Literature Review1. IntroductionThe tourism industry contributes much to the economy of Hong Kong. In 2014, it contributed to 5 per cent of Hong Kong’s GDP.
It employs around 271 800 persons, accounting for 7.2 per cent of total employment. However, the huge business activities also bringing many degrading effects and has became a big concern from Hong Kong society. That is the reason sustainable tourism has came out and aim for decreasing the negative effects of tourism activities, which has become community agreed a politically proper approach to tourism development. ‘Sustainable Tourism Development’ (STD) included economic, social and environmental tourism development that looking at the continuous improvements of tourists’ experiences. The tourism industry may have a positive effect to sustainable development, especially by new job hiring.
The aim of sustainable tourism is to make a balance between protecting the environment for climate action, decent work and economic growth and sustainable cities and communities, in order to improve the living standards for both short and long term.2. Review of sustainable tourism development (STD)Sustainable tourism development is one of rapid growing areas in tourism studies research since the late 1980s. The term ‘sustainable tourism’ was first used almost two decades ago. During the first decade, basic frameworks from backgrounds in tourism, economics and environmental management were studied. The second decade had a number of conceptualization and a series of criticisms.
According to Bramwell & Lane, the two important founders of these concepts in the tourism industry, sustainable tourism appeared in part as a degrading and a reactive concept in response to the many tourism issues, like environmental damage and serious impacts on society and traditional cultures. Finally, tourism development has been seen as a solution for creating good changes through the ideas of sustainable tourism. It has played an vital role in identifying ways to secure positive benefits, as well as the established approaches of regulation and development control.
The most common definition of sustainable development is ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. This definition indicates the connections between economic growth, environmental friendly and social fairness, each element strengthening each other. The World Tourism Organization defined sustainable development as follows:Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.
3. Sustainable tourism development Over the last two decades, the concept of sustainable tourism development has become almost a norm as an ideal and politically approach to tourism development. The tourism industry should be recommended to support ‘clean green’ tourism, which means that firms should do their best to drop the environmental effects of their activities. If a destination is to achieve sustainable tourism development then the actions of its constituent firms must be consistent with and support this objective.
4. Market research and economic In order to achieve sustainability, there is a need to maximize the economic benefits to the local community while minimizing the environmental and social costs at the same time. However, this is not an easy task as it is ‘enormously difficult to achieve’. Sustainable tourism fast indicators for less-developed Islands: An economic perspective.. Studied some economic impacts of the tourism industry through indicators such as Foreign exchange/leakage, Taxes/leakage, Beneficial sub-industries (the industries indirectly supporting tourism, e.g.
fishing, agriculture), Park entry revenue, Job creation and seasonality, Job balance, Wages evolution, Local souvenirs, and Infrastructure development in order to evaluate the sustainability indicators for rapid assessment of tourism development. Ensuring viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stake-holders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation, are the parameters of sustainability. 5. Policy makingSustainable tourism has become an area of academic interest and has been adopted into tourism policy-making by both the public and private sectors at all levels of governance and in organizations. Policy learning and policy failure in sustainable tourism governance: From first- and second-order to third-order change? By the late 1990s, governments and international organizations were very interested in regulating the tourist industry and educating both hosts and participants. Community leaders and other local stakeholders also began to exert pressure from below to alter the tourism product in order to preserve the environment, maintain local culture and products, and share tourism revenues with local communities.
Green, sustainable, and eco-friendly are now prevalent terms in tourism policy papers, regulations, and promotional materials Sustainable tourism certification and state capacity: Keep it local, simple, and fuzzy. Development and implementation of sustainable tourism certification is a process that can result in an important dialogue and policy-making process about the type of tourism development that a country wishes to pursue, greater awareness in the business community of the needs and contributions of the local communities, and a shift in attitudes across sectors and generations Sustainable tourism certification and state capacity: Keep it local, simple, and fuzzy. Institutional pressures have a key driving role in stimulating the adoption of environmental legislation by life-cycle considerations for reducing negative impacts and by demanding specific performances, such as the elimination of toxic substances from the production of electronic goods or restricting industrial discharges and emissions to nature.
