MODULE refers as set of emotions, beliefs,

MODULE NAME : SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

ASSIGNMENT BY: MRS BISSESSUR Gaishree

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STUDENT ID: 201602352
LECTURER’S NAME: Mrs OMBIKA Rishtika
Diploma in social work

Year 1/semester 2/ cohort 2

Date of submission : 31/03/2018

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Table of Content

Assignment Question…………………………………………………………………………..…….page 2
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..………..page 3
Definition of Attitude…………………………………………………………………………………page 3
The components of attitudes …………………………………………………………………….page 3
How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior……………………………………………….………..page 4
Factors That Influence Attitude Strength……………………………………………….…..page 5
Attitude Change………………………………………………………………………………….……..page 6
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)……………………………………………………………page 7
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………page 8
References…………………………………………………………………………………………………page 9

Assignment Question
What are the factors determine the success of attitude change programs? Describe theoretical bases and research evidence .Include examples from a current local social change program (e.g. safe driving campaign ‘Ensam pa less koltar touye nou fami ‘).

INTRODUCTION
In psychology, an attitude refers as set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. While attitudes are enduring, they can also change.
DEFINITION OF ATTITUDE
Attitudes is defined as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects, or events. Such evaluations are often positive or negative, but they can also be uncertain at times. For example, you might have mixed feelings about a particular person or issue.
There are several different components that make up attitudes.
The components of attitudes are:
• Cognitive Component: your thoughts and beliefs about the subject.
• Affective Component: how the object, person, issue, or event makes you feel.
• Behavioral Component: how the attitude influences your behavior.
Attitudes can also be explicit and implicit.
Explicit attitudes are those that we are consciously aware of and that clearly influence our behaviors and beliefs.
Implicit attitudes are unconscious but still have an effect on our beliefs and behaviors.
There are a number of factors that influence attitudes:
Experience
Attitudes form directly as a result of experience. They may emerge due to direct personal experience, or they may result from observation.

Social Factors
Social roles and social norms can have a strong influence on attitudes. Social roles relate to how people are expected to behave in a particular role or context. Social norms involve society’s rules for what behaviors are considered appropriate.
Learning
Attitudes can be learned in different ways. Consider how advertisers use classical conditioning to influence your attitude toward a particular product. In a television commercial, you see young, beautiful people having fun in on a tropical beach while enjoying a sports drink. This attractive and appealing picture causes you to develop a positive association with this particular beverage.
Operant conditioning can also be used to influence how attitudes develop. Imagine a young man who has just started smoking. Whenever he lights up a cigarette, people complain, rebuke him, and ask him to leave their vicinity.
This negative feedback from those around him eventually causes him to develop an unfavorable opinion of smoking and he decides to give up the habit.
Finally, people also learn attitudes by observing the people around them. When someone you admire greatly espouses a particular attitude, you are more likely to develop the same beliefs. For example, children spend a great deal of time observing the attitudes of their parents and usually begin show similar outlooks.
How Do Attitudes Influence Behavior?
We tend to assume that people behave according to their attitudes. However, it has been proved that attitudes and actual behavior are not always perfectly aligned.

Factors That Influence Attitude Strength
It has been discovered that people are more likely to behave according to their attitudes under certain conditions:
• When your attitudes are the result of personal experience.
• When you are an expert in the subject.
• When you expect a favorable outcome.
• When the attitudes are repeatedly expressed.
• When you stand to win or lose something due to the issue.
Attitudes Can Change to Match Behavior
In some cases, people may actually alter their attitudes in order to better align them with their behavior. Cognitive dissonance, is a phenomenon in which a person experiences psychological distress due to conflicting thoughts or beliefs. In order to reduce this tension, people may change their attitudes to reflect their other beliefs or actual behaviors.
An Example of Changing an Attitude Due to Cognitive Dissonance
Imagine the following situation: You’ve always placed a high value on financial security, but you start dating someone who is very financially unstable. In order to reduce the tension caused by the conflicting beliefs and behavior, you have two options.
You can end the relationship and seek out a partner who is more financially secure, or you can de-emphasize fiscal stability importance. In order to minimize the dissonance between your conflicting attitude and behavior, you either have to change the attitude or change your actions.

