Vyogtsky (2018) claimed that “What a child can do today with assistance, she will be able to do by herself tomorrow.” In other words, there is a gap between what learners can do independently and with the guidance of someone else. Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) was a psychologist, sociologist, and writer from Russia who created a theory called, “The Zone of Proximal Development” or ZPD.
Scaffolding is a guidance tool that teachers could use in order to fit the level of performance of students. Scaffolding is a term closely related to ZPD and was developed by “Jerome Bruner, David Wood and Gail Ross, while applying Vygotsky’s concept of ZPD to various educational contexts.” (Zone of Proximal Development and Cultural Tools Scaffolding, Guided Participation, 2006.
) Scaffolding takes learners from the ZPD to the ZAD. (Zone of Actual Development) Vygotsky believed language, culture and social environment all play a role in the Zone of Proximal Development.