Moreover, for successfully implementing the sustainable development strategies, having the top. Environmental supply chain management in tourism: The case of large tour operators. The consultation and involvement of local stakeholders in strategies development definitions contribute to highlighting new perspectives about the local situation and to ensuring that all the priorities of different actors and their opinions about possible measures of intervention are considered in the evaluation of scenarios and the definition of a strategy for local development. 6. InfrastructureThe basic physical systems of a business or nation is called infrastructure. It includes administrative, telecommunications, transportation, utilities, and waste removal and processing facilities. Some definitions also include education, health care, research and development, and training facilities.
These systems tend to be high-cost investments; however, they are vital to a country’s economic development and prosperity. The highly complex and fragmented structure of the tourism sector remains a key challenge in achieving consensus and developing coherent sustainable tourism strategies. Exploring the evolution of tourism resorts. The main goal of the tourism association should be to develop an integrated, continuous passage for sustainable tourism mobility, which improves the possibilities for smooth, problem-free and environmentally friendly travel. A sustainable tourism mobility passage. Improving fundamental infrastructures, such as roads, transportation systems, energy facilities (water, electricity, gas, etc.), health care centres and educational institutions, is efficient for both the community’s residents and tourists.Tourism infrastructure can be regarded as the physical elements that are designed and erected to cater for visitors.
The strong link between tourism development and infrastructure has been theoretically established by a number of authors (Seetanah, et al. 2011; Imikan & Ekpo, 2012; Tampakis, Manolas & Tampakis, 2012). Imikan and Ekpo (2012) classify tourism infrastructure in terms of water, transport, electricity, communication, and accommodation. They further noted that the accommodation factor includes buildings that serve as hotels and guest houses.
Seetanah et al. (2011) went further to classify rental rooms as constituting a significant part of tourism accommodation infrastructure.It is important to note that buildings that serve as tourism infrastructure are not restricted to accommodation variants.
Nina (1999) for example, claims that in Australia, important infrastructure projects for tourism development included Sydney Olympic Stadia, as well as convention and exhibition centres. This wider interpretation of the building and accommodation dimension of tourism infrastructure is the focus of this paper. It is considered to be fundamental to a tourist’s overall impression of a destination. One major observation is that most tourism infrastructure in Nigeria are not designed for ease of disassembly, thereby creating sustainability problems for designers and other stakeholders. This paper explores design for deconstruction as a framework through which recycling and re-use of huge amounts of waste can be facilitated, to achieve sustainable development of tourism infrastructure in Nigeria. Design for deconstruction is an emerging concept that borrows from the fields of design for disassembly, reuse, re-manufacturing and recycling in the consumer products industries.
Its overall goal is to reduce pollution impacts and increase resource and economic efficiency in the adaptation and eventual removal of constructed infrastructure, and recovery of components and materials for reuse, re-manufacturing and recycling ( Webster ; Costello, 2005; Guy ; Ciarimboli, 2005).7. Modelling and planningTourism planning is unlikely to be conducted in isolation and is part of the broader planning process, which incorporates physical and economic plans, in addition to sociocultural programs. Political and commercial forces impact on all types of planning, and decisions are based on value judgements grounded in prevailing. Coordinated and comprehensive planning is seen as the key to sustainable tourism, which requires a comprehensive approach in both urban and rural settings around the world: An integrated, dynamic, multi-scale approach. In order to succeed, the development needs to be carefully planned, so as to extend and harness its life cycle.
Marketing, sustainable development and international tourism. It seems that tourism enterprises are too focused on the short-term rather than long-term planning; however, they will need to engage in long-term planning in order to be capable of meeting future challenges. Modelling is able to propose the process of sustainable tourism, but it also incorporates essential areas of measurement interconnected through a series of gap and reconnection analyses.
8. Rural tourismRural tourism actors are conscious that the main ingredient for success is the environment. Everybody is conscious that one must be respectful and careful with the environment. One should preserve Nature in its original form as much as possible, which is the same as keeping authenticity or diversity. Rural tourism is growing and developing as an integral part of the environment, in a sustainable way, keeping the identity of the locality and recovering lost activities, such as subsistence farming. Rural tourism is tourism in the country, not in the town. The viability of rural tourism lies in the fact of its being compatible and complementary to traditional activities, and not being a substitute to previous incomes.