Attitude Change
While attitudes can have a powerful effect on behavior, they are not set in stone. The same influences that lead to attitude formation can also create attitude change.
Learning Theory of Attitude Change:
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can be used to bring about attitude change.
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning can be used to create positive emotional reactions to an object, person, or event by associating positive feelings with the target object.
Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning can be used to strengthen desirable attitudes and weaken undesirable ones. People can also change their attitudes after observing the behavior of others.
Elaborate on the Theory of Attitude Change
This theory of persuasion suggests that people can alter their attitudes in two ways. First, they can be motivated to listen and think about the message, thus leading to an attitude shift. Or, they might be influenced by characteristics of the speaker, leading to a temporary or surface shift in attitude. Messages that are thought-provoking and that appeal to logic are more likely to lead to permanent changes in attitudes.
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
The elaboration likelihood model is similar in concept to and shares many ideas with other dual processing models, such as the heuristic-systematic model of information processing .In the elaboration likelihood model, cognitive processing is the central route and affective/emotion processing is often associated with the peripheral route. The ELM suggests that true attitude change only happens through the central processing route that incorporates both cognitive and affective components as opposed to the more heuristics-based peripheral route. This suggests that motivation through emotion alone will not result in an attitude change.
Dissonance Theory of Attitude Change: As mentioned earlier, people can also change their attitudes when they have conflicting beliefs about a topic. In order to reduce the tension created by these incompatible beliefs, people often change their attitudes.
Cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance, a theory originally developed by Festinger (1957), is the idea that people experience a sense of guilt or uneasiness when two linked cognitions are inconsistent, such as when there are two conflicting attitudes about a topic, or inconsistencies between one’s attitude and behavior on a certain topic. The basic idea of the Cognitive Dissonance Theory relating to attitude change, is that people are motivated to reduce dissonance which can be achieved through changing their attitudes and beliefs
Self-affirmation has been shown to reduce dissonance, however it is not always the mode of choice when trying to reduce dissonance. When multiple routes are available, it has been found that people prefer to reduce dissonance by directly altering their attitudes and behaviors rather than through self-affirmation. People who have high levels of self-esteem, who are postulated to possess abilities to reduce dissonance by focusing on positive aspects of the self, have also been found to prefer modifying cognitions, such as attitudes and beliefs, over self-affirmation.
Despite the sensitization campaigns and measures to reduce the number of accidents and deaths, the death toll has never been this high .There are some important measures that the Ministry of Infrastructures has taken in order to change the attitude of careless drivers and to make road safe for all people. . Following the high number of fatal road accidents, the Minister announced important measures regarding two-wheelers. The Minister announced the creation of Motorcycle Riding School (Moto-Ecole). Further regulations will be introduced in the near future for motorcyclists in order to reduce the number of accident .Pedestrians are being sensitized as they also have their part to play when they are on the road. “We must change their mentality. Pedestrians must know how to behave when they are on the road.” Two of the immediate solutions that the Government has chosen in order to curb road accidents is (1)Education ,It is a more convincing way to make people learn and change their attitude.(2)Law are being enforced for drivers who drink and drive ,that may lead to permanent suspended of the license and fines are high.
To my believed the discontinuation of the Penalty Points Management System (PPMS) by the present government is not a good measure. “People adapted to the system and adopted new habits on the road. I trust that when the system has been discontinued people have gone back to their old bad habits. It certainly needed to be reviewed but it should not have been discontinued. It allowed people to change their attitude on how to drive carefully.”
CONCLUSION
Attitude change is affected by three elements. It is affected by the cognitive function of an attitude, the affective function of an attitude, and the behavioral function of an attitude. Successful attitude change programs and campaigns should address these three aspects of attitude and attitude change.
Attitude change programs need to appeal to a person’s thinking and reasoning. They must also present information that is concise and practical as well as appeal to a person’s current knowledge and experience. Attitude change programs or campaigns are required to have relevant information in order to be successful and effective.
Successful attitude change programs should also address the emotional function of the attitude, whether it is through scare tactics or through inducing feelings of confidence and empowerment within the individual. It is important that attitude change initiatives engage the individual in a context that they find meaningful and worthwhile.
Attitude change programs or campaigns also need to equip an individual to effectuate their changed attitude in order to strengthen it. They must provide resources and support so that individuals or groups can effectively express the behaviors associated with their new attitude.
Overall, these three components must be implemented together in order for attitude change to take place and for an effective and successful program to be completed.

