Name

Name: Kareem Tinto
Student I.D.: 816005892
Name of tutor &
Tutorial Class: Dr. Patrick Campbell: Fridays 2-3pm
Session number: No.4

Session date: September 26 th
, 2018
Session topic: How Science Progresses

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The fourth lecture session has come around, and this is my final journal entry that I
would use to reflect on the process of learning. Firstly, I failed miserably upon
viewing the video that was played by the lecturer that tested the observation skills of
the viewing audience. The test was to count how many times the white team caught
the rubber-banned ball. Now I was focused on all the passes that the white team made
and all the successful catches, when the moderator on the video asked if the guess for
the number of catches were thirteen then the viewers that made that guess would have
been correct, I was like yes, I got it. Subsequently, the narrator in the video asked how
many persons saw the black belt gorilla? I did not see it.As the video was carried back

a few moments before, suddenly the gorilla was there in the mix. This was so
impacting. It clearly shows that at times we are so focused on what we are told or
asked to do, that the obvious things in-front us are gone unseen. I was then wondering
how this is going to tie in to how science progresses and I became even more
intrigued.
The concept of progresses in science is attained when it shows the accumulation of
knowledge. In a common view, science is said to be logical, rational testing and
observation of the world which produces pieces of knowledge and which eventually
reaches some critical stage where new scientific theories emerge. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj,
2018). This is very interesting since daily learning takes place. In life, we are
obligated to make decisions that are logical, rational and sensible whilst observing
what is transpiring around us. In like manner, life always bring us the only constant
thing, change. Similarly, I can understand that in the progress of science, as time
evolves, new ideas emerge and gives way to new concepts. Another concept that I
appreciated was the existence of paradigms which are discrete and culturally based. It
is also said that cultures that encourage the development of science and technology
will be progressive. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018). Focusing on development in science
and technology on an international scale, Switzerland has ranked the number country
for its knowledge-based economy and their ability to turn innovative thinking into
lucrative projects dating back to 2011. An example of their innovative work is, their
local bank UBS is now using virtual reality for projecting investment portfolios to
clients. (Weller, 2016).
There are four ways as outlined in the lecture by which paradigms can influence the
scientific process.This occurs through the dictating of studies and researches, as a
result of the types of questions asked, the exact structure and nature of the questions

and the interpretation of the results. (Dr. Omah-Maharaj, 2018) Shifts in paradigms
also influences a change in the scientific process. Paradigms are also known to be past
scientific achievements that a particular scientific community acknowledges for a
given time in the provision of information that lays a foundation for further practice. (Shermer, n.d.).So based on the constant development of paradigms along the passage
of time, there are several examples that can be drawn to illustrate how science has
progressed in the very modern world that we live in. Take for instance, earthquake
activity that is common all around the world. Scientists were able to develop systems
that can measure and record the magnitudes of earthquakes and over time be able to
ascertain possible causes. Now one can only imagine that as time evolved, the works
of scientists do as well science more and more tectonic plate activities associated with
earthquakes are occurring. Lying west of Trinidad and straddling the New Mexico
border area, it has become the new home to most earthquakes in that Colorado State.
Scientists say that it is no coincidence. They were also able to associate mining
activity as the root cause of most of those earthquakes that read up to magnitudes of
4.0 of the past twenty years. Scientists monitoring these activities have been able to
identify the increases in activities and come up with conclusions as to the constant
increase in earthquake activities in that given area in comparison to past earthquakes
many years before. (KOAA 5, 2018). Ideally, one can appreciate that based on the
information and observations of scientists in the world at large are able to use
foundational principles outlined in the scientific method to be able to adapt in
changing times to propel the movement of science even along the course and
progression of time. Evidence is vital in being able to ascertain whether or not the is
actually a progression of science or whether or not it remains stagnant and
unchangeable. As an individual living in a third world country, I definitely can see

