Mortimer J.Adler : Mortimer Jerome Adler was an American educator, philosopher, and popular author. Adler was born in New York City on December 28, 1902, to Jewish immigrants. He then attended Columbia University, completed his coursework for a bachelor’s degree, but did not receive a diploma. He stayed at Columbia to teach and earn a Ph.
D in 1928. Later, became professor of the philosophy of law at the University of Chicago.His significant work:- Encyclopedia Britannica – Great Books of the Western World program- Great Books Foundation- Center for the Study of The Great Ideas- Great books course- Course turned curriculum- Super salesman of philosophyEducational Philosophy:- No unteachable children- One track system- Equal quality if education – Equal opportunity to education- Education is not restricted to classrooms ; educational institutes – Create lifelong learners- Schooling is at best preparatory.Adler: Paideia Proposal:It was an was an Educational Manifesto signed in 1982.
The word Paideia comes from the Greek word pais, paidos meaning ‘the upbringing of the child. (related to pedagogy and pediatrics). he purpose of the Paideia Proposal was to provide a system of liberal education for all children in the United States, not just those expected to attend college. It was based upon the following assumptions in opposition to common errors made by educatorsFundamentals of a Paideia education• The Paideia Proposal is a system of liberal education which believed that all children can learn and are educable • Education is never completed in school or higher institutions of learning, but is a lifelong process of maturity for all citizens• The primary cause of learning is the activity of the child’s mind, which is not created by, but only assisted by the teacher• A student’s preparation for earning a living is not the primary objective of schooling• Multiple types learning and teaching must be utilized in education, not just teacher lecturing, or telling • It rejects the assumption that some children can be fully educated while others can only be trained for jobs.
• It asserts that all children can master critical thinking skills and that gaps in achievement will diminish as children rise to meet higher expectations. • He asserts, “All children deserve the same quality of education, not just the same quantity.” • He further believed that a system oriented primarily for vocational training has as its objective the training of slaves, not free men, and that the only preparation necessary for vocational work is to learn how to learn, since many skilled jobs would be disappearing.
Paideia three columns of learning:Goals Acquisition of Organized Knowledge Development of Intellectual Skills, the Skills of Learning Enlarged Understanding of Ideas and ValuesMeans Didactic Instruction, Lectures and Textbooksin the subject areas of Coaching, Exercises, and Supervised Practicein the operations of Socratic Questioning and Active Participationin theAreas, Operations, & Activities Language, Literature, and The Fine ArtsMathematics and Natural ScienceHistory, Geography and Social Studies Reading, Writing, Speaking, ListeningCalculating, Problem Solving, Observing, Measuring, EstimatingExercising Critical Judgment Discussion of Books (not textbooks) and Other Works of Art; Involvement in Artistic, Activities; e.g., Music, Drama, Visual Arts Paideia Proposal: An Unsuitable Educational ProgramMortimer Adler introduced the Paideia program to leaders of the Florida Community College at Jacksonville, Duval County School Board, and Jacksonville, Florida, civic organizations several years ago. Impressed with the program’s college wide potential, FCCJ instituted a three-year training cycle for interested faculty and administrators. The National Paideia Center of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, subsidized in part by a grant from the Jessie Ball DuPont Religious, Charitable and Educational Fund, provided the initial training.In spite of being a popular system, it had some flaws:One curriculum fits all:The Paideia proposal insists on a single-track core curriculum for elementary and secondary schools and define strategies for teaching those subjects. It emphasis on curriculum as the vehicle for change. The idea of a core curriculum is not only impractical but instructionally unreliable.
The single-track core curriculum insists that all children learn same things in schools. For example, all children are expected to know Algebra. The first question is: Can all children learn–and become proficient in–the same subjects? All students learn the same wayAnother problem with core curriculum is that it assumes that all students learn in the same way. How people can learn is related to their interest and to differences in the ways they acquire, process, and integrate information, even if they have the same capabilities. These differences in interest and “learning style” are affected by schools, home, genes and community environments.
All children are educable Paideia insists on the idea that “all children are educable” but does not consider differences in intelligence (by the measure of IQ) of each child. Also children who are differently abled or challenged are not taken in account while giving this proposal .The fact that students differ not only in “learning style” but in essential ability.
To subject each child – regardless of ability – to the same curriculum is as unfair. Learn instead of ability to learnThe Paideia Proposal emphasis on a core curriculum put more importance to what students learn than to acquire an ability to learn. In a society, where an adult may have to change occupations few times, the ability to use new information is one of the factor to be successful.Teaching and learning processThe Paideia proposal divides type of knowledge into three classes with a particular and appropriate pedagogical style. No evidence is offered to support this important claim. Research done on effective teaching advocates that good teachers have a broad range of teaching skills and that while teaching a given subject the teachers easily move from one to another to meet needs of their students.