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King’s College LondonFaculty of Arts ; HumanitiesCoversheet for submission of coursework (Undergraduate ; Taught Postgraduate)Complete all sections of this form and ensure it is the first page of the document you submit. Failure to attach the coversheet as required may result in your work not being accepted for assessment.

Word count, which should be calculated electronically, must be stated accurately below. For details of what is included in the word count, and penalties incurred by exceeding the word count limit, please consult the coursework submission policy in the Faculty handbook.DECLARATION BY STUDENTThis assignment is entirely my own work. Quotations from secondary literature are indicated by the use of inverted commas around ALL such quotations AND by reference in the text or notes to the author concerned. ALL primary and secondary literature used in this piece of work is indicated in the bibliography placed at the end, and dependence upon ANY source used is indicated at the appropriate point in the text.

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I confirm that no sources have been used other than those stated. I understand what is meant by plagiarism and have signed at enrolment the declaration concerning the avoidance of plagiarism. I understand that plagiarism is a serious academic offence that may result in disciplinary action being taken.I understand that I must submit work BEFORE the deadline, and that failure to do so will result in capped marks. Candidate no. Y 0 6 6 0 2 (This is a letter followed by five digits, and can be found on Student Records) Module Title: The Writer and the Public: Journalism in Spain, Past and PresentModule Code:(e.g. 5AABC123 ) 6AASC023 Assignment:(may be abbreviated) Examine the relation established between writer and reader in Larra’s artículos, with reference to AT LEAST TWO articles.

Assignment tutor/group: Dr Daniel Munoz SempereDeadline: Date Submitted: Word Count: Your assignment may be used as an example of good practice for other students to refer to in future. If selected, your assignment will be presented anonymously and may include feedback comments or the specific grade awarded. Participation is optional and will not affect your grade.Do you consent to your assignment being used in this way? Please tick the appropriate box below.YES NO xx496.Examine the relation established between writer and reader in Larra’s artículos, with reference to AT LEAST TWO articles.When examining the relation established between writer and reader in any writer’s case, including Mariano José de Larra it is important to bear in mind the context and time frame in which is being examined at the time.

Historical and political context is important when looking at relationships between reader and writer.Mariano Jose de Larra was a Romantic journalist based in Madrid, Spain and was born in 1809. He came from a family of doctors who had worked for Spanish royalty and started publishing articles in the press in 1828. Larra had a complicated life which is documented somewhat throughout his articulos de costumbrismos and other of his critics such as Gregorio Martin and John Rosenberg whom this essay will aim to look at when examining the relationship between Jose Mariano de Lara and his readers. This essay will be examining two articles in particular, by Larra, the first one being “En este País” and the second being “Quien es el público y donde se le encuentra” and will be determining the relationship established between the writer and reader with the help of some of Larra’s critics looking at Susan Kirkpatrick, Michael Iarocci and Gregorio Martin and Courtney Tarr et al. Larra’s artículos can be described as works which “lay bare in an ever increasing crescendo of sensitive wit, passionate irony, and despairing satire, the foibles of his times and those of mankind, the dilemma of his own soul and that of his country”When looking at “Quien es el público y donde se le encuentra”, written in 1832, one could establish the plot of the article and establish the connection between the reader and the writer.Larra has implied, through his writing, that Spain needs to be more advanced in its societal progress as it has been pulled back over the years, culturally and politically. He criticised the church and traditions of life and mentions how people in Spain are small minded and do not know what happens in the outside world along with talking about things they do not understand.

“el ilustrado public gusta de hablar de lo que no entiende”. He expects a change through his writing as he disagrees with how the public, or his audience, live their lives and adhere to societal rules. Larra is an urban observer as he wonders the streets of Madrid observing what happens around him and as he wonders around the city, he realizes how the public has a lack of cultural taste. The issue that Larra encounters in his writing, and in his relationship with his readers, is that whilst he believes he is making constructive criticism towards a society which needs guiding, readers will not be able to see it in the same light. As Gregorio Martin explains, Larra feels the need to criticise society although the understands the risks implied.

“Censorship came first to threaten his professional autonomy and later his personal safety” Gregorio Martin explains that Larra “thought that society’s failures were the results of ignorance but by 1832 his personal experience had taught him that the actual source of these abuses in fact lies in the innate wickedness of human beings, regardless of one’s enlightenment” This is a step back in acknowledging a relationship between Larra and his readers. One could argue that Larra needs the support of his reader in order to gain confidence to write truthfully and critically. Without this support Larra remains doubtful and insecure about his writing and his truth, therefore separating the connection already made with his readers. The audience in 1832, as Larra portrays it, already have enough of their own identity issues and therefore are most likely less inclined to care about a failed journalist venting his problems to the world whilst insulting them on his way to becoming a successful journalist.As Michael Iarocci explains in his segment on “Romantic prose, journalism and costumbrismo” “the literary prose of the romantic period in Spain is, in the broadest sense, a register of the cultural turmoil that accompanied this grand transformation” As mentioned earlier in this essay, the Spaniards are in the midst of one of the biggest and most important changes in Spain at the time, an “economic, social and political transformation” and at this time so are journalistic styles with writers trying to secularize the language and the way in which they write by enabling criticism and inserting their own truths to their works. Iarocci furthermore explains that “such ideals increasingly ceded to his disenchantment over seemingly intractable political problems on one hand and the inertia of his middle-class readers on the others” His scepticism on his middle class readers does not win him success nor popularity. Costumbrismos, as Iaorric explained are usually always based around the middle class, therefore Larra’s reader is wealthy and part of the elite; he examines what life is like for the elite and upper class whilst the rest of Spain for the most part lives in poverty.

