Martin is lost due to its high poverty

Martin Ravallion1 tried to find out why poor countries are not in accordance with the development of high speed of expectations, in order to get rid of poverty. After analyzing data from 100 developing countries, he found that high initial poverty rates were detrimental to consumption growth. Thus, for many poor countries, The growth advantage with low mean (conditional convergence) is lost due to its high poverty rate. Avinash Dixit 2 think that most African countries have abundant mineral resources and a climate conducive to crop growth, but Africa, which has many resources, remains poor because Africans have no sense of suffering and progress. As long as there is food, they are reluctant to try to make their lives better for themselves and their families, and they are more willing to wait for the assistance of the international community and the government than to improve their lives through their own efforts. The rate of poverty has always been controversial internationally. A.B. Atkinson (1987)3 from the perspective of poverty line selection, poverty indicators and the relationship between poverty and inequality, he proposed to compare the poverty situation between regions without considering the differences, so as to obtain an incomplete sequence of results. In fact, Sen’s rank-weighted measurement model does not explain why sub-poverty increases overall poverty. James Foster; Joel Greer; Erik Thorbecke (1984)4 proposed a simple and new poverty measurement model: (1) additive decomposition with the weight of population share; (2) satisfying Sen’s basic properties; (3) proving poverty through the concept of relative deprivation. Inequality measures related to our poverty measurement are proved square coefficients. Amartya Sen 5 defines poverty as a right method. It emphasizes the right of everyone to a portfolio of goods, including food, and sees hunger as the result of not being granted the right to an adequate portfolio of food consumption. He points out that a person starves either because he does not have the power to control enough food or because he refuses to use it. Montek S. Ahluwalia 6 conducted a sample survey of 60 countries, including 40 developing countries, 14 developed countries and 6 socialist countries, to explore the relationship between income inequality, poverty and national development. The results show that inequality has no significant impact on gross national product. Francisco H.G. Ferreira, Phillippe G. Leite, and Martin Ravallion7 analyzed the relationship between economic growth and poverty alleviation using Brazilian data from 1980 to 2000. Research shows that Using GDP data disaggregated by state and sector for a twenty-year period, this paper finds considerable variation in the poverty-reducing effect of growth-across sectors, across spaces, and over time. Adrian Wood and Jörg Mayer8 explored Africa’s export commodity structure shows that the main export products of African countries are industrial raw materials and agricultural and sideline products, and they are at the low end of the international industrial chain as a whole. In the process of global economic integration, western countries have forced African countries to implement investment and trade liberalization and industrial privatization. Privatized industries include telecommunications, electricity, minerals, finance, insurance and other important economic industries. Multinational companies have weakened African economies by acquiring shares and capital penetration. Taking Indonesia as a sample, Asep Suryahadi9 found that the growth of rural services reduced poverty in all sectors and regions. However, the rapid growth of the city’s service industry has a greater effect on reducing the poverty population. Asep Suryahadi also found that the growth of rural agriculture had dramatically reduced poverty in rural areas, which remained the largest concentration of poverty in Indonesia. This means that although agricultural growth still plays an important role in poverty reduction, the effect of vigorous development of urban and rural service sectors on poverty reduction is more significant. Gary S. Fields10studied the relationship between income distribution and economic growth. He focused on two aspects of income distribution, poverty and inequality, and discussed the measurement of poverty and inequality. Nunn, Nathan11 explored the influence of slave trade in history on Africa’s economy. Nunn, Nathan, used shipping records and historical literature to construct estimates of the number of slaves exported from each country during the African slave trade. Nunn Nathan found a strong negative correlation between the number of slaves exported from a country and current economic performance. To better understand whether this relationship is causal, I examined historical evidence of the choice to enter the slave trade and used instrumental variables. There is evidence that the slave trade has adverse effects on economic development. Isaac B. Oluwatayo 12 Africa has experienced the highest but not inclusive level of growth in the past decade, as the continent still faces high unemployment rates, especially among young people. Isaac B. Oluwatayo examines some of the drivers and constraints of economic growth and poverty reduction in Africa. The results show that economic growth on the African continent is a form of “unemployment”, exacerbating the gap between the rich and the poor and poverty. What’s more, 75% of countries with low levels of human development are in Africa, where sustained economic growth has little impact on people’s lives. The authors suggest that investment be increased and monitored in key infrastructures. In combating corruption and social conflicts, multi-level and multinational partnerships are needed to attract foreign direct investment. Investment in the social security program will also help the poor and vulnerable groups on the African continent.Martin Ravallion’s research shows that poverty convergence in developing countries differs from that in developed countries, and economic growth is not entirely linear to poverty reduction. Although average convergence and growth have generally reduced poverty, the lack of convergence suggests that something about initial distribution is offsetting the advantages of backwardness and growth.Second, the findings of the study point out three different consequences of poor countries in the subsequent