References

Commonwealth of Australia (2005). Healthy Active Australia. Healthy Active Australia, www.healthyactive.gov.au

Downing, J. W., Judd, C. M., & Brauer, M. (1992). Effects of repeated expressions on attitude extremity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 17-29

Egley, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Fazio, R. H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility. In Pratkanis, A. R., Breckler, S. J., & Greenwald, A. G., Attitude Structure and Function. Hillsdale, Erlbaum.

Gass, R. H., & Seiter, J. S., (2003). Persuasion, Social Influence and Compliance Gaining. Pearson Education, United States of America. 2

Larson, C. U. (2007). Persuasion: Reception and Responsibility. Thomson Wadsworth, California.

Manfredo, M. J. (1992). Influencing Human Behaviour: Theory and Applications in Recreation, Tourism, and Natural Resources Management. Sagamore Publishing, Illinois.

Roskos-Ewoldson, D. R. (2004). Fear appeal messages affect accessibility of attitudes toward the threat and adaptive behaviours. Communication Monographs. 49-69

Schiffman, L., & Kanuk L., (1997). Consumer Behaviour. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Chaiklin H. Attitudes, Behavior, and Social Practice. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. 2011.

MODULE Bholaswar STUDENT ID: 201602351 LECTURER’S NAME:

MODULE NAME : BASIC COUNSELLING SKILLS FOR SOCIAL WORKER

ASSIGNMENT BY: MRS BISSESSUR Bholaswar

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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STUDENT ID: 201602351
LECTURER’S NAME: Mrs Mylene Lecoq-Bamboche
Diploma in social work

Year 1/semester 2/ cohort 2

Date of submission : 31/03/2018
1

TABLE OF CONTENT

Assignment Question…………………………………………………………………page 3
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..page 4
Developing empathy skills …………………………………………………………page 5
Acceptance ; Warmth (unconditional positive regard)………………page 6
Genuieness (congruence)……………………………………………………………page 7
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………….page 8
References ………………………………………………………………………………….page 9

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1.0 Assignment Question
Carl Rogers (1951) proposed three core of concepts, namely: empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard. To what extent can social workers adopt these core conditions in their approach towards clients?

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Introduction
The three core conditions of Carl Rogers are easy attributes for the Person Centered Counsellor to use: explore and discuss. The core conditions model introduced by Carl Rogers was originally a feat by Rogers to devise an empirical formulation of an approach to therapy that was already successful and widely implemented. Rogers attempted through his model to envelop the core concepts of his unique approach to clients specifying the features of an interpersonal environment facilitating actualization and personal growth. The six conditions presented by Rogers (1957:95) provided a bold statement to alternative psychological perspectives by its claim that they were not just useful, but completely sufficient in themselves. They enabled the person-centered counsellor to form a relationship with the client that is healing, allowing the client to feel accepted and valued. According to Rogers, for productive and positive personality change to occur these conditions must be present continuously for them to be sufficient. This mode of working is dependent on the social worker’s ability to convey these qualities in terms of authentic and powerful presence (McLeod, 2003). Three concepts from the original model are the core conditions used in contemporary person-centered counselling, they include congruence, empathy and unconditional positive regard. This combination of attitudes and skills are also considered sufficient to facilitate therapeutic progress because the belief is that the relationship between social worker and client is the central element in effective therapy (Dryden and Feltham, 2004).