One must ask himself, would the reader feel threatened by this? Larra’s moralistic intentions might threaten the readers. His superiority in most of his articles, especially in “En Este Pais” and “Quien es el público y donde se le encuentra” portray Larra as if he looks down on the world, especially his own readers.The second article this essay aims to analyse is is Mariano Jose de Larra’s “En este País”. In this article, Larra visits a friend ‘Periquito’ who had recently published an article which no one had yet bought. Larra blamed it on the fact that he either could not write or that people could not read.

From then on, any negative aspect they could think of about Spain, whether it was poverty, bad coffees, theatre, hotels and so on, anything to do with Spain, any other country, such as France for example had it better. “En París no habrá libros malos que no se lean, ni autores necios que se mueran de hambre.” “No hay limpieza en España” “-¡En este país no hay más que miseria!”. similarly, to “Quien es el público y donde se le encuentra” Larra has a way of often adding a moralistic conclusion to his articles. In ‘En este País’ his moralistic conclusion is somewhat judgemental as he expresses that people like Periquito, who have never left Spain cannot criticise it as they do not know any better, in relation to what had been said in “Quien es el público y donde se le encuentra” whereby Larra says that people love to talk about things they have no knowledge of. These two articles complement each other in the way we depict Larra’s relationship with his readers. The same patronising and judgmental tone here applies, somewhat satirical but which would still come across as pretentious or ‘snobbish’. However, in Larra’s eyes “no hemos olvidado que la literatura es la expresión, el termómetro verdadero del estado de la civilización de un pueblo”.

The truth is more important than what others think of him.As Robert Adler describes “in Larra’s essays the reader immediately perceives that to provide the background and critical perspective necessary to achieve his goal, Larra exercised an extremely perceptive historical sense sought to exploit the close relationship he saw between literature, history and contemporary society”The question one must ask himself is how did Mariano Jose de Lara become and remain a successful journalist, even after his death, when he never had a positive aspect to say about any of his readers. As has explained Joaquin Alvarez Barrientos, Larra’s aim, “el de Larra es el del escritor satírico como alcanzo su condición de escritor, progresivamente, a medida que escribe, publica y tiene éxito. ” Leading back to the essay question, the relation established between the writer and reader in Larra’s artículos within the scope of “En Este País” and “¿Quién Es El Público Y Dónde Se Le Encuentra?” is a relationship which is nor love or hate, yet makes the reader coming back for more.

Any middle-class reader who might have considered it an outrage that Larra be allowed to criticize society this way will most likely be even more intrigued by his point of view and his opinion on how society should be led and therefore still buy their copies of Larra’s artículos.It is important to conclude that the reader cannot exist without the writer; therefore its relationship is somewhat mutual and dependent on one another.Bibliography:Adler, Robert L. “Modernization of Spain and the Converso in the Work of Mariano José De Larra.” Hispania, vol. 72, no. 3, 1989, pp.

483–490. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/343473.Alvarez Barrientos, Joaqui?n et al. Larra En El Mundo. San Vicente Del Raspeig, Universidad De Alicante, 2011,.

Cervantes, Biblioteca. “En Este País / Mariano José De Larra | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel De Cervantes.” Cervantesvirtual.Com, 2017, http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/en-este-pais–0/html/ff793348-82b1-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_1.html.

Cervantes, Biblioteca. “¿Quién Es El Público Y Dónde Se Le Encuentra? / Mariano José De Larra | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel De Cervantes.” Cervantesvirtual.Com, 2017, http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/quien-es-el-publico-y-donde-se-le-encuentra–0/html/ff7a1588-82b1-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_1.

html. Gies, D. (2009). The Cambridge history of Spanish literature.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Page 364.Iarocci, Michael.

“Romantic Prose, Journalism, and Costumbrismo.” The Cambridge History of Spanish Literature. Ed.

David T. Gies. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. 381-91. Print.Rosenberg, John R.

“Between Delirium and Luminosity: Larras Ethical Nightmare”. Hispanic Review, vol 61, no.3, 1993, p.379., Print.Tarr, F. Courtney.

“Mariano José De Larra (1809-1837).” The Modern Language Journal, vol. 22, no.

1, 1937, pp. 46–50. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/316541.

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