NAME

NAME : NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI
MATRIC NO : EIA1610161
ASSIGNMENT 1
Explain the effect of an expansionary fiscal policy in the classical model when it is done through the following method;
Expansionary fiscal policy involves the government seeking to increase the aggregate demand (AD) through higher government spending and lower tax. Usually, it is financed by increasing the government borrowing and selling bonds to the private sector.

An increase in government borrowing.

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Initially, the market equilibrium is at point E where supply of loanable funds (SS) equal to demand of loanable funds (DD). At that point, the interest rate at ro and saving (S0) equal to investment (I0).
As borrowing increases, the government have to pay more interest rate payments to those who hold bonds. If government borrows from the supply of loanable funds (SS) which is available from workers, it increases the demand for such funds and forces interest rates up where the demand for loanable funds (DD) shift to the right from I0 to I+(G-T). At the higher interest rate which is r1, people will consume less so consumption (C) declines while return on saving (S) increases and the supply of loanable funds (SS) increases from S0 = I0 to S1 = I + (G-T). At interest rate (r1), supply of loanable funds (SS) is increases to the point F. The higher the interest rate (r) , the lower the borrowing by firms for investment purposes. The government borrowing ‘crowds out’ private borrowing where at r1 private investment decreases from I0 to I1.
An increase in government spending (G) where the government borrowing is increase matches the decreased in private consumption (C) and investment (I).

An increase in money supply.

Initially, the labor market equilibrium is when labor supply (Ns) is equal to labor demand (Nd) at point E. At that point, employment at N0, output at Y0 and price at P0.
When money supply (Ms) is increases, it will shift the aggregate demand (AD) to the right from AD0 to AD1. At point Y0. Money supply (Ms) does not have effect on Y because output is fixed.

When the agregate demand (AD) is increase, aggregate demand (AD) is greater than aggregate supply (AS). So, there is excess demand of goods. When people demanded for goods is high, while the output is fixed at Y0, the price (P) will increase from P0 to P1 due to high demand of goods. Money supply has no effect at total output because output is fixed.

The reduction on the marginal tax rate.

By increasing the disposable income of households, a tax cut would stimulate consumption. If however, the government sold bonds to the public to replace the revenue lost by the tax cut, the same crowding out process would foow, as in the case of a bond financedincreasein government spending. The quilibrium interest rate would rise, investment would fall,and there would al,so be an interest rate induced rise in saving (S), meaning that consumption would fall back toward the pre tax cut level. In the case of tax cut , as with an increase in spending, aggregate demand would not be affected.

If revenue lost because of the tax cut were replaced by printing new money, then as with an increase in government spending money creation would increase AD and the tax cutwoud cause the price leve to rise. Increase in money supply that affected the price eve.

Supply side
A reduction in the marginal tax rate increases the real wage (W/P. The labor supply (NS) curve shifts to the right from NS0 to NS1. . Equilibrium moves from point E to F. Employment and output increase, moving from E to F on the production function. This increases in output is represented by the shifts to the right in the vertical agreagate supply curve in c.

In the classical model, such a change would have an incentive effect on labor supply (NS). The change would effect the supply side and affect the output and employment.

Labor market increase labor supply, at any value of real wage (W/P) and shift the labor supply to the right from NS0 to NS1. Equilibrium employment increase from NOto N1. Increase in employment will increase in labor supply and also increase in output.

NAME

NAME: LAI YEE GING
STUDENT ID: DPH18056142
BATCH: 55 (05/2018)
GUIDANCE LECTURER: MR RMK
TOPIC:
WHY THE HOLISTIC APPROACH OF PATIENT HELPS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT? DISCUSS.

Content
Topics Pages
Introduction 2
Team Approach of Holistic Clients Care: a) Rehabilitation Team
b) Health Care Team 3
4
Types of Holistic Approach 5
The Reasons of The Holistic Approach of Patient Helps to Improve the Quality of Management of Patient. 6
Conclusion 7
References 8

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Introduction
The word holistic is often used in discussing a person’s health or treatment. It is important to recognize how your health is affected by stress, quality of sleep, exercise, and what we take into our bodies by ingestion, inhalation, and absorption.
A holistic approach to health simply means that a person works to maintain a good working balance between mind, body, and soul. The holistic approach of patient care is nothing but adapting a rehabilitative process of restoring or developing a diseased or disabled individual to the maximum possible functional ability in physical, psychological, social, vocational, and economic aspects with the combined and coordinated use of all the medical, paramedical, social, educational and vocational resources available. It can improve your relationships, make you more patient, understanding, loving and generally help you to become more awake as a person in your day to day life.
Whether you’re doing holistic parenting, holistic website design, or holistic medicine, know that each change you make to one part affects the whole. While taking social factors into consideration, holistic refers to addressing the whole person, including their physical, mental, and emotional health in a medical setting. This could be specific to diagnosis, in which case a holistic approach might consider all possible symptoms; or holistic treatment, which may be very creative and empowers the patient to take charge of their own care. A holistic approach starts when you identify an obstacle, then take a step back to understand the whole situation.

