals faeces, reinjecting the water source, and hence, restarting the entire cycle.Symptoms:There are two main factors determining the impact of schistosomiasis: The type of schistosomiasis (intestinal or urogenital) and the stage of infection. Schistosoma mansoni is largely responsible for inducing the intestinal form of the disease, while S. haematobium is directly linked to the development of urogenital schistosomiasis. Intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, malnutrition and diarrhoea.

In some more serious and chronic cases, liver enlargement can be frequent and is strongly linked with the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and therefore hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels. The typical sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine).Haematuria can therefore directly lead to anaemia. In more serious cases, fibrosis of the bladder and ureter may occur, possibly causing the rise of other complications, including bladder cancer. In women, urogenital schistosomiasis may lead to genital lesions, vaginal bleeding and pain during sexual intercourse. In men, urogenital schistosomiasis may bring about infection of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs.

An even more serious and frightening consequence of this disease is infertility.Diagnosis:Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is implemented using parasitological (Detection of parasite eggs in stool or urine specimens using microscopical methods) or immunological techniques (Detection of antibodies and/or antigens in blood samples). For urogenital schistosomiasis, a simple filtration technique using materials as basic as paper filters can be used to detect infection thro ugh the presence of blood in urine (indicating haematuria); this can also be detected by chemical reagent strips.

For intestinal schistosomiasis, the diagnosis is carried out by examination of stool samples using a method called Kato- katz thick smear method.This method can provide both qualitative and quantitative examinations of intestinal schistosomes. The main advantages of the Kato-katz method is that it is highly specific, cheap, and to some extent simple. However, it was shown by enough evidence that this method lacks the ability of detecting low worm burdens. Treatments: In most cases, schistosomiasis can be treated with a short course on a drug named Praziquantel; an acylated quinoline-pyrazine efficacious against all schistosome species parasitizing humans. Even though Praziquantel has been used as the Primary drug for treating and controlling schistosomiasis for many years, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear.

The drug acts within one hour of ingestion and effectively kills the targeted schistosome by paralysing the worm and severely damaging its tegument. Side-effects are relatively mild and may include nausea, vomiting, malaise, and abdominal pain. However, in heavy infections, a strong and sudden renal pain (known as acute colic) with bloody diarrhoea can occur shortly after treatment, most likely provoked by large worm shifts and antigen release. However, like with any disease, being proactive is always better than being reactive.

And so, its recommended to avoid swimming, paddling, washing or drinking in fresh water that is suspected to be infected. Additionally, it is always advised to wear waterproof clothing if there is a possibility of being near infected areas.ConclusionIn summary, schistosomiasis is by no means a disease that can be taken lightly, if left untreated it can be extremely potent in both its urogenital and intestinal form; as illustrated in some of its severe symptoms. The well adapted nature of schistosomes have made the disease the second most prevalent parasitic infection but a short course of Praziquantel can prove to be effective against schistosome’s.

INTRODUCTION: IronTOxidesCaramelT,Carotenoids5. Opaquant Extenders —– FormulationTtoTprovideTmoreTpastelTcoloursTandTincreaseTfilmTcoverage TitaniumTdioxideT,silicate8,22



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Material Type Uses Examples1.FilmTformerEntericNonTEntericToTcontrolTtheTreleaseTofTdrugHydroxyTPropylTMethylTCellulose(HPMC)T,MethylTHydroxyTEthylTCellulose(MHEC)2. TSolvent——- ToTdissolveTorTdisperseTtheTpolymersIPATandTMethyleneTChloride3.