poverty alleviation process. Normally the neoclassical convergence effect requires countries to start with a lower average and thus (usually) have a higher poverty rate and a faster growth rate, thus enjoying faster poverty reduction than other similar countries. However, the author ignores the applicability of the problem, this paper takes the developing countries as the sample, ignoring the poverty problem in developed countries.Avinash Dixit elaborated on the relationship between national governance and economic growth, and pointed out that the high poverty rate in African countries was due not only to the general lack of enterprising awareness among Africans, but also to national governance. Political instability and civil wars in African countries have seriously undermined the stable environment needed for economic development, greatly reducing the possibility of economic recovery and development and leading to more serious poverty. The author’s analysis of poverty in African countries from the perspective of national governance provides us with a good research perspective and direction, but does not take population, climate and other factors into account as control variables, which has a certain degree of interference with the results of the study.A.B. Atkinson (1987)tries to find the factors that quantify poverty indicators from the perspectives of poverty line selection, poverty indicators, and the relationship between poverty and inequality. However, as the author himself says, dominant conditions can provide a powerful tool and can be easily applied to empirical research. At the same time, they have not used my knowledge in this way. As we can see, the poverty deficit values for different poverty lines (for example, 10-200% of the official poverty line) provide a lot of information, but the necessary tables are not included in more than 200 tables published by the Census Bureau. Skeptics rightly suggest that it is necessary to reconsider the basic approach, even though the conclusions drawn from this re-examination may not be appropriate for them.Amartya Sen (1976) used axiomatic method to study poverty measurement index, and put forward the famous Sen poverty index, which made up for the deficiency of basic poverty measurement index. Amartya Sen proposed three axioms that poverty indicators should satisfy: (weak) monotonicity axiom; weak transitivity axiom; core axiom.Based on Amartya Sen’s (1976) theory, James Foster; Joel Greer; Erik Thorbecke(1984) proposed his own poverty measurement model. He proves poverty by the concept of relative deprivation, and proves that the inequality measure of poverty is a square coefficient. The results of Montek S. Ahluwalia’s study suggest that cross-sectional results do not support a stronger assumption that the deterioration of relative inequality reflects the long-term absolute poverty of the majority of the population in the course of development. Based on cross-border data, the average absolute income of low-income groups increases with the increase of per capita GNP, although lower than that of high-income groups. Montek S. Ahluwalia used cross-sectional data to analyze the relationship between inequality and poverty, ignoring the relationship between variables in different time series.Francisco H.G. Ferreira used Brazilian data from 1985 to 2004 to analyze the current situation, causes and Countermeasures of poverty in Brazil.In this paper, the author compares Brazil’s poverty alleviation with other developing countries in the past 20 years to show that Brazil has not done enough to alleviate poverty. The state does not attach importance to poverty alleviation policies, but it has failed to put forward a reasonable strategy to alleviate poverty.Adrian Wood and Jörg Mayer hopes to use the successful experience of East Asia to effectively promote the adjustment of African export patterns and structures. African exports face the main disadvantages of small export scale, single export structure and raw materials. At the same time, African countries need to improve their domestic economic situation through international trade, but there are many unfair systems and factors in the global economic system, and the international trade system based on unequal exchange also hinders the development of African countries.Asep Suryahadi taking Indonesia as a sample, expounds the relationship between economic growth and poverty alleviation, and stresses that when economically backward countries are committed to poverty alleviation, they should not neglect the development of urban services, which play a significant role in stimulating employment and booming consumer markets. This paper presents a path to poverty alleviation, but the author takes Indonesia as a sample. Indonesia and Africa differ greatly in natural environment, political and economic systems, and social culture. The conclusions drawn in this paper are not necessarily applicable in Africa.Gary S. Fields studied the distribution of income and the resulting poverty behind the country’s economic growth. However, the research also has some limitations, for example, the way of data acquisition is not necessarily scientific and reasonable.Nunn, Nathan believes that the slave trade has caused a massive loss of Africa’s population (some say 100 million people, some say 210 million people). This caused a serious shortage of labor in Africa, because slaves destined for Europe and the United States were strong labor, two-thirds of whom were men. Africa’s productive forces have been undermined and its economic development has been slow. Africa’s agriculture, handicraft and animal husbandry have been severely devastated by a lack of labour. As a result, the labor force in Africa is insufficient, the economic foundation is weak, and it is in a disadvantageous position in the world competition.The extended linear model adopted by Isaac B. Oluwatayo estimates the poverty of each federation. The extended linear model is used to estimate the poverty of each federation. The Bootstrap method improves the robustness of the results and the weighted least square method is used to estimate the consumption differences among different income groups. However, the differences between Indian states are large, and the data do not take into account the cultural and customary differences between regions, making the conclusions of this paper limited applicability.


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