how science has progressed and I can also link evidence that is all around to
corroborate that it is indeed progressive. Meteorologists locally here in Trinidad has
been able to capture data from weather patterns from the past and compare them to
present weather and atmospherical conditions to explain changes that are prevailing
over a given territory. More evidently, on the daily weather broadcasts aired to the
general population, based on scientific systems that are designed for the reading,
capturing and measuring of atmospheric conditions and its affect on weather
conditions, are able to give predictions of future weather forecasts and in the main,
they are quite accurate. This is a very simple example that I can reflect on to illustrate
how science has progressed and the influence of paradigm shifts that also create for
development.
In sum, I have truly learnt a great deal of the scientific method which rolls out keys
processes or steps that are taken to solve problems, answer questions and generally
provide development for the world today. Key observations, solid and sound
reasoning, usage of empirical evidence, research, cross referencing of past scientific
laws, consolation of scientific theories and the adaptation and revolution of science
along the skirts of time that allows for the progression of science and technology in
the ever evolving world. I am more informed and aware of the world I live in, I have a
greater sense of appreciation for the access to information, the systems in place for
monitoring, measuring and quantifying data that all functions in tandem to bring
about comfort and security of communities and countries at large. I am motivated to
not only be cognizant of what transpires around me regionally and internationally but
I am also willing to do my part in learning and contributing to it in whatever way that
is possible.

Reference list
KOAA 5. (2018, May 5). Scientists say Trinidad-area earthquakes are human-caused

Video file Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yn2OIhaQTaY
Dr. Omah-Maharaj, Indira. (2018, September 26). How Science Progresses Retrieved
from
http://myelearning.sta.uwi.edu/pluginfile.php/522224/mod_resource/content/4/FOU
N%201210%2018a%20%20-%20Lecture%204%20How%20Science%20Progresse
s%20IOM.pdf
Shermer, Michael. (n.d.). Does ScienceProgress? Retrieved from
http://chem.tufts.edu/science/shermer/e-skeptic/progressofscience.html
Weller, Chris. (2016, August 29). The 15 most innovative countries in the world
Retrieved from
https://www.businessinsider.com/most-innovative-countries- in-the-world-2016-8

NAME

NAME: TAN RUI ERN
STUDENT ID: DPH18056003
BATCH: 55 (05/2018)
TOPIC: COMMUNICATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT. DISCUSS WHY AND ELABORATE HOW YOU CAN MAINTAIN IT.

GUIDANCE LECTURER: MANIKANDAN RENGASAMYCONTENTS
TOPICS PAGES
INTRODUCTION 2
MODEL OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS 3
SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL 4
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 5
THE REASONS OF COMMUNICATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT 7
THE WAYS TO MAINTAIN THE ESSENTIAL OF COMMUNICATION FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT 8
CONCLUSION 9
REFERENCES 10
INTRODUCTION
Communication is the process of exchanging information, usually via a common protocol. The protocol which means that the system of rules and acceptable behaviour used at official ceremonies and occasions.

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According to research, “Medicine is an art whose magic and creative ability have been recognized as residing in the interpersonal aspects of a patient-physician relationship.” A physiotherapist’s communication and interpersonal skills encompass the ability to gather information in order to facilitate accurate diagnosis, counsel appropriately, give therapeutic instructions, and establish caring relationships with patients. Basic communication skills in isolation are insufficient to create and sustain a successful therapeutic physiotherapist-patient relationship, which consists of shared perceptions and feelings regarding the problems, goals of treatment, and psychosocial support.

People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time in an interpersonal situation but the physiotherapists interact even more with patients, spending up to 90% of their time and effort. Thus, effective communication is an essential component of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal, intergroup, intragroup, organizational, or external levels, not only that, the effective communication is also essential for the optimum treatment of the patients.

MODEL OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS
According to some theories, there are five steps for a physiotherapist to communicate with their patients:
18143368890COMMUNICATION
00COMMUNICATION

2777067190218
373394116446519078221643945101731170815598311175189587022164394
0269240CREATIONS
CREATIONS
4493260256540RESPONSE
RESPONSE

2945765124460INTERPRETATION
0INTERPRETATION
1309370140970TRANSMISSION
0TRANSMISSION

2237105124460RECEPTION
RECEPTION

This model of the communication process is based on a model of signal transmission known as the Shannon-Weaver model.

SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL
1695450883285ENCODING:
Transfer ideas to words phrases gestures.

00ENCODING:
Transfer ideas to words phrases gestures.

3701415866281TRANSMISSION:
To overcome barriers shyness, tap on the shoulder if not looking at you noise.

00TRANSMISSION:
To overcome barriers shyness, tap on the shoulder if not looking at you noise.

