Leadership and management are two sides of the same coin but different features on either sides. Both focus on achieving a target. They are both objective oriented.
In spite of these, there are practices that distinguish one from the other. It means that the two are different by virtue of existence, by definition and the modus operandi of arriving a target.
The table below shows the differences between leadership and management.
1 Plan and Policy Execution Plan and Policy Making
2 Task Execution Order and Consistency
3 Motivating and Inspiring Controlling and Problem Solving
4 Aligning People Organising and staffing
Source; John Kotter (ILM)
Plan and Policy Making; plans are what I believe set an individual or a company forth-going. Thus, plan specifies what to be done and how to do it. Very important, policies are measures to guide the plan lest there should be a deviation. Since management is seen as the driving force, it is therefore the duty of management to come up with these plans and policies to run the organisation, hence referred to as the driver of an organisation.
For example, where downtime (resulting from lost time injuries –LTIs) in production becomes prevalent, management may come up with a policy such as ‘safe system of work’ to safeguard workers under health and safety policies of specific regulations. Example is the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) 1974 regulation.
Order and Consistency; management ensures orderliness by controlling and solving problems through provisions and rules to guide the ethics of workers as well as their manner of doing things at workplace. In event of any contravention, rules may specify actions or control measures including punishment (warning, withdrawal) to be taken to ensure order and consistency at work all times.
Plan and Policy Execution; leadership herein is seen as the driven factor of an organisation. It means that Leadership of any organisation is controlled by the set policies and plans by management. Thus, leadership ensures that plans, and policies are carried down to their subordinates and harnessing their corporation, they achieve the objectives of the organisation. They are the intermediate body between followers and management.
Task Execution; policies and plans of any organisation do not exist in vacuum. It therefore becomes the sole responsibility of the leadership to translating corporate plans and policies into action. By action, leadership focuses on task specific. For instance, the management of MODEC Ghana Ltd. plans to reaching a production target of 120,000 bbls of crude oil per day. Hereafter, it becomes responsibility of the leadership in charge to put measures together to meeting this task by motivating, inspiring and aligning people to task specific.