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It is explain below how the three essential qualities needed to become a good social worker. The first part looks at Empathy, the second part Acceptance and Warmth (unconditional positive regard) and finally Genuineness (Congruence).
Carl Rogers suggests that these three basic qualities are needed for a helping relationship to be successful. He also suggests that the social worker’s skill to communicate these qualities would be sufficient in deciding if a helping relationship would have a positive outcome.
EMPATHY
One dictionary definition explains empathy as ‘the power or state of imagining oneself to be another person and so of sharing his ideas and feelings’ ( Longman’s Dictionary ). But Carl Rogers gives a more precise definition. Empathy, according to Rogers is the ability to experience another person’s world as if it were one’s own without ever losing that ‘as if’ quality.
It is important not to confuse empathy with sympathy-there is a big difference. Sympathy is to give another person support and emotional comfort because of the pain or distress they may be experiencing. Empathy is to enter the private world of another person so as to understand that world, whether sympathy is offered or not.
What is needed to understand another person’s role as, say, a child going into care, a man going through divorce, a person in great physical pain, or a wife recently bereaved is an understanding of the general condition of being in that role. Empathy is needed for the social worker to be sensitive, moment to moment, to the changing experiences of the particular person seeking help. Empathy is precise, not general, it is to share and understand, not judging and supporting. Empathy requires you to enter the world of another person ‘as if it’ were your own so that you can understand in a better way what it is like to be that person who needs help.
This is not easy. In fact it is extremely difficult to achieve a state of complete empathy with another person; But it is important to try to one’s best ability in achieving accurate empathy. A failure to communicate empathy will make the person in need of help to think of you as not understanding what he or she is going through, or in fact not caring.
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The idea that empathy is a condition or frame of mind to aim at has some practical implications for helping. First it implies that you should check your understanding of what is being said and how that you recognize its meaning for the person. This is known as ‘reflection of content’.
A second practical way of attempting to reach and communicate empathy concerns ‘reflection of feelings’. When reflecting content the aim is to check that the message the person is offering is accurately understood. But in reflection of feeling the aim is much harder. There are many phrases and adjectives that can describe feelings like ‘depressed’ (down in the mouth, sad, got the blues, miserable ) or ‘anxious’ ( nervous, shaky, panic-stricken, stressed ). Each of these phrases or adjectives has subtle different meanings, the degree of which might be very important to the person you are trying to help.
Sometimes the way a person fidgets, the tone of voice or the way the person looks can tell us as much as what the person is actually saying and in some cases more.
Developing empathy skills
Practice reflecting content with other people – friends, relatives, family. Paraphrase what they have said and check your understanding.
Improve your vocabulary of emotions, the use of poetry, films, novels and music may help you to describe what a feeling ‘feels’ like.
By undertaking these tasks and others you might devise for yourself you will gradually be able to improve the extent to which you communicate your empathy correctly with others.
ACCEPTANCE and WARMTH (unconditional positive regard)
The second essential quality is ‘unconditional positive regard’. Other words for this are acceptance or warmth.
Carl Rogers coined ‘unconditional positive regard’ and wished counsellors to ‘prize the person’ to respect people for what they are, for their uniqueness and for their individuality. He wanted counsellors to be able to communicate to a person from the outset that they accepted them, no matter who they are or what they may have done.
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It is important for the counsellor to create an atmosphere within which the client can feel safe.
Carl Rogers attached such importance to this condition for change and effective helping. His argument goes something like this:
• Someone who needs help has come to you.
• For them to be helped they need to know that you understand how they think and feel.
• they also need to know that you accept them for who they are despite how you might think of what they may or may not have done. You need to respect that they have a right to choose their own way in life.
• By them knowing that you accept and understand them they will then start to open themselves to the chance of change and improvement.
• But if they feel pressurized by you to change, they may close-up and reject your help.
Acceptance is about communicating the warmth you really feel for a person in crisis. By active listening, making observations and valuing their opinions, thoughts and feelings and communicating that you truly have empathy for them will show you respect them and can help to gain acceptance as a counsellor.
Warmth is not a practical skill but is in fact a frame of mind. It is not easy to develop this frame of mind – but by showing warmth to others and developing a relationship in which both parties are there to learn from each other you can gain respect and acceptance.
To create a climate within which changes can take place warmth is really essential.
GENUIENESS (congruence)
The third important quality a counsellor needs is Genuineness (congruence) or another name for it is authenticity. As with warmth this is also not easy to explain. The easiest way to think of genuineness is to regard it as open communication. To make it easier for the client to understand you, the counsellor needs to be direct and open in the way you communicate. You should not try to put yourself on a pedestal and let the client think you are the teacher and he the pupil – you do not have all the answers and solutions to their problems. You basically need to be yourself as you really feel at that time, you should also encourage the
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client to communicate this way too. By being open yourself you will set an example for them and this may encourage them to stop denying, pretending, concealing their thoughts and feelings.
Though a counsellor may work at different levels of intensity, for effective help to take place genuineness needs to be present. A misunderstanding in thinking about warmth is that it involves the suppression of the thoughts and feelings of the helper. But when empathy, warmth and genuineness are there, it is a clear sign that the social worker is open to share thoughts and feelings with the client.
By the social worker having the condition of genuineness it shows an openness and willingness to share and express themselves just as much as the client and can show that the social worker has his own needs when in session. It is also important for a social worker to be spontaneous and able to express his own thoughts and feelings and not hide them.
Genuineness is not something learnt by training or reading books but is more of a way a person is. However there are ways in which you could improve the way in which you communicate your genuineness to others.
• learn to understand yourself and be able to describe yourself to yourself.
• understand your changes in mood and your strengths and weaknesses.
• read books about personal growth, and acknowledge how you think and feel when reading this type of literature.
• learn to understand your own behaviour and examine why you react sometimes in a way you did not intend to.
The purpose of the above mentioned activities can help social worker to be honest with himself and improve self-understanding. This is very important since the social worker may be asking the client he is counselling to perform the self-same tasks.

