METHODOLOGY research paradigms that have been selected for

METHODOLOGY4.1 IntroductionThis chapter identifies and describes the research paradigms that have been selected for the research. The epistemological and interpretative perspectives underlying the methodology are also discussed to address the research questions and the kinds of research outcomes that these perspectives support. The research design justifies why the mixed method approach is suited ideally to address the research questions.

The remainder of this chapter gives a detailed account on the methodology adopted and data analysis techniques administered for this study. Finally, this chapter concludes by presenting the ethical considerations that would be observed during fieldwork. 4.2Research ParadigmThe first step in research was to explain the ‘world views’ or ‘paradigm’ that directs the research.

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ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Gregg</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>344</RecNum><DisplayText>Gregg, Kulkarni, and Vinzé (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>344</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>344</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gregg, Dawn G</author><author>Kulkarni, Uday R</author><author>Vinzé, Ajay S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding the philosophical underpinnings of software engineering research in information systems</title><secondary-title>Information Systems Frontiers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Information Systems Frontiers</full-title></periodical><pages>169-183</pages><volume>3</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>1387-3326</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Gregg, Kulkarni, and Vinzé (2001) argues that paradigm is the perspective taken when drawing knowledge from the physical and social world. In simple terms, the “paradigm” is the fundamental view of how we perceive our reality ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Goles</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>347</RecNum><DisplayText>(Goles &amp; Hirschheim, 2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>347</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>347</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Goles, Tim</author><author>Hirschheim, Rudy</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The paradigm is dead, the paradigm is dead… long live the paradigm: the legacy of Burrell and Morgan</title><secondary-title>Omega</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Omega</full-title></periodical><pages>249-268</pages><volume>28</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><isbn>0305-0483</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Goles & Hirschheim, 2000). In terms of research on Women Political Participation and decision-making, interpretivism and constructivism are the two major research paradigms. The paradigm of the interpretivist approach suggests it is impossible to separate facts from values and the inherent subjectivity in any research conducted in relation to people and to the social world ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kincheloe</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>355</RecNum><DisplayText>(Kincheloe, McLaren, &amp; Steinberg, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>355</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>355</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kincheloe, Joe L</author><author>McLaren, Peter</author><author>Steinberg, Shirley R</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Norman K. Denzin</author><author>Yvonna S.

Lincoln</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical pedagogy and qualitative research</title><secondary-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</full-title></periodical><pages>163-177</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Kincheloe, McLaren, & Steinberg, 2011). From the interpretivist perspective, causal relationships are simply another, possible construction or explanation for certain aspects of the social world that we are researching. Rather than seeking a ‘true’ match between our research observations and reality, the interpretivist paradigm understands reality as being constructed in and through our observations and pursuit of knowledge ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bowen</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>356</RecNum><DisplayText>(Bowen, 2009; Kincheloe et al.

, 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>356</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>356</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bowen, Glenn A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Document analysis as a qualitative research method</title><secondary-title>Qualitative research journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Qualitative research journal</full-title></periodical><pages>27-40</pages><volume>9</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>1443-9883</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Kincheloe</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>355</RecNum><record><rec-number>355</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>355</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book Section”>5</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kincheloe, Joe L</author><author>McLaren, Peter</author><author>Steinberg, Shirley R</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Norman K. Denzin</author><author>Yvonna S. Lincoln</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical pedagogy and qualitative research</title><secondary-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The SAGE handbook of qualitative research</full-title></periodical><pages>163-177</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bowen, 2009; Kincheloe et al.

, 2011). In this study, Women Political Participation is not only undermined by biases, due to its specific nature of implementation and application and the involvement of power relations ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chambers</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>69</RecNum><DisplayText>(Chambers, 1997)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>69</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>69</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chambers, Robert</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Whose Reality Counts: Putting The First Last</title></titles><dates><year>1997</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>ITDG Publication</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Chambers, 1997) but also by gaps between constitutional provisions of Women Political Participation in Political Parties, actual practices, different paradoxes and barriers that this research aims to explore. Hence, it can be argued that an actual understanding of Women Political Participation and the intricacies involved call for the information congregated to be interpreted and then re-interpreted as suggested by ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Sayer</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>265</RecNum><DisplayText>Sayer (2000)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>265</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>265</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sayer, A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Realism and Social Science.</title></titles><dates><year>2000</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Sayer (2000), ADDIN EN.

CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Gray</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>138</RecNum><DisplayText>Gray (2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>138</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>138</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gray, David E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Doing research in the real world</title></titles><edition>Third</edition><dates><year>2013</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Sage</publisher><isbn>1446296172</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Gray (2013) and ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Fay</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>114</RecNum><DisplayText>Fay (2004)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>114</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″>114</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fay, B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Contemporary Philosophy of Social Science</title></titles><dates><year>2004</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Blackwell Publishing</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Fay (2004). As for the constructivist approach, this paradigm is founded on the assumption that, there are multiple versions of reality and as a result there can be no singular truth (Guba and Lincoln, 1994). Asserted by Guba and Lincoln (1994), the “realities are apprehendable in the form of multiple, intangible mental constructions, socially and experimentally based, local and specific in nature and dependent for their form and content on the individual person or groups holding the constructions.” The interpretivist/constructivist paradigm proposed that people construct knowledge in social settings ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gregg</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>344</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gregg et al.

, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>344</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”eft590xw7xervheszr6vdv9zdtpd5dr9asdr”>344</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gregg, Dawn G</author><author>Kulkarni, Uday R</author><author>Vinzé, Ajay S</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding the philosophical underpinnings of software engineering research in information systems</title><secondary-title>Information Systems Frontiers</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Information Systems Frontiers</full-title></periodical><pages>169-183</pages><volume>3</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>1387-3326</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gregg et al., 2001). Therefore, the interpretivist/constructive’ study attempts to attain complete and broader understanding of people’s daily life to recognize the models, practices and traditions of their society. According to Gregg et al. (2001), the interpretivist/constructivist’ paradigm allows the researcher to construct new concepts based on observing the needs and relationships and experiences of others. The adoption of interpretivist/constructivist paradigm in this study will help the researcher to ascertain the barriers and paradoxes that affect the Women Political Participation and decision-making in the political parties of PakistanThe next section will outline the research design for this study.

4.3Research DesignResearch design is the course of an entire research process in a systematic way ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;92;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Creswell, 2014);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;92;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;92;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A concise introduction to mixed methods research;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;SAGE Publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483359050;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Creswell, 2014). It shows specific directions for the whole research process and it must be adopted as per the nature of the research questions ADDIN EN.

CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;92;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Creswell, 2014; Creswell ;amp; Clark, 2011; Leech ;amp; Onwuegbuzie, 2009);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;92;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;92;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A concise introduction to mixed methods research;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;SAGE Publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483359050;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Creswell;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;93;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;93;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;93;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Creswell, John W;/author;;author; Clark, Vicki L. Plano;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research;/title;;/titles;;edition;Second Edition;/edition;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Los Angeles;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage Publications, Inc.;/publisher;;isbn;9781412975179;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Leech;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;193;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;193;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;193;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Leech, Nancy L;/author;;author;Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A typology of mixed methods research designs;/title;;secondary-title;Quality ;amp; Quantity;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;265-275;/pages;;volume;43;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0033-5177;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Creswell, 2014; Creswell ; Clark, 2011; Leech ; Onwuegbuzie, 2009).

Research designs are divided into outcome driven quantitative methods and process-driven qualitative methods ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Yin;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;328;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Yin, 2013);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;328;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;328;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book”;6;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Yin, Robert K;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Case study research: Design and methods;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;London;/pub-location;;publisher;Sage publications;/publisher;;isbn;1483302008;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Yin, 2013). Most of the scholars acknowledged that appropriate methods for research should be chosen as per the objectives and nature of the research being conducted. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;South;/Author;;Year;2004;/Year;;RecNum;282;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Kelaher et al.

, 2007; South, 2004);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;282;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;282;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Unpublished Work”;34;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;South, Jane;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Community-based arts for health: A literature review;/title;;tertiary-title;Centre for Health Promotion Research;/tertiary-title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2004;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Leeds;/pub-location;;publisher;Leeds Metropolitan University;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Kelaher;/Author;;Year;2007;/Year;;RecNum;172;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;172;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;172;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Kelaher, M;/author;;author;Dunt, D;/author;;author;Berman, N;/author;;author;Joubert, L;/author;;author;Curry, S;/author;;author;Jones, R;/author;;author;Stanley, J;/author;;author;Johnson, V;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Methodological approaches to evaluating the impact of community arts on health;/title;;secondary-title;UNESCO Observatory Refereed E-Journal;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;1-20;/pages;;volume;1;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2007;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Kelaher et al., 2007; South, 2004).Since this study attempts to measure the level challenges for Women Political Participation in the Political Parties, and to determine the challenges to Women Political Participation in the political parties of Pakistan, therefore, a case study design based on mixed methods is the most appropriate. Mixed methods research is a methodology for conducting research that involves collecting, analyzing, and integrating (or mixing) quantitative and qualitative research (and data) in a single study or a longitudinal program of inquiry 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Creswell, 2014; Creswell ; Clark, 2011; Denscombe, 2008; Doyle, Brady, ; Byrne, 2009; Leech ; Onwuegbuzie, 2009).

ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite AuthorYear=”1″;;Author;Guion;/Author;;Year;2002;/Year;;RecNum;145;/RecNum;;DisplayText;Guion (2002);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;145;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”zazrvsee6stdpsezee7pa0pkserve55esxz2″ timestamp=”0″;145;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Book Section”;5;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Guion, Robert M;/author;;/authors;;secondary-authors;;author;Gerald Adams;/author;;author;Michael Berzonsky;/author;;/secondary-authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Validity and reliability;/title;;secondary-title;Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;57-76;/pages;;dates;;year;2002;/year;;/dates;;pub-location;Malden;/pub-location;;publisher;Blackwell Publishing;/publisher;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;Guion (2002) affirms that the significant technique to fortify the validity and reliability of the research design is by the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods through triangulation that is characterized by use of the multiple methods including statistical analysis, sampling and research instruments. The triangulation design solicits to collect the qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

Further, it requires integrating both qualitative and quantitative data for better understanding of the problem. Triangulation design suggests reporting the data into separate sections but bringing the salient points of both in the discussion and finding section. Figure 4.1 below gives an overview of the triangulation design. 342900103505Qualitative data and ResultsQuantitative data and ResultsInterpretation00Qualitative data and ResultsQuantitative data and ResultsInterpretation Figure 4.1. Triangulation Design, based on Creswell and Clark (2011)This research has focused on the analyses of PML (n).

By applying mixed methods, the researcher has directed all efforts to the particular selected case study.

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