Microbial Diversity Report: Helicobacter pylori
Under the Domain Bacteria and the Phylum Proteobacteria is Helicobacter pylori. This microorganism lives in a habitat that is acidic. The two most common locations to find it are the stomach and small intestines of many species of animals, as well as in humans. In order to survive in the acidic environment of the stomach, Helicobacter pylori has a unique ability, it can produce an enzyme called urease. This enzyme is able to create an acid free zone around H. pylori by neutralizing the acid. Once H. pylori has entered the stomach, it will embed itself into the mucosa in the stomach. This allows it to escape from being constantly exposed to the acids in the stomach, decreasing the amount of urease that needs to be produced.
Along with this special function of surviving in acidic conditions, H. pylori. has common features and morphology that are more well known. Its shape is bacillus and the gram staining results are gram negative. The cell wall has three parts: outer membrane, periplasm, and lastly a peptidoglycan layer. Other features of Helicobacter pylori are that it cannot use photosynthesis, it uses flagella for motility through the host’s body, and it uses Binary Fission when it reproduces.
A human or animal can get Helicobacter pylori when they ingest feces from someone or something that was infected. H. pylori spends a large portion of its life in the host, later being passed out of the body in the feces where it can be transmitted to the next host and the cycle is repeated in a loop. When a human or animal is infected with H. pylori, they can develop two types of ulcers or even gastritis. The two types of ulcers are gastric and duodenal.
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