According to the Shannon-Weaver model, the process of communication divided into seven components which are an ideal initiation, encoding, transmission, receiving, decoding, action, and feedback. The explanation will be shown clearly in below figure:
48655112482921486551111610623364089414232138853341599637115751520966RECEIVING:
Make sure message has been received by others.

00RECEIVING:
Make sure message has been received by others.

-191911-1693IDEA INITIATION:
Know what you want to communicate.

00IDEA INITIATION:
Know what you want to communicate.

5016505588000
3724910306070DECODING:
Derive meaning.

00DECODING:
Derive meaning.

-63568368FEEDBACK
00FEEDBACK

48621955715
370522551435ACTION:
Perform.

00ACTION:
Perform.

496252515670439096951690511868664181610680226165100369132615451767733315451723819554233COMMUNICATION
00COMMUNICATION

Interactive Trans active Intentional Unintentional
An exchange of ideas where both participants, are active and can have an effect on one another. It is a dynamic, two-way flow of information. Occurs when sources transmit messages to one another simultaneously and send back acknowledgment messages. The display of communicative signals that are sensitive to the state of the receiver. The subtle and unconscious cues that provide information to another individual. It can be verbal or the tone of voice of an individual.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication can be categorized into 3 types: verbal communication, in which you listen to a person to understand their meaning; written communication, in which you read their meaning; and nonverbal communication, in which you observe a person and infer meaning.

In verbal communication, the medium of the message is oral. It’s consists of many advantages such as the receivers able to get the first-hand information, a message conveyed, informal, direct impact and commitment from a receiver. However, there are also disadvantages which are we need time to prepare what we want to express.

Next, the nonverbal communication, you could voice out the important messages via visual, planning and terminology which is forming the specific short term. Research shows that 55% of in-person communication comes from nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body stance, and tone of voice. During visual, there’s no guarantee of understanding but the impact is better than writing.

During writing, the legality issues that can be recorded by handwriting but there is no guarantee of understanding and no personal contact with the receiver. Besides, the example of the communication also consists of telecommunication which is to enhance distance communication.
As Harold Dwight Lasswell says, he is well known for his comment on communications:-
Who (says)
What (to)
Whom (in)
What Channel (with)
THE REASONS OF COMMUNICATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT
Effective physiotherapist-patient communication is a central clinical function, and the resultant communication is a central component in the delivery of healthcare. The 3 main goals of current physiotherapist-patient communication are creating a good interpersonal relationship, facilitating exchange of information, and including patients in decision making. Effective communication is determined by the physiotherapists’ “bedside manner,” which patient judge as a major indicator of their physiotherapists’ general competence.

Good physiotherapists-patient communication has the potential to help regulate patients’ emotions, facilitate comprehension of medical information, and allow for better identification of patients’ needs, perceptions, and expectations. A good communication between patients and their physiotherapist are more likely to be satisfied with their care, and willing to share pertinent information for accurate diagnosis of their problems, follow advice, and adhere to the prescribed treatment. Patients’ agreement with the physiotherapist about the nature of the treatment and need for follow-up is strongly associated with their recovery.

A patient-centred physiotherapist will result in better patients’ satisfactory. Satisfied patients are less likely to initiate any malpractice complaints. Besides, satisfied patients are also advantageous for physiotherapists in terms of greater job satisfaction, less work-related stress, and reduced burnout.
However, side effects can happen in a poor communication between the medical participants. Additionally, with the inclusion of extra participants in the communication channel, the risk of error increases. Any instance of incomplete exchange of information can lead to: incomplete treatment procedure, delayed of treatment, and incorrect medication dispensed to the patient. Thus, such instances can have grave consequences for the patient which may lead to severe health complications or even death. So, a good communication can avoid the issues mentioned above. This is because good communication allows solving the problems faced by the patient which reduces the number of complaints made.

THE WAYS TO MAINTAIN THE ESSENTIAL OF COMMUNICATION FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT
left58420Using a simple concept that your patients can work with and understand, you’ll be more likely to communicate with your patients. However, a poor communication starts when there’s too much of jargon is used when meeting with patients. It’s the fact that has been reported by THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. “Medical speak” is appropriate when speaking with other medical professionals but it’s not an ideals way to use the medical terms around patients. It’s your responsibility to bridge this gap and to share relevant medical knowledge to patients in an understandable manner.