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Conclusion
Although the three core conditions are discussed here in separate forms, it is logical to assume the three are indissoluble in practice. A counsellor cannot be empathic and accepting while be being inauthentic (Perraton Mountford, 2006). Amalgamated as one tool the counsellor should easily be able to implement the core conditions through effective counselling skills such as; listening, paraphrasing, summarizing, asking questions, reflecting, helping people clarify their thoughts encouraging them to focus on key issues. These skills should be second nature for the counsellor as will the attempt to be genuine, respectful and empathic. Although sometimes these attempts will be difficult, for the majority of clients it should not be. In this assignment we have explored the three essential qualities needed to be a good social worker and also given some examples of their usefulness. I would like to state that all of these qualities are of equal importance and are needed for a client to be able to feel truly at ease with the social worker and then and only then can a successful relationship start to be attained.

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• References:
Margatroyd, Stephen: Counselling and Helping
Published by The British Psychological Society and Routledge (1994)
• Reference: Barret-Lennard, G. (1993) ‘The Phases and Focus of Empathy’.
• British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 3 – 14.
• Feltham, C. and Dryden, W. (2004)
• Dictionary of Counselling. Second Edition. London: Whurr Publishers Ltd.
• MacNabb, R. (2007) The Paradox of Empathy. (Online) Available; http://www.philosophynow.org/issue52/52mcnabb.htm (Dated Accessed: 13th November 2007).
• McLeod, J. (2003) An Introduction to Counselling.
• Third Edition. Berkshire: Open University Press. Nelson-Jones, R. (1997)
• Practical Counselling and Helping Skills. Fourth Edition. London:
• Cassell. Perraton Mountford, C. (2006) ‘Take Six Core Conditions’.
• Therapy Today, 17(4), 31 – 34. Rogers, C.R. (1957) ‘The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Personality Change’.
• Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95 – 103. Sanders, P. (2002) First Steps in Counselling.
• Third Edition. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. Andria Dawson AT42657 Page 1 12/03/2008
• Tolan (2003) offers a detailed exploration of the skills upon which this chapter is based. In addition, Tolan’s book examines the nature of psychological contact with people.
• Seden (2005) uses a process model to consider the stages of social work practice from engagement to intervention with counselling skills in mind.
• Palmer and McMahon (1997) give a social context to counselling in various settings, although does not directly include social work. However, later chapters draw upon the person-centred approach as a useful model for themes of problems, including race, bereavement, abuse, disability and health-related problems.
• McMillan (2004) provides a theoretical exploration of the principles of personcentred counselling

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