Munyaua tests of independence were also used

Munyaua(1995) studied the factors thataffect participation of rural women in agricultural extension services inKenya.

Data was collected by interview schedule from 200 women farmers assample size. To analyze the data inferential and Descriptive statistics wereused. Chi square tests of independence were also used for analysis. Results ofthe study showed that participation of rural women in agricultural extensionservices depends upon farm size in division Naivesha.In this case study it wassuggested that extension services for rural women farmers should be improved.Hussain et al.(2004) Studied role of gender in rearing livestock and the effect of NationalRural Support program (NRSP) of livestock training course in Azad Kashmir andKotli. Objective of the study was to see the impact of livestock training onlivestock productivity by NRSP.

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Data was collected by simple random samplingtechnique. A sample size of 200 respondents was selected by 3 villages ofkotli. To analyze data percentages were used. Results from analysis showed thatpeople of kotli mainly depend upon livestock. Most of the respondents keptsheep, goat, buffalo and cow. Study reveals that 100 % respondents were takingadvantages from the training course by NRSP.From results of case study it wassuggested that self-employment can be increased by free availability of guidanceand training courses. Javed et al.

(2006) reported participation of rural women in crop and livestockproduction. A large number of pre and post-harvest and livestock managementactivities are performed by rural women but they are not still appreciatedbecause of lack of data that show their importance in such activities. Theobjective of this study was to explore the importance of women participation incrop and livestock activities. District Faisalabad was selected for this casestudy and a sample size of 125 rural women was taken for analysis by usingrandom sample technique.

Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results from casestudy shows that rural women participation was high in harvesting ofvegetables. In case of post-harvest women participation is high in storage ofcereals. In case of livestock management women participation is high to cleananimals shed. Ayoadeet al. (2009) reported analysis ofwomen involvement in livestock in Nigeria. Objective of the case study was toinvestigate role of women in livestock activities. Data was collected by randomsample technique from 90 rural women.

Multiple regression analysis, descriptivestatistics and participation index were used to analyze data. Results ofparticipation index revealed that women were involving in feeding of animals,watering, cleaning of pens and cages. While multiple regression analysis showsthat income, education, access to credit are those factors that affect women’scontribution in livestock activities. Poultry and goats are mostly kept bywomen.

Results also revealed the problems that are faced by women in this fieldand the problems are non-availability of significant capital, pre-occupationand dominance of their spouses. It was suggested that women should provide withnecessary training and education regarding to livestock and their approach tomicrofinance banks in order to increase livestock productivity. Amin et al. (2010) examined Gender and development. The objective of the case studywas to investigate the role of women in livestock production in Pakistan. Datawas collected through random sampling technique from 8 villages.

A sample sizeof 768 respondents were used to analyze the results of case study. Frequencieswere obtained from respondents, and frequencies were used to analyze thevariances. Results from the case study revealed that most of the rural familieswere having joint family system i.e.

70.6%.And results were also showing thatmost of the livestock activities were performed by females approximately 37.5%and less were performed by males about 17%. Upadhyay and Desai (2011) reported participation of women in animal husbandry. Most of the animal husbandry relatingactivities are performed by females in addition to their tasks at home.

Whiletheir work is not given an economic importance and they are left as un- paidlabor. Objective of this case study is to emphasize female’s contribution indairy activities. The study has been conducted in Anand district of Gujarat.120 farm women were interviewed by simple random sampling technique for datacollection. For data analysis different statistical methods such as percentage,mean score, standard deviation and coefficient of Karl Pearson’s were used.Results of case study indicates that women have independent decisions relatingto fodder management and milking activities. While decisions relating toeconomic activities are taken jointly with male counterparts.

Rathodet al. (2011) studied participation of rural women in dairy farming in DistrictKarnataka. Random sampling process was used for data collection from.

120respondents were interviewed. For data analysis statistical analytical toolssuch as frequency, percentage and average were used. Results revealed that mostof the respondents belong to low income families. Women play significant rolein caring of pregnant animals. Results also shows that 90 % women involved inmilking of animals and 89.16% women were involving in taking care of newbornanimal. Results also shows that most of the women were involving innon-financial activities.

It was suggested that it is necessary to educate thewomen to increase livestock production.Arshadet al. (2013) Reported participationof women in livestock farming activities .Objective of study was to investigatewomen participation in different activities relating to livestock farming.

Asample size of 120 respondents was selected by random sampling technique. Studywas conducted in tehsil jhang. Data was analyzed by using SPSS.Results of casestudy were showing that most of activities such as milking process ,making ofdung cakes, collection of manure, care of diseased animals and  cleaning the shed are performed by females.While their contribution in management of livestock was very low.Luqmanet al.

(2013) reported training need assessment of rural women in Livestockmanagement. Objective of study was to evaluate training need for rural women ofdistrict Bahawalpur. Data was collected by simple random sampling techniquefrom 125 respondents of different villages. For data analysis SPSS software wasused. Results revealed that rural women of study areas were less educated andmore than half (53.6%) of them were illiterate. Study also showed that the malehead of the family was the main source of information for rural women. It wassuggested from results that short term training programs for livestock care andmanagement should be introduced to train rural women.

Riasatet al. (2014) Studied rural development through women participation in livestockcare and management. Objective of case study was to determined position andconstraints of rural women in livestock management activities and theircontribution in development process in district Faisalabad.

Random samplingtechnique was used for data collection.120 respondents were selected from ruralareas of district Faisalabad. Data was analyzed by using SPSS.Results wereshowing that most of the women are illiterate, having low family income one ortwo lac per year. Most of the women were living in joint family system.Analysis showed that education level of women and family income was related toparticipation level .women participation in livestock activities increasesproduction and generate family income.Mulugetaand Amsalu (2014) Studied role ofrural women in livestock and household activities.

Objective of the study wasto investigate the participation of women in livestock management as well astheir involvement in decision making of household activities. Random samplingtechnique was used for data collection. A sample size of 90 respondents wastaken. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

Results revealed that most of the livestock management and household activitiesare performed by females but they are not given enough freedom in decisionmaking process relating to their homes. It was suggested from this case studythat maximum consideration should be provided to rural women to build theirabilities in decision making process.Batoolet al. (2014) studied participation of women in dairy farm activities undersmall holder. Women work actively from dawn to dusk in livestock activities andalso at domestic level.

Their level of participation differ from area to area.This study was conducted to investigate the role of women in dairy farm relatedactivities and to find out the factors that affect their involvement in suchactivities. Two districts of Punjab Jhelum and Bhakkar were selected for thiscase study. A sample size of 194 respondents was selected by random samplingtechnique. Data was analyzed by using SPSS.Results depicts that womencontribution in dairy activities was higher in district Bhakkar than Jhelum.

Study suggests that to increase dairy farm productivity extension servicesshould be increased to improve women skills relating to this field.  


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