Moreover, it is preserving all the countryside habitats, values and lifestyle. Regarding how hectic urban life has become in recent decades, rural tourism has become a favorable and suitable alternative among tourists, particularly in developed countries.In our twenty-first century society, large hotel chains or entertainment centres are all rather similar and lack of identity, without the special added value of the landscape or environment. That is where the rural environment has the advantage, as it shows the value of reality, no matter how advanced the hotels. It is a great opportunity for country people to complement traditional ways of agriculture and livestock as a source of incomes.
Moreover, the increase in demand for services and infrastructure that is arising in any kind of rural area benefits people living in these natural areas all the year round.Rural tourism can make a very significant contribution to the economy of rural regions. This contribution may be judged not only in terms of gross output and employment figures, but also in the broader economic benefits that it can bring. Rural tourism can serve to diversify the local economy; to provide new markets for local products and services; to provide new sources of income for farmers and others whose livelihood is threatened by changes in agriculture; and to prompt the creation of new businesses. Tourism can be the new “cash crop” in rural areas, changing the balance between the primary industries such as agriculture and the tertiary or service sector.
In many remote or marginal areas, rural tourism is seen by both local communities and policy makers as a primary driving force for revitalisation. Indeed, it is sometimes seen as a panacea for the problems facing these communities. But there is danger in overdependence upon tourism in areas with a fragile economy. Such over-dependence can make the area more vulnerable to the effects of demand fluctuations. Tourism can also bring social and cultural benefits to rural areas. They may include social and cultural contact between local people and visitors; increased awareness, among both visitors and local people, of the value of the heritage and the need for its protection; a strengthening of the identity and cohesion of the local community; and fuller use of, and thus greater viability for, local transport and other services. At its best, therefore tourism cam help rural communities to find new strength in their local economy, while preserving their quality of life, heritage and social values. However, there are also dangers associated with tourism.
They may include a greater cost on public services; an increase in land values or in the cost of houses, to the disadvantage of local people; unbalance in the job market, with a heavy emphasis on seasonal, part-time or female jobs; temptation to people to leave their traditional work in agriculture or other trades; congestion and crowding that impinge on the quality of life and privacy of local residents; a clash of culture between local people and visitors; an increase in crime and anti-social behaviour; or pollution and over-use of the physical environment. For good or bad, the self-perception of residents and local identity may also be subtly affected when the local heritage and culture become ‘commodified’ into tourism products.9. Eco-system and eco-tourismEcotourism is one of the rapid growing sectors of the tourism industry worldwide.
Ecotourism is often seen as a type of nature-based tourism and has attracted a lot of attention from tourists as an alternative type of tourism. Ayala defines ecotourism as ‘tourism that allows for the enjoyment and understanding of the nature and culture of a destination while producing economic benefits and actively promoting environmental conservation.’ Ecotourism management encounters many challenges, including establishing a profitable and ecologically sustainable industry, while simultaneously achieving a satisfying experience for visitors and increasing standards of living in the host community.The growth of the tourism industry particularly in developing countries has not been planned and predicted accurately and is poorly organised, which has consequently resulted in the degradation, depletion and, in some cases, total destruction of essential economy-supporting natural resources. Therefore, it is logical to stress the sustainability enhancement since it contributes to environmentally sensitive tourism development and protection of natural resources from the detrimental environmental impacts of tourism.10. Climate changeThe tourism industry, particularly nature-based tourism activities, is seen as being sensitive to the effects of climate change. Perceptions and adaptation strategies of the tourism industry to climate change: The case of Finnish nature-based tourism entrepreneurs.
Implications of climate and environmental change for nature-based tourism in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: A case study of Waterton Lakes National Park. This issue needs to be investigated thoroughly and then some applicable strategies and policies need to be presented to deal with climate change. While the need to adapt to climate change is imperative, it is believed that this need is still not fully understood in the tourism sector. Moreover, tourist perceptions have an important part to play regarding climate change impacts on the tourism industry and destination choice, although consumer choice is mostly influenced by the perceived environmental changes that may or may not have to do with actual conditions.’Climate change refers to a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.’ For the impact of climate change of tourism:The tourism sector depends heavily on a natural and cultural heritage. It is highly climate sensitive as climate defines the length and quality of tourism seasons, affects tourism operations, and influences environmental conditions that both attract and deter visitors.