00Using a simple concept that your patients can work with and understand, you’ll be more likely to communicate with your patients. However, a poor communication starts when there’s too much of jargon is used when meeting with patients. It’s the fact that has been reported by THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. “Medical speak” is appropriate when speaking with other medical professionals but it’s not an ideals way to use the medical terms around patients. It’s your responsibility to bridge this gap and to share relevant medical knowledge to patients in an understandable manner.

right8255Physiotherapists should always be prepared for a reaction. There’s always a group of patients that come with bad temper and refused to communicate with their physiotherapist. Facing such patients, we need to give them some time to build up the trust in us. Always ready to give encouragement to them to express their feeling.

00Physiotherapists should always be prepared for a reaction. There’s always a group of patients that come with bad temper and refused to communicate with their physiotherapist. Facing such patients, we need to give them some time to build up the trust in us. Always ready to give encouragement to them to express their feeling.

175978925668400
right10783Try to slow down the pace when providing the information to patients so that patients have sufficient time to comprehend the new information. It’s crucial to give the patients who lack of medical knowledge extra time to formulate the questions. According to research, physiotherapist usually only wait for 23 seconds after a patient begins describing his complaint before redirecting the discussion. Such redirection may lead to late-arising concerns and missed out important information. Thus, a dialogue punctuated with pauses is important for deeper comprehension.

00Try to slow down the pace when providing the information to patients so that patients have sufficient time to comprehend the new information. It’s crucial to give the patients who lack of medical knowledge extra time to formulate the questions. According to research, physiotherapist usually only wait for 23 seconds after a patient begins describing his complaint before redirecting the discussion. Such redirection may lead to late-arising concerns and missed out important information. Thus, a dialogue punctuated with pauses is important for deeper comprehension.

176212530480000
left14605THE WAYS TO MAINTAIN THE ESSENTIAL OF COMMUNICATION FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT
00THE WAYS TO MAINTAIN THE ESSENTIAL OF COMMUNICATION FOR OPTIMUM TREATMENT OF PATIENT

15519403638551761490363220
17621258890
left163830Instead of just follow the rules and procedures stated in the checklist, try using simple conversation when interacting with patients. Always treat the patient as a friend. Talk to them like the way you’re chatting with your friends. As a patient, it feels bad to be treated like a checklist which boring and dull. Try to talk less, listen more and communicate well, eventually the patient will feel comfortable interacting with you.

00Instead of just follow the rules and procedures stated in the checklist, try using simple conversation when interacting with patients. Always treat the patient as a friend. Talk to them like the way you’re chatting with your friends. As a patient, it feels bad to be treated like a checklist which boring and dull. Try to talk less, listen more and communicate well, eventually the patient will feel comfortable interacting with you.

right6350Try to “talk more with patients” but not “talking at the patient”. By “talking at your patients”, there’s no connection between a physiotherapist and patients. Instead, we could use heart to heart talk with your patients. Your patients will able to respect you as a partner in the journey of recovery and they will follow the instructions given.

00Try to “talk more with patients” but not “talking at the patient”. By “talking at your patients”, there’s no connection between a physiotherapist and patients. Instead, we could use heart to heart talk with your patients. Your patients will able to respect you as a partner in the journey of recovery and they will follow the instructions given.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, as a patient, the dialogue is not over yet even after the discussion of diagnosis, tests and treatment. For the patient, this is just a beginning; the news is sinking in. The proper way is, physiotherapists are supposed to anticipate a shift in the patient’s sense of self, which should be handled as an important part of the encounter.

Besides, the quality of one-to-one communication between the patient and physiotherapists can be greatly affected by simple choice of words, body position, information depth, speech patterns, and facial expression. Avoiding communication pitfalls and sharpening the basic communication skills previously suggested can help to strengthen the patient-physiotherapist bond that many patients and physicians believe is lacking of.
Lastly, although communication can be tough skill but with constant practices, communicating with your patients will be an easy task. A good rule of thumb to remember that a good communication is essential for optimum treatment of patients.

REFERENCES
Effective Communication in Nursing by Derek A. Hayes and Rohani Arshad.

Health Assessment edited by Anna Crouch and Clency Meurier.

Communication Skills Training For Health Care Professionals second edition by David Dickson, Owen Hargie and Norman Morrow.

