Material to ensure that the transition from

Material Purpose Source Amount(m3) PropertiesAl 6061 T6 Main external material (e.g. Hull) Moon 9.5 x 106 Good Weldability, corrosion resistant and tensile strength of 310MPALow Carbon Steel Ball Bearings Earth 8.

48 x 105 Low brittleness and malleability Silicon Oxide Solar Panels Lunar Surface Semi-conducting materialBucky Structure External Hub construction and elevator cable Alexandriat 9.15 x 106 Strong and flexibleSilica Rubber Adhesion Adhesive Earth – Strong AdhesionCrushed Lunar Regolith Outermost Shell Moon 7.63 x 106 Light WeightLead-laminated Acrylic Glass Window composition and radiation protection K-Type asteroids and Earth 3.37 x 105 Transparent and excellent light transmitterFused Quartz Silica Glass Window composition Electric melting of natural Quartz 3.11 x 105 Good adhesive and UV resistantRXF1 Polyethylene To provide protection against solar flares and cosmic radiations Earth 3.6 x 105 Good absorber of raysCopper Electrical wiring for houses, electronics and industries Asteroids – Great conductor of electricityIron For internal structure of the settlement and making steel Earth/Asteroids – Malleable ductile and strongWater Domestic and industrial uses Icy comets – Mineral rich and nutritiousOperations and Infrastructure3.

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2.1 Air, Climate and Weather.At Arial, we aspire to provide optimum conditions for a human settlement making it easier for inhabitants to adjust in space. We carry out our best to ensure that the transition from Earth to space is carried out effectively. Gas Percentage (%) Mass/kg/ annum/ 14.7 psiNitrogen Oxygen Carbon dioxide Noble gases Water vapors Air composition of ArialGas Percentage (%) Quantity(m3)Nitrogen 78.

084 1.19 x 10Oxygen 20.447 3.18 x 107Carbon dioxide 0.033 5.01 x 104Water vapor 0.5 0Noble gases 0.936 Total 100 4.

97 x108Humidity:Humidity will be controlled by humidifying and de-humidifying modulesTemperature:Temperature and Pressure in both ToriTorus Temp. / degree Celsius PressureResidential 25 14.7 psiAgriculture and Industrial Variable (according to crop) 9 psiEach sector of Arial needs a specific temperature range to work effectively. Hence, an elaborative mechanism of solar powered heating and solar air conditioners will help maintain constant temperature in all zones, which could be changed according to the season at the time.

Aero gel of thickness 0.25m will be used for regulating temperature.Precipitation:Excess water vapors will be condensed and precipitated back through a network of microtubule channels on the Arial ceiling. This will be done to maintain the same experience as it was on earth.

Atmospheric Operational ParametersName Operational ParametersNitrogen Nitrogen will be transported to Arial as liquid Nitrogen from Earth. Nitrogen is essential in maintaining pressure and temperature. It will be produced on site through the decomposition of biomass and by leguminous roots of plantsOxygen Tree plantation would be encouraged; moreover oxygen produced by the electrolysis of water obtained from Luna’s pole and from the agricultural Torus would be enough. In Oxygen deficit areas., liquid Oxygen would be used to prevent drowsiness and suffocation. The production of Oxygen through electrolysis on the moon is less expensive than to commute liquid Oxygen from the Earth to Arial. Oxygen would be recycled by directing the Oxygen produced by algae and the plants to residential Torus and the Carbon dioxide is maintained as it is the stimulus for breathing.

Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide will be reduced to Carbon monoxide and utilized in the industrial zones. Being aware of Carbon dioxide’s importance for photosynthesis, it will be kept at a higher concentrations inside the agricultural sector to achieve maximum yield. carbon dioxide initially will be transported from Earth, but later on will be recylcled between humans and plants. High amount of Carbon dioxide (4%) will be provided in the agricultural torus for maximum yield.3.2.

2 Food Production AeroponicsConditions for AeroponicsTemperature 20ºCNutrient solution conc. 700-900 ppmpH 5.5-5.8Light Red and Blue light will be provided for photosynthesisUV radiations To prevent growth of certain bacteria Carbon dioxide concentration 4%, as it is the basic requirement for photosynthesis so high concentration In an aeroponics system, the roots are hung in the air, within a stand. The roots are lubricated with a nutrient solution with the aid of a misting machine, which is applied once every couple of minutes. As roots are hung in air so the misting should be slow to avoid the roots becoming dry.

Hence, a timer mechanism controls the pump which sprays for a few seconds in each turn. the nutrient solution is sprayed by a high-pressure pump so more oxygen reaches the roots.Diagram of AeroponicsFood Requirement (g/person/day) Yield(g/m2/day)Soya Bean 50 85Wheat 300 31Rice 250 35Corn 7 58Vegetable and fruits 400 132Almond milk 200ml 122Meat (cultured) 70g 20Cultured MeatThis is grown in cell culture instead of inside animals. It is a form of cellular agriculture. It is made by using tissue engineering techniques. This can substitute the need for having livestock on board and reduce costs dramatically.The prepared food will be commuted to the industrial sector and from there to the residential torus for retailing. The people will buy the food using a point system.

Food will be stored in large containers. Storage will be inside the axle. Moreover, storage facilities will be available in the residential torus as well to ensure food reserves are present in each sector to cope with any calamity periods of blight as 3-week food would be present at all times for the 6000 inhabitants and the 600 visitors of Arial. 355008Kg of food will be stocked in Aluminum containers. Ultra violet light will be used to treat the food before storing. Nitrogen will be added rather than ordinary air and will be kept away from sunlight at all times. This would eliminate bacterial growth. Commodities such as medicine will be stored in central refrigeration unit All other commodities such as cement, toiletries and construction materials will be stored in the cargo storage facility in the docking portSteps to food cultivationGrowth An automatic water spray method would be employed which would need minimal amount of water.

The culture medium contains K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, P, Mg and Zn. These nutrients would be obtained using nitrogenous compounds which will be extracted from human egested waste. Rest of the nutrients will be taken from the Moon and Earth. Heat produced by servers will be used for cultivation.Harvesting Harvesting would be done by the use of automated robotsProcessing Food processing will be done in special facilities made in the agricultural zonePackaging Packaging will be done as soon as processing would be done to ensure freshnessDelivery Delivery will be done with the use of robotsRetailing Arial inhabitants can buy food using their points Milk production Technique:Algae CultivationsAlgae are the food of the future. With biotechnology and genetic engineering making ground breaking advances, it has been made possible to manipulate algae into delicious good with no harmful effects at all. This algae is nutritious and beneficial due to having very low amount of Fats. Algae grows sporadically and this is why we have devised a plan to give a 20% share to this mode of food.

This will further reduce our requirement for agricultural area and hence save us the cost as well.Photo Bioreactor A system which provides artificially closed and inert environment for the highest yield of algae. This environment is properly sustained to avoid the growth of dangerous micro-organismsConditions for Algae growthParametres Range Optimal conditionsTemperature 16-27 18-24Salinity 12-40 20-24Light intensity (lux) 1000-1 2500-5000Photo period(kight:dark,hours) 16:8(min) 24:0 (max)pH 7-9 8.2-8.

73.2 Power generationThe primary source of generation of power that ‘Arial’ will utilize would be solar. Constructed using silicon oxide, processed using silicon readily available on the lunar surface, these solar panels will harness energy reflected their way by orbiting mirrors, thus allowing a constant 24 hours supply of sunlight for power production.

These mirrors will be positioned, by ‘Titania’, in such a way that energy will directly be reflected to the panels almost throughout the year (all but 40 hours in total). These will operate at 90% efficiency.With growing business opportunities ‘Arial’ hopes to implement Power-conversion devices which will convert solar energy directly to electrical current which could be converted into an infrared laser beam, or a cone of microwaves and transmitted to receivers. Furthermore, due to continuous solar absorption, the need to store the energy for later use would be eliminated, a process which can cost up to half of the energy stored.(Fig. from https://www.wealthdaily.

com/ report/solar-technology/1409) As an emergency backup and a secondary source MBCs (Microbial fuel cells) will be used. For the purpose of electricity production a special type of bacteria known as ‘Bacillus stratosphericus’ will be extracted from the air samples taken from stratosphere, at a height of 14km. These bacteria, capable of generating 200milliWatts per cubic meter (twice as much energy as other types of bacteria-105milliWatts per cubic meter), will then be cultured in the area under down surfaces in both the tori. The MBCs will provide a means for microbes to oxidize organic materials from biomass to generate electricity. Since, any organic matter can be fed to the fuel cells, ‘Ariel’ will couple them to water management system and waste disposal system. Sources Power produced (per square meter) Total Power producedSolar 28.7 KW 7.78×107 KWMCbs 200 mW 6800 KWResidential torus Industrial and agricultural torus Approximate power per person Total Power 3.

2.3 Water ManagementA total of 200 million liters of water must be available at any given time in the reserves. Different techniques will be employed for collection of such a large amount of water.Water is to be supplied through polyvinyle chloride pipelines while the waste water will be purified in a purification plant. Water from the mining will also be purified before consumptionWater Consumption at Arial in one dayArea % Amount (million liters)Agriculture 8436Industry 47 94Residential 10 20Total 100 200 The water in the storage tanks is circulated it avoid stagnation and bacterial growthWater will be stored in a 400 million liter storage tank. This water will also be used for precipitation but the drain water will be recycled and reused. Sources of WaterTechnique/source DescriptionIcy comets Extraction from nearby comets rich in iceCarbonaceous asteroids Mining in the industrial zone of carbonaceous asteroidsRecycling Waste water is to be recycled in the purification plants to produce clean water.

Purification of Water(Newer methods with flowchart and diags)External and Internal Communication External Communications High frequency signals, such as lasers operating at visible light frequencies , prove to be a fruitful method of interstellar communication ; at a given frequency it takes surprisingly small energy output for a laser emitter to outshine its local star from the perspective of its target. Nd-YAG laser will be used which in comparison to other lasers e.g Ld, provides higher power and suitable performance. This sets up a free -space optical communication system.. (Fig.1) Internal Communications Internal communication can be carried out by the usage of Li-Fi for the transferring of information. The inner communication system will have two networks, one internal and one external.

All communication inside the spaceship will use the internal network as all information will go to a process centre and sent to the given device. All the communication with the outside of the space station will be sent through the external network to the processing centre and towards the selected target. Quadri Quadri will be used for internal communication. This is an earpiece that is able to project high resolution images. Gorgon This acts as an accessory for Quadri and contains an ultra high definition camera that enables video chatting. 3.2.6 – Waste managementHowever advanced we as humans may be; we have still ways to go from detaching ourselves of the dependency of limited, un-clean and fossil fuels.

Till then, it is important for us to reuse, reduce and recycle. Everything we use has to come from somewhere and must go somewhere once we are finished with it. Putting this thought in consideration, Arial’s waste management scheme was formulated.3.2.6.

1 – Waste SeparationWaste will be separated into different categories using the processes mentioned below Induction Sorting Eddy current Separator Near Infra red sensors X-ray technology Drum screens 3.2.6.2 – Organic and Human wasteHuman waste would be recycled by the following processes, in a specific order: Separation of the waste water and solid waste Then the liquid waste will be sent to the fertilizer processor facility where it will be treated to obtain fertilizers and then sent to agricultural torus. The solids will be sent to the MCBs (ref. to 3.

2). 3.2.6.3 – Plastic Waste Before undergoing recycling, the plastics would be sorted according to their resin types. This will be done by automatic sort systems and mechanized automation processes that involve shredding, sieving and separation via difference in density, magnetic or complex spectrophotometric distribution technologies e.g.

UV/VIS, NIR, Laser, etc.Thermal depolymericationThis process uses hydrous pyrolosis for the reduction of complex organic materials into light crude oil. It is done by the grounding of feedstock material into small chunks and mixed with water (if dry). It is then heated at constant volume, 250°C.

Steam leads to a pressure of 600 psi. Then, flash evaporation is done to obtain crude hydrocarbons and solid minerals. This crude oil can be used by the industrial sector benefitting Arial.3.2.

6.4 – GlassThe glass, like the plastics, is also categorized via parameters such as color, etc. Labels, caps and other such material shall be removed from the glass Machines would be used which will melt the glass and would be able to shape it into any form needed using moulds. The remaining glass (bigger portions) will be crushed and then recycled using high temperatures.3.

2.6.5 – MetalMetal recycling can be explained in the following steps Sorting This involves separating from what is non-recyclable. A high quality recycled product or item can only be created if the original materials used in the recycling process are of good quality, which calls for strict quality checkups during sorting ProcessingAll recycle materials are squeezed and squashed using machines to lower volume occupied ShreddingMetals are broken down to smaller pieces so there is large surface area to volume ratio so less energy is required to melt Melting and PurificationMetals are put into a large furnace and turned into liquid. Afterwards, electrolysis and powerful magnetic systems are used for purification and separation of metals from other recyclables. The metal is then cooled for it to solidify. This acquired metal can then be put to use in various sectors ranging from Arial’s framework to manufacturing of metal products, in a cost effective manner.

3.3 Construction Machinery (for all machinery, refer to section 5.1)3.3.1 Exterior Construction Exterior construction will be carried out by robot Sycorax.

Jigs will be used to tether and direct the robots to start building with the primary part of the settlement i.e. the axle. The jigs will move outwards as the axle is completed, and continue with the construction process (refer to section 2.

3). Sycorax will be supplied with sheets of Al 6061-T6 assembled on Luna. It will mold the sheets and build the structure accordingly with the aid of its modular tools.3.

3.2 Interior Construction Interior construction will be carried out by the robots Figurati and Envy. Figurati will weld modular sections and frameworks of stainless steel and aluminum inside the tori. Envy will further install and construct infrastructure with respect to the structure, and material for the structure supplied to it.3.5 – Accommodations at the Dock The docking port of Arial is a 8 sided octagon structure with 2 docks at one face.

This enables 8 ships to be accommodated at once, with 2 being reserved for emergencies (Fig.1). The docks will have variable pressure (0 psi or 14psi) .Once the cargo/visitors are inside, they would have to go through customs for maintaining the integrity of Arial, and for assuring security for its residents/visitors. Accommodations provided at the docks include: Loading/unloading of cargo Refueling Repairs 3.

5.1 The docking system consists of a, “Female Cargo Joint” situated at the dock. The, “Male Cargo Joint” is an extension situated on the cargo ship.

There are circular bolts situated at the male joint which fix into the circular cavities situated on the female joint. Once contact is made, small nail-like grapplers clamp onto the circular bolts, maintaining stability. (Fig.1.1) If there are problems pertaining to docking, autonomous robotic arms will assist in successful docking. Once a air tight seal is ensured, the doors are opened for transfer. Robotic Arm(refer to 5.

5) The robotic arm will have scanners installed in order to indentify dimensions, model and make of the ship in order for accurate maneuvering. It can also assist in container loading/unloading as it can recognize the type of container (small or large) and its contents (water, food etc) and sort accordingly. Attraverso (Fig.

1.2) These nano-bots aid in forming an air tight seal. This is done by bots of 10 micrometers which fill the gaps/leaks in an arrangement just like of hexagonal cells. They will ionize one end of the gap which will then naturally attract the other end of the gap. However, if the gap is too large then nano-bots will pull one end close to the other followed by ionization of that end Fig.1Fig.

1.1Fig.1.1 3.5.2 Refueling is done by a retractable pipe. After successful docking, the pipe will provide required fuel. (refer to Fig.

1.1) 3.5.3 Episkevi (Fig.

1.3) Special robots called, “Episkevi”, will be used for maintenance and repair of transport exclusively.This robot has four ionic thrusters on spokes around the main body to maintain balance around the subject ship. Each thruster will have a 10cm diameter. The main body will also feature 4 arm buts each coated with Geckel similar to those used in Geckopi. These will allow the bot to stick to the surface of the ships so that it does not float off while denting or ionizing the body of the ships.Technology Usage Efficency WorkingElectro Thermal Thrusters. To provide a uniform upthrust for a longer time period then the chemical thruster.

Provide 3 timee more thrust then chemical thrusters. electromagnetic fields will be used to generate a concentrated magnetic field to increase the temperature of the propellant. The thermal energy imparted to the propellant gas is then converted into kinetic energy by a v shaped nozzle of either solid material or magnetic fields. Low molecular weight gases are preferred propellants for this kind of system.Reaction-control System.

This is used to maintain the Ariel in its orbital These systems will record the date every 1/5 of a second which will ensure this system to provide command on the right time. infrared sensors, referred to as horizon detectors, are used to detect the rim of the earth against the background of space. With the use of four such sensors, one for each quadrant, the center of the earth can be readily established as a reference point. Any shift in orientation is detected by one or other of the sensors, and a corresponding control signal is generated which activates thruster.

Navigation, Control and Guidance This will be used to maintain the altitude of the Ariel This system will control record the date every second will ensure that its held on a precise location. Controlling Ariel’s attitude requires sensors to measure Ariel’s orientation, actuators to apply the thrust needed to re-orient the Ariel’s to a desired attitude, and algorithms to command the actuators based on sensors measurements of the current attitude then its moved to the desired altitude.

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