TEAM APPROACH OF HOLISTIC CLIENTS CARE
Rehabilitation Team
Holistic approach concerns on rehabilitation than merely providing treatment for the disease or disability. Rehabilitation is a process that helps the patient to regain their strength, relearn skills or find new ways of doing things they did before after a serious injury, illness or surgery. There are many rehabilitation such as physical therapy to help your strength, mobility and fitness, occupational therapy to help you with your daily activities, speech-language therapy to help with speaking, understanding, reading, writing and swallowing and some treatment of pain. The type of therapy and goals of therapy may be different for different people.
The rehabilitation process:
500380026797037084002533650020637505715Identify problems and needs
0Identify problems and needs

3746501206534290037465
-107950208915Assess effects
00Assess effects
44894505715Relate problems to modiable and limiting factors
00Relate problems to modiable and limiting factors

387350889005295900190500
-215900285750Plan, implement, and coordinate interventions
00Plan, implement, and coordinate interventions
475615095250Dene target problems and target mediators, select appropriate measures
00Dene target problems and target mediators, select appropriate measures

125095076200
Health Care Team
Health care team is a team that approaches to delivering healthcare. Normally, the doctor work as a team leader. Doctor has to ensure that each member of the team knows where responsibility lies in clinical and managerial issues. They work together to determine the health-care needs and provide with safe, effective and customized care.
The physiotherapist is a profession that works with people that become disability by injury, illness, or age. They help patients regain their range of movement, or to support patients with permanent disabilities to prevent further damage and increase the patient’s functionality.

Example of the health care team:
2381250151130Physiotherapy
00Physiotherapy

-379828641643Social worker
00Social worker
11493501270Doctor
00Doctor
176530015614656223002138680 Volunteers
00 Volunteers
13081001447165003175001404620Psychologist
00Psychologist
116840097091500184785068516500349250015760703530600139827029527504648200035179005219703041650154432020447002236470Speech-language pathologist
0Speech-language pathologist
42418001849120Nurse
00Nurse
43751501042670Occupational therapist
0Occupational therapist
4057650108585Dietician
Dietician
center1137285patient
00patient

TYPES OF HOLISTIC APPROACH
The holistic approach can be categorized into 2 types which are multidisciplinary approach and interdisciplinary approach.

The multidisciplinary approach involves team members working independently to create discipline-specific care plans that are implemented simultaneously, but without explicit regard to their interaction. The specialists of Bio-psycho-social model team approach the patient individually, assess separately, give specific therapy so as to achieve their specific goals. There are no collaboratively, interaction or communication amongst the specialists and no exchange of ideas about the particular patient treated. They responsible for a different patient need and provide unique treatment and there is no coordination between the specialists while providing their treatment.

The interdisciplinary approach involves team members from different disciplines working collaboratively, with a common purpose, to set goals reviewed jointly, make decisions and share resources and responsibilities. The specialists of Bio-psycho-social model approach the patient collectively at the same place, assess separately, but set a common goal in the case conference, give specific therapy so as to achieve the common goal. The interaction amongst the specialists are more and they will exchange their ideas about the patient during the case conferences. This approach is regarded as the preferred model of team activity.

The two approaches may be a combination to use depending on the resources of the individual health service.

THE REASONS OF THE HOLISTIC APPROACH OF PATIENT HELPS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT.

Sometimes all it takes is only a short interview between the physician and the patient. Thus, the patients would be well aware of the disease, its etiology, course, treatment plan, epidemiological evidence, and outcomes. Holistic approach design improves the quality of management of the patient.
The holistic approach of the patient helps to improve the quality of management of patient because there is good coordination between the specialists during the treatment sessions because it can improve the communication of health care team. A good communication between the physiotherapist and health care team is important because we work in a team. We aim to optimum health care to the patient. We also plan, formulate and set the same goal. Furthermore, we have to share information and establish common goals for the patient and collaboration among all colleagues to deliver a better service to the patient. Moreover, a good communication between the physiotherapist and patient also important because it will let patient trust in us. If the patients trust us with their lives and health they will follow the instruction that given by the physiotherapy. Therefore, the holistic approach is important to improve the quality of management of the patient.

The patient participation is more active and more centralized because they will understand the need for a well-balanced lifestyle. Holistic treatment emphasizes the whole body care not only the physical body but the person’s emotional and spiritual health as well and not just temporary symptomatic relief. Thus, the patient will cooperate with the health care team because they know holistic approach is good for their health so the quality of management of patient may be improved.

The holistic approach can improve overall general health. The holistic treatment approach focuses on healthy eating habits and therapeutic practices. The holistic approach also applies more natural methods to cure illness such as proper nutrition, exercise, detoxification and other natural non-invasive treatment. Some stress relieving and self-relaxing exercises like yoga are also believed to be effective in improving overall health. Moreover, the natural resources such as natural herbs and medicines also used by the health care team to improve the quality of management of the patient. The techniques that use by the physiotherapist to overcome injury, short-term health problem or manage long-term disability include manipulation and massage, electrotherapy, acupuncture, injection therapy and exercise instruction and advice.

Conclusion
In conclusion, as a health care team, we put the patient at the center of our efforts. Holistic health care is an integrated approach to health care. It not only concerned with the absence of disease, but with a positive state of being. As a physiotherapist, we look at the body as a whole, rather than focusing on individual factors of an injury or illness. The physiotherapist will advise the patient on ways to help relieve discomfort and pain and manage the condition more effectively like exercising regularly. They also advise the patient about the way to prevent injury from reoccurring. Usually, physiotherapist work with other professionals. Throagh the holistic approach, it recognizes the person not with any medical problem, but as a whole person while trying to reduce or cure his disability. Therefore, the holistic approach of the patient helps to improve the quality of management of the patient.

REFERENCES
Arnetz JE et al (2004) Active Patient Involvement in the Establishment of Physical Therapy Goals: Effects on Treatment Outcome and Quality of Care. Advances in Physiotherapy 6: 50-69
Bandura A (1991) Self-efficacy mechanisms is physiological activation and health promoting behaviour. In: Madden (ed) Neurobiology of learning, emotion and affect. New York: Raven Press
Coughlin A, Bandura A, Fleischer T, Guck T (2000) Multidisciplinary treatment of chronic pain patients: its efficacy in changing patient locus of control. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81: 739-740
French S, Sim J (2004) Physiotherapy: a psychosocial approach (3rd ed), Edinburgh: Butterworth Heinemann
Linton SJ (2005) Understanding pain for better clinical practice. Edinburgh: Elsevier
Little et al (2001) Preferences of patients for patient-centred approach to consultation in primary care. British Medical Journal, 322: 468-472
http://www.healthshare.org.uk/patient.physiotherapy.phphttps://www.phildeco.com/physiotherapy-holistic-approach-to-patient-care/https://www.nycollege.edu/health-care-clinics/our-holistic-approach.phphttps://www.dummies.com/health/the-benefits-of-natural-medicine/http://cedarsliving.com/benefits-of-holistic-treatments/

Name

Name: Alya Alshamsi ID: U181101257
University: university of Sharjah
Section: 54
Course name: English for academic purposes
“Gap year ”
Time off has been quite popular option among young people; it is a break after high school. Therefore some students use this time in many activities, such as travelling around the world, volunteering or starting a new job. The idea behind these activities is to discover something new and to obtain an experience. Moreover, a year off benefits are plentiful, for instance, travelling alone will develop their self-confidence and independence. On a cultural level, students learn about different traditions and perspectives, they gain an idea about the work environment and how to think as an employee this will help them to find their future career. Intellectually students examine their own beliefs in this new environment. Indeed, taking a year off advantages combine to make a strong case to take a gap.

Nonetheless, in conjunction with the dangers involved in taking a gap year, therefore the main drawback is that students may get sidetracked from their studies and may lose the sense of discipline they had before. In addition to, if students started working they could be deluded thinking that they will make enough money; therefore they will lose the chance to earn a higher income.

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In my point of view taking a gap year has many advantages as well as disadvantages and it really depends on the student and the environment surrounding him. Accordingly some students gain many benefits from taking a year break and will improve their progress, meanwhile for others it may slow them down and they may forget their academic work. Hence it may vary for different students
In conclusion, taking a gap year should be planed for; students must consider their motivations carefully and determine what is most desirable. In addition to, they must consider that time is a valuable resource and treat it with respect. (300)
“Men and women equality”
Men and women should be accepted equally in every subject at universities. In fact, gender issues importance has increased throughout the centuries, in almost every sphere of human activity. Moreover, there has been a movement towards greater equality between them and universities should open their doors to all students alike. However, number of men and women require not to be set on a fixed limit of the acceptance in each subject. Therefore, the views are psychological and personal.

Psychologically, men and women are different, although they have the same potential for greatness, for instance, women tend to be more intuitive and caring, thus they may feel dragged, consequently on the basis of their personalities and professions. In such a context, universities should choose the best candidates, without considering the gender. Furthermore, students need to discover their inner call, which is an individual matter and not affected by reserving seats for men or women. For example, if a great number of women avoid some subjects, it may be affected by their nurture, which has formed them. Moreover, universities cannot reverse this trend, and they have to consistently look for the best-qualified possible applicant.
In my point of view, equality cannot be forced on people, not in their family life nor their educational. Therefore universities should choose the people that prove themselves capable of qualification, regardless of their gender. Moreover, I expect that universities need to respect the independent and logical choices being wielded by the students.

In conclusion, universities should always look for the most qualified candidates and not consider whether it was a men or women but look into the most qualified of them, furthermore they must always consider and respect the students choices and help them discover their true call. (291)
“Computers”

At the moment, in modern world computers is a fundamental part of the daily life. Around the globe, children are used to computers from a very young age, although it is imperative for children to participate in various well-balanced activities. As a matter of fact, children that use computer daily are improving a vital skill for aftertime success. My view bases are personal, academic, and professional. From my point of view, computers are helpful resource to youths in exploring the world around them; children that work on the Internet to satisfy curiosity about diverse topics become self-reliant learners. Furthermore, by starting a bit previous in their lives, children feel totally comfortable around computers.

From an academic point of view, children have to adept this technological invention. To illustrate, universities students use their laptops to take notes, exchange information, write assignments, create presentation, and developed database. Equivalently, children habit an early confidence in these abilities, is at a recognizable advantage over those who don’t. Furthermore, from a professional aspect, computer has found a long-lasting place in the workplace. Presently, employers pay to afford computer training. Moreover, after time corporations count on considered job applicants to these demanding job skills. Therefore, parents that inspire their children to use the computer for an acceptable period of time, establish in the child’s future career.

From my viewpoint, using computers from a young age will benefit the children, as it helps students in different perspectives. Moreover, it is an essential part in everyday life, learning how to use it will make every thing easier to children.

In conclusion, there is no doubt that the computers, as a technological tool will stay, the more and sooner children become computer-literate, the better it is for my aspects of their future life. (294)
“Sport profession and the society”
Sport experts can gain extra money than other people in more important professions; apparently some people support it while others think it is unfair. Additionally, sports turn up to be a multimillion-dollar trade.

Globally, people throng to sporting events or watch their favorite teams every week on television. As a result, experienced sports athletes receive large salaries. There is argues whether such unreasonably high salaries are appropriate. Despite that, sport is viewed as a professional job, in which top players should fairly receive high salaries. Moreover, athletes train rigorously to become peak preforms in their field, usually they face tremendous presser in every match, furthermore their personal lives are compromised and they lose all privacy. At the same time, their strong performances bring respect and attention. However, different professions provide in making our world run without a hitch. Doctors spend at the minimum ten-year of heavy study to save lives. Moreover, teachers literate and motivate young people to be trustworthy citizens. Furthermore, social workers asset singles that lead to physical and mental protected society. Nonetheless, professionals in this areas battle to get by, in spite of their significant and vital grant to the world.

From my personal perspective, to pay gigantic salaries to sports athletes is unneeded, I indicate that we need to rethink and concentrate more on social arrangements and eradicate the great dissimilarity in income accepted by different professionals. Obviously by doing this, we can form societies where people experience respect, recognition and properly rewarded for their own profession or area of experience
In conclusion, we must focus more on building societies and investing in them, not paying large salaries to sports people, as it well benefit the societies and the people in it. (286)
“The modern world and the image”
Presently, the image is a decent strong way of communication than the written word. With the growth of technology, visual expression like television, photos and films are gradually becoming popular as strong means of language as compared with the simple advanced printed medium.

The enlarging priority take use of resources over written communication, is an unquestionable certainty and the developing usage of video based learning in most recent schools over text book based knowledge shift is the best illustration. Meanwhile in the present evidence- seeking world, visual communications provides recognizable facts. Particular crafted images, like cartoons and documentaries, reading only give the interested messages to the viewers and lean to be effective in delivering ideas to the busy and uneducated segments of the society. Television is also assailed with countless tricky advertisements, by doing this manufacturers try to communicate with the mob in regard to their products.

On the other hand, the request of the printed media as a method of mass communication, is fading as younger generation think it is to comparatively out of date. Furthermore, in the faced paced modern city life, not to many people can afford to dedicate time for reading. Instead, some follow daily-television news.

In spite of this decreased appeal for mass communication, the value of writing form still stands the field of interpersonal and formed communication. From my point of view, visual communication has absolutely become a popular and influential tool for mass communication. Moreover, written form has equivalent value from the official, developed and inters personal aim.

In conclusion, for mass communication visual and written form are equal in importance, and because of the technology visual communication tend to be more powerful tool, but in other hand we can say that written form is powerful in different majors. (296)

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