Communication: An Introduction by Karl Erik Rosengron.

http://open.lib.umn.edu/principlesmanagement/chapter/12-5-different-types-of-communication/https://www.healthcareguys.com/2017/12/04/effects-of-the-poor-communication-in-hospitals/http://hability.net/blog/5-donts-in-patient-communication/https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000456.htm

Name

Name :- Padraic Marren
Students Name:- Jackson Lima De Silva Age:- 23 Nationality :- Brazilian
Mother Tongue:- Portuguese (Brazilian Portuguese)
Education/Professional Background:- Pricing Analyst
Current Level of English:- Pre Intermediate
Previous English Learning Experience
He did basic English in primary school. Has been learning English seriously for the last 18 months
B) Motivaton For Studying English:
For professional reasons. His goal is to get a better job in finance. Therefore his motivation is Instrumental (Harman, 2001, p. 8)
C) Preferred Learning Style and Strategies
He is a visual learner and likes to learn orally. He likes seeing pictures, watching videos, speaking in groups and repeating new words after the teacher. At home he watches TV to improve his English.
D) Linguistic Needs
The learner is studying English for professional reasons.
• Grammar:- Jackson clearly states that he wants to improve his grammar. There are positives to his grammar. He got his pronoun correct for “People speak so fast it’s hard to understand.” This is encouraging as a lot of the Brazilian students had a habit of leaving out pronouns. However I can see there are issues with his grammar in his written and spoken English. In the spoken English he can get the word order of a sentence wrong “every day at 6 pm stop in the city”. This is due to Portuguese word order being more freer than English putting sentences the wrong way around. (Swan, 2002, p. 125) He gets the tenses wrong “I am studying English for 18 months”. In these cases L1 interference is obvious on certain structures used; something common among Brazilian learners (Swan, Learner English, 2002, p. 113).
• Vocabulary:- Jackson could showed glimpses of an amazing grasp of vocabulary for someone who has only been learning English seriously for so a short period. In class he identified the words “shopping mall” and “shopping centre”. I get the impression from this that he picks up on “lexical phrases” or language chunks quite easily. (Harman, 2007, p. 21) However speaking to him in more detail after the class you realise the limits to the range of his vocabulary. He said “I lost the bus”. In his written English he put down “watching moving in English”. Brazilians have difficulty with English spelling and there is a tendency to represent English sounds with their standard Portuguese spelling forms (Swan, 2002, p. 117)
• Pronunciation:- Jackson could surprise when it came to pronunciation . For a difficult word like “traffic congestion” he managed to put the stresses in the right place. However with other words he had the issue that is common in Brazilian Portuguese of being a syllable timed rather than a stress timed language like English (Swan, 2002, p. 116). He put the stress on the wrong part of the word “pedestrian” and “cycle”. He also pronounced “city” like “sit” leaving an unstressed vowel at the end of the word. (Swan, 2002, p. 114) For a handout exercise he mispronounced “sheet” with /i/ rather than /i:/ in the middle which made it sound rude. This is a common issue with Portuguese e.g. rich/reach (Swan, 2002, p. 114)
• Receptive Skills:- Regarding reading, visual and listening skills Jackson shows himself to be capable. He completed both the gist and detailed tasks within the time limit. When powerpoint photos were shown he identified transport and shopping malls before the others. I feel this is his forte and it is reinforced by the questionnaire he filled out. It is through receptive skills he learns better so these skills should be further developed with the use of appropriate activities.
• Speaking and Writing Skills:- Jackson didn’t communicate as freely as others in the class(Majeed and Sandra) This is understandable as he has not spent as long a time speaking English as them. However he has a very receptive mind as highlighted by the phrases he came up with i.e Shopping Mall. I think if he is exposed to English for an extended period his fluency levels will improve a lot. Writing on the other hand causes him greater uncertainty. In his student questionnaire his answers were very short which highlights a lack of confidence in that area. He misspelt “Portugues” and wrote “anos” instead of years and wrote “moving” instead of “movies”. However there are positives he spelt “Brazilian” , “Pricing Analyst” , “seven months in Brazil”, “for life” correctly.