Tourists will quickly switch their choice of destination when the results of climate change impact on their enjoyment. Generating more than USD 6 trillion in revenue each year and providing livelihoods to more than 255 million people, the tourism sector is particularly important for some of the world’s poorest countries. Climate sustainable tourism means the basic principles for climate friendly tourism development relating to any GHG emitting activities should be avoidance , develop alternative travel- and transport facilities, balance between consumers based responses and political framework response. Responsible travel means modes of encouraging transportation.
For example, consider walking or cycling during your trip, using public transportation; ensure benefit to local people, employ local people; Respect for local culture o Immerse others in and accept the differences of other cultures; environmental conservation; Choose a trip that strengthens the conservation efforts; Natural resource use o consider the efficient use of water, energy, and building materials as well as the method of waste disposal.11. Human resource managementEach enterprise needs to have skilled and knowledgeable labour in order to succeed in an ever-increasing competitive business world. The tourism industry is not exceptional in this respect but it is influenced more as it potentially has more interactions with people. Therefore, if tourism companies are to survive, training and educating the worforce is of great importance. In this context, when tourism destinations are well managed, skill development can provide important benefits to local communities and contribute directly or indirectly to nature conservation.
However, when destinations are poorly managed, tourism can have a serious impact on the ecosystems and contribute to the loss of cultural integrity and identity of the destination. 12. Energy and material savingEnergy is one of the vital factors being influenced in the tourism industry. In this regard, it needs much more attention, as tourism activities in natural resources have led to negative consequences such as severe degradation of natural landscapes, a lack of water provisions, pollution of coastal zones, and the construction of massive transport and building infrastructure. The realisation of the degradatory effects of tourism has led to the concept of sustainable tourism. Regarding the importance of energy as an indispensable constituent in economic and social development, governments and other tourism authorities should continuously review the energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply and also undertake efforts to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable.
To do so, government should plan energy programs and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. It is clear that there is a close connection between renewable energy and sustainable development particularly in tourism sustainable development.13. DiscussionsTourism is a substantial global system that both impacts the environment and is impacted upon by the environment. As such, tourism must address the challenges of environmental conservation in all aspects of the system.
This requires a system-wide approach to environmental issues based on an understanding of the complexity of the tourism system and the interrelated nature of its components. This study seems that all aspects of sustainability are covered in researches, but if we look deeply, some gaps can still be found in the literature of sustainable tourism. The social, economic and environmental dimensions are very extensive and it seems that sustainability in tourism is multi-dimensional.
The essence of sustainability and sustainable development is that they are dynamic. Developments should be considered in different aspects and perspectives of the dynamic framework of sustainability.Concept and application of this new perspective in tourism are developed in many countries and the presented literature would play a key role not only in having a healthy and sustainable tourism industry but also in the economic growth of countries and their present and future stakeholders. The authors believe that sustainable tourism sustainability in sustainable tourism has taken the very first steps and needs more study and research. All of the research is based on local situations, while, in the future, sustainable tourism will change to a transnational issue. Generally, tourism is a kind of green industry and appropriate management can leverage the ongoing economic development of countries.
Decisions and policy-making in the tourism industry should be multi-dimensional and consider causal relations of issues.14. ConclusionThis paper has presented an extensive review of the literature on sustainable tourism definitions and applications. However, this research has some limitations. The first limitation is that the data used in this review are collected from scholarly journals, which exclude conference proceeding papers, master’s dissertations, doctoral theses, textbooks, and unpublished working papers in the Sustainable Tourism literature. The second limitation is that just English journals are considered in this research work; hence, journals in other languages were not examined. This may imply that this review is not thorough; however, the authors believe that it provides a comprehensive review since the majority of papers published by scholarly journals are included.
Therefore, this paper offers to academic researchers and practitioners a framework for future research.