Mosquitoes, as well as its larvae, are important food for aquatic animals such as birds, bats, and other arthropods (Liwanag and Tansengco, 2015). Also, mosquitoes serve important functions in numerous ecosystems, serving as food for many species, helping filter detritus for plant life to thrive, pollinating flowers, and even affecting the herding paths of caribou in the tundra. However, many scientists agree that mosquitoes present more of a hassle than they have value. The mere fact that they are the reason for so many human deaths a year is reason enough to wipe them off the planet (https://www.safariquip.co.uk/all-categories/insect-repellent/insect-repellent-faq/).
Mosquitoes are distinguished for their itchy bites. They are the cause of the worst diseases such as Malaria, yellow fever and encephalitis. Male and female mosquitoes have a difference. Male mosquitoes bite only plants for the juices. Female mosquitoes bite humans for blood. Female mosquitoes need it for reproduction. But some of these mosquitoes don’t bite humans but only snakes, frogs or other cold blooded animals. Others prefer cows, horses and people (http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mosquito/#mosquito-closeup.jpg). Dengue is a viral disease and it is transmitted through the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito which is a day-biting mosquito. This mosquito lives very close to people in built-up areas and thrives in small amounts of stagnant water. The incubation period is usually four-ten days (https://www.interhealthworldwide.org/home/health-resources/health alerts/2016/july/07/dengue-fever-cases-rise-in-the-philippines/).
Mosquitoes are a serious threat to public health transmitting several dangerous diseases for over two billion people in the tropics. There has been a large increase in the insecticide resistance of this vector and has become a global problem. Insecticides residues in the environment, as a result of chemical insecticide usage, have turned the researcher’s attention towards natural products (Murty and Jamil, 1987).
Prevention of man mosquito contact is indispensable for protection from mosquito-borne diseases and uses of repellents have been advocated for the same. (Peterson and Coats, 2001). Repellents do not kill mosquitoes and other insects, but they will help deter them from biting people (https://www.mosquito.org/general/custom.asp?page=repellents) The higher the concentration of the repellent, the longer it lasts before needing to be re-applied but doesn’t repel any more effectively (https://www.safariquip.co.uk/all-categories/insect-repellent/insect-repellent-faq/).
In spite of the aforementioned problems, an inspiration from the product of Mosquito Magnet, which is a mosquito attractant, was innovated. Instead of just attracting and waiting for the mosquitoes to dehydrate, the researchers thought an idea of attracting mosquitoes and at the same time killing it instantly.
The consultant suggested to ferment a solution wherein Muscovado sugar and yeast were present. Sugars are the smallest carbohydrates containing five to six carbon atoms, hydrogen, and oxygen. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly called yeast, is a single-celled organism that feeds on glucose, and through fermentation converts carbohydrates to alcohols while releasing carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is attractive to mosquitoes. Therefore, solution containing sugar and yeast can be used as baits (Liwanag and Tansengco, 2015).
This research study will serve as an innovated portable attractant and killer for the mosquito that caused the most common dengue hemorrhagic fever here in the Philippines. It will have the use of Muscovado sugar and yeast solution as the attractant, zapper as the killer, microcontroller as the timer, rechargeable battery and a fan. This research study constructed, designed and tested the capability of P.A.N.A.M.A. in attracting and killing the harmful mosquitoes.