Plasticizer InternalPlasticizingExternalPlasticizing ItTPertainsTtoTtheTchemicalTmodificationTofTtheTbasicTpolymerTthatTaltersTtheTphysicalTpropertiesTofTtheTpolymer.TItTincorporatedTwithTtheTprimaryTpolymericTfilmTformerT,changesTtheTflexibilityT,TtensileTstrengthT. GlycerolT,PropyleneTglycolT,PEGT200-6000TGradesDiethylTphthalate(DEP)4. Colourants InorganicMaterialNaturalTColoringMaterials ForTlightTshade:TconcentrationTofTlessTthanT0.01%TmayTbeTusedForTdarkTshade:TconcentrationTofTmoreTthanT2.0%TmayTbeTrequired IronTOxidesCaramelT,Carotenoids5.

OpaquantExtenders —– FormulationTtoTprovideTmoreTpastelTcoloursTandTincreaseTfilmTcoverage TitaniumTdioxideT,silicate8,22TableTNo.T3:TCharacteristicsTofTFilmTCoatingType CHARACTERISTIC FILMTCOATINGTablet 1.Appearance2.TWeightTincreaseTbecauseTofTcoatingTmaterial.3.LogoTorT’breakTlines’ 1.TRetainTcontourTofToriginalTcore.2.

T2-3%3.possibleProcess 1.OperatorTtrainingTrequired2.TAdaptabilityTtoTGMP.

3.ProcessTstages4.FunctionalTcoatings 1.








4:TDefectsTandTRemediesTofTTabletTCoatingSTNo. TabletTdefectsDefinition Reason Remedies1. Blistering InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecameTdetachedTfromTtheTsubstrateTformingTblister. DueTtoToverheatingT(eitherTduringTsprayingTorTatTtheTendTofTtheTcoatingTrun)TentrapmentTofTgasesTinTtheTfilm. MildTdryingTconditionsTareTwarrantedTinTthisTcase.2. Chipping InTthisTcaseTtheTfilmTbecomesTchippedTusuallyTatTtheTedgesTofTtheTtablets. DueTtoTdecreaseTtheTspeedTofTrotatingTofTtheTdrumTinTpanTcoating.

InTpreheatingTstageTtheTtabletsTshouldTnotTbeToverTdriedTup,TthatTcanTmakeTtheTtabletsTbrittleTandTpromoteTcapping.3. Picking HereTisolatedTareasTofTfilmTareTpulledTawayTfromTpulledTaway. ConditionsTsimilarTtoTcreatingTthatTproducesTanToverlyTwetTtabletTbedTwhereTadjacentTtabletsTcanTstickTtogetherTandTthenTbreakTapart. ToTovercomeTthisTproblem,TtheTliquidTapplicationTrateThasTtoTbeTreducedTorTincreaseTinTtheTdryingTairTtemperature.4. Twinning HereTtwoTtabletsTstickTtogether.

CommonTproblemTwithTcapsuleTshapedTtablets. TheTpanTspeedThasTtoTbeTincreaseTorTtheTsprayTrateTshouldTbeTreducedTtoTovercomeTthisTproblem.5.

Pitting InTthisTdefectTpitsToccurTinTtheTsurfaceTofTaTtabletTcore. TemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTbecomesTgreaterTthanTtheTmeltingTpointTofTtheTmaterialTusedTinTtheTtabletTformulation. ControlTtheTtemperatureTofTtheTtabletTcoreTduringTtheTformulation.6. Cratering ItTisTdefectTofTfilm,TwherebyTvolcanicT–likeTcratersTappearsTexposingTtheTtabletTsurface. LocalizedTdisintegrationTofTtheTcoreTdueTtoTpenetrationTofTtheTcoatingTsolutionTonTtheTtabletTsurface. 7. Blooming InTthisTcaseTtheTcoatingTbecomesTdullTimmediatelyTorTafterTprolongedTstorageTatThighTtemperature.

ItTisTdueTtoTcollectionTonTtheTsurfaceTofTlowTmolecularTweightTingredientTincludedTinTtheTcoatingTformulationT.InTmostTcircumstancesTtheTingredientTwillTbeTplasticizer. 8. Blushing ItTisTaTdefectTwhereTwhitishTspecksTorThazinessTappearsTinTtheTfilm. ItTisTthoughtTtoTbeTdueTtoTprecipitatedTpolymerTexacerbatedTbyTtheTuseTofTtheThighTcoatingTtemperatureTatTorTaboveTtheTthermalTgelatinTtemperatureTofTtheTpolymers.

9. ColorTvariationItTisTaTdefectTwhereTvariationTinTcolorTofTtheTfilmTisTappearing. CausesTdueTtoTalternationTofTtheTfrequencyTandTdurationTofTappearanceTofTtabletsTinTtheTsprayTzone. InTthisTcaseTtheTtype’sTplasticizersTandTtheTadditivesThaveTtoTbeTchangedTtoTsolveTfilmTinstabilities.10. CrackingTorTSplittingItTisTaTdefectTinTwhichTtheTfilmTcracksTacrossTtheTcrownTofTtheTtablet.

InternalTstressTinTtheTfilmTexceedsTtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilm. ByTusingThighTmolecularTweightTpolymers,TtensileTstrengthTofTtheTfilmTcanTbeTincreased.11. Infilling ItTisTdefectTthatTrendersTtheTintagliationsTindistinctness. InabilityTofTfoam,TformedTbyTairTsprayingTofTaTpolymerTsolutionTtoTbreakT.

TheTfoamTdropletsTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtabletTbreakdownTreadilyTdueTtoTattritionTbutTtheTintagliationsTformTaTprotectedTareaTallowingTtheTfoamTtoTaccumulateTtoTaTlevelTapproachingTtheTouterTcontourTofTtheTtabletTsurface. ToTpreventTtheTproblemTofTinfilling,TtheTfluidTapplicationTrateTandTthoroughTmixingTofTtheTtabletsTinTtheTpanTshouldTbeTinTmonitoringT.12. OrangeTpeelTeffectItTisTaTtypeTofTsurfaceTdefectTwhereTtheTfilmTbecameTroughTandTnonglossy. BeforeTdryingTinadequateTdistributionTofTcoatingTsolutionTonTtabletTsurface UsingTadditionalTsolventTforTthinningTtheTsolutionTcanTpreventTtheTproblem13. Mottling ItToccursTdueTtoTunevenTdistributionTofTtheTcolorTonTtheTsurfaceTofTtheTtablet. ItToccursTdueTtoTdifferentTcolorationTofTtheTexipient.


Introduction: the Dictionary where a word would contain

Introduction:Statutory interpretation is method of deciding judgments by the judges. Interpretation makes us understand that Act of Parliament is not easy to be understood but on the other hand, the definition of statutes have had very specific words but there arises some doubts for which the judges would always require the statutory interpretation for their assistance. Due to this reason there are some specific words in the statute that contains ambiguity and vagueness in it. Each word have different meanings, we can look in the Dictionary where a word would contain more than one meaning. Therefore, the statutory interpretation reduces the trouble in deciding the judgments in a case.

1. Traditional Rules:In developing the interpretation of any statues, any judges have to follow the traditional rules as their guidelines in determining the meaning of the Act of Parliament. a.

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Literal Rule:The literal rule is the first rule that started and also can be considered as the least problematic method in interpretation. The literal rule actually required the judges to consider what the legislation actually says than it rather meaning. In the context of legislation, judges would have to consider their literal meaning that it are in plain, ordinary, everyday meaning. However, the judges can’t adjust the meaning of the statues to achieve the court’s view that they consider as acceptable result. The main advantage of the literal rule is that it fits easily in the constitutional principle without causing any much of problems.

It is able to be criticizing that, all the interpretation would not be interpreted in phrases or sentences instead it would be interpreted in isolated words. We can also say that the literal rule that has an ordinary meaning would assist in drawing a clear difference between the common and technical words in statues and this also involves in the maturity in the judges. If technical meaning of word is involved then it will be difficult to obtain the ordinary meaning.b.

Golden Rule: Golden rule comes to the second. The golden rule is only be used if the judges apply the literal rule and finds absurdity and then the judges would have to use the golden rule. Before proceeding to the golden rule the judges must determine the genuine difficulties of statute. In golden rule, we would able to find there are two versions of golden rule.• Narrow Meaning: It is used only where there are two actual opposing meaning. • Wider Meaning:It is used when there is only one possible meaning to a provision.

And this helps in avoiding silliness or distasteful result. The golden rule reduces the loopholes in the law. On the other hand, this also assists the judges to extend their creative thoughts and then the judges can alter the meaning of the statutes anytime.

c. Mischief Rule:Mischief rule is the last rule. It is used when both literal rule and golden rule could not help in solving the judge’s problem. It is known as the most elastic rule and it is established in the Haydon’s case. After literal and golden rule, mischief rule would only be applied if there is still ambiguity.

The scope of the rule is that it allows judges to decide between the diverse meanings of the statutory language or infer into the statute a small quantity of words. It is a flexible rule where it could be adjust in many kind of cases. However, this rule also contains many drawbacks. This rule would not directly help the judge to create the law. 2. Purposivism: This approach advocates that the Courts are required to decide the purpose and that purpose is followed by a particular word or phrase used in the statute. ‘Following are the dissimilarities between Purpose and intention: a. Intent: ‘What the legislature meant’ or ‘the specific understanding in mind of the legislature.

‘ b. Purpose: ‘What the legislature ultimately sought to accomplish’3. New Textualism (Narrowing Intentionalism): • In certain circumstances, Both intentionalism and Purposivism are not enough to determine the meanings of the words and phrases in the same way as intended by purpose or by the legislature.

• In such circumstances, a new approach has developed in arena of Agency Model, which is known as New-Textualism.• According to this theory, if the meaning of the words and phrases are being vague, in process intentionalism, then the Court must adhere to the strict and natural meaning of the words and phrases used in the text of the legislation and must not try to develop any meaning in accordance with the intention of the legislature.SOURCES OF INTERPRETATION IN PAKISTAN: Interpretation is a process and must be regulated by certain rules and principles. In Pakistan, while interpreting statutes, the Courts must take help of the following sources: A.

Interpretive Clause:Almost in all statutes there is a Definition/Interpretive Clause which is defining the terms and phrases used in that Statute. Therefore, the first step is that, the court will interpret meanings of the words and phrases of the defined Statute.b. General Clauses Act, 1887:Pakistan is having an Interpretation Act, which is General Clauses Act, 1887 and it defines a list of words and phrases usually known to Pakistan Legal System. Furthermore, it is also having certain rules of interpretation in certain circumstances.

consequently; the Courts will see Pakistan interpretation Act for further interpretation. c. Rules and Principles of Interpretation:Beside the above mentioned sources, there are certain set of laws and principles of interpretation developed in Pakistan. Thus, the Court must accept in mind these rules and principles of interpretation while interpreting a statute. OBJECTS OF INTERPRETATION: Following are the two objects of interpretation: 1. Determination of Meanings: • It has already been discussed that statutes are formed from language and language is consisting on words and phrases. While, the words are having multiple meanings and connotations.

• Thus, the earliest duty of the Courts is to decide the meanings of different words and phrases used in statute.2. Finding the Intention of the Legislature: As we know that legislation is the task of the legislature and the Courts cannot assume that position while interpreting. Hence, while determining the meanings of the words and phrases during interpretation, the Court must find out the intention of the legislature, and in accordance with this intention it shall assign the meaning to the words and phrases used in the Statutes.

Conclusion:It is concluded that, even though, there are many set of laws in the statutory interpretation but not any of it help in decreasing the difficulty. There is constantly injustice even if the rules are being followed. Because of this the judges are developing there creative thinking by following the rules.

How can we measure the weight of justice in any law? Where the difficulty appears at the first step of the statutory interpretation? Thus, no matter how many rules are originated to reduce the troubles mentioned above, there is not a single way to resolve the matter.


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