Part B:- Identify Language Difficulties and Provide Suitable Activities to Help
I chose this area as Jackson has issues pronouncing certain vowels. His pronunciation of “sheet” using /i/ instead of /i:/ needs to be addressed. This will help when it comes to other similar words e.g. fit/feet, sit/seat, chip/cheap. To address this I have chosen Unit 9 P. 34 of New Headway Pronunciation Pre Intermediate Exercise 1-4. This is appropriate as I think it deals with the problem the student has with /i/ and /i:/ thoroughly. Its gives Jackson ample opportunity to practice as there are four exercises . As can be seen the exercises are visual with pictures in exercise 1 and 4 and there is audio in exercises 2 and 4. Therefore the topic would be engaging for him as it appeals to his preferred learner style of visual and listening. There is partner work in exercises 1 and 4 which also appeals to his assimilation by speaking in groups. It would be meaningful for him as it deals with real life situations that he would dealt with in his life so he can easily personalise it. It is culturally suitable as this a common area of pronunciation where Brazilians have difficulty.
This next area to focus on is grammar. “I am studying for 18 months” should be changed to “I ve been studying English for 18 months”. Although it is not a big error it is important to point out that the present perfect would be useful here to describe situations in the past related to the present time. To address this I have chosen Unit 11 P.27 of Oxford Practice Grammar Exercises 1-3. It gives him ample opportunity to practice are there are three exercises. It is engaging for him as there are visual queues in Exercise 2. I can adapt the exercises to make them more engaging by encouraging pairwork afterwards and going through the exercises orally to appeal to his preference of speaking in groups and repeating new words after the teacher. Its meaningful as it corresponds to real life situations that Jackson can relate to.

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References
• Harmer, J , How to Teach English , Longman , 2001
• Swan M. and Smith B. , Learner English, CUP, 2002
• Harmer J., The Practice of English Teaching, Longman, 2007
• Eastwood, J. Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate, Oxford University Press, 2002
• Cunningham, S. and Bowler, B. New Headway Pronunciation Pre Intermediate (Student’s Practice Book), Oxford University Press, 2001

NAME

NAME : NYASHA B MAKIWA
PROGRAM :SOCIAL WORK
COURSE : HSW120
REG NO :R171038
11367333381100
LECTURER : SEMWAYO
DUE DATE :23 MARCH 2018
QUESTION :EXAMINE THE POSITIVE FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTISE IN ZIMBABWE
The assignment seeks to project the affirmative functions of religion and the implications for social work practise in Zimbabwe. Religion has positive functions on people’s lives and on the practise of social work in zimbabwe .the positivity side include giving meaning and purpose to life ,reinforcing social unity, agent of social control ,for physical and physocological well being and motivation and this all applies to functionalism theory. However basing on conflict theory religion also have its negative side which is reinforcing and promotion of inequality , social conflict leads to hostility and violence galvanised by religion differences. Social workers are therefore required to take a client’s whole self into consideration, should advocate for proper education and implementation of religious and spirituality interventions, learn client’s beliefs, and be and competent and to respect a client’s religion in order to provide good services to the service user and to be able to dwell, understand and solve client’s issues though they might face some challenges with regard to religion in their practise.
Asher (2001) defines religion as “a formal set of beliefs, doctrines, law, practises and assignment of authority which are linked to an explanation of the creation and governance of the universe”. Social work is the qualified movement of helping individuals, groups or communities to improve or reinstate their aptitude for social functioning and creating societal conditions positive to this goal. There is a strong bond between social work and religion since religion is the foundation of social work as projected by (zastro, 2010),”social work has its historical roots in religious organisation, social work originated under the inspiration of the Judaeo-Christian religious tradition…”.Martin (2003) proposed that the emergence of social work can be sketched back to the nineteenth century in Britain with the establishing of the Charity society organisation. In Zimbabwe development of social work is knotted to Zimbabwe’s colonial past. Therefore religion cannot be given a deaf ear in social work practise, social workers are encouraged to be religious so as to execute their duties wisely.

Religion is of great importance as it is a tool for social control. In relation to social control issue a social worker should be culturally competent and appreciate from the commencement that socio-economic circumstantial of the clients is moulded by where they come from and their beliefs and somehow its part of culture. According to NASW (2001) cultural competence in social work is a lifelong, on-going process and includes the importance of religion and spirituality. In case of social control one can point out to the issue of a client who is a drunkard and belongs to Rastafarianism group and is an alcoholic addict. It might not be the path that person really wanted to choose but was influenced by the culture and the people surrounding him. There is need for a social worker to respect this person’s religion and culture and should be non-judgemental concerning him being part of it. A social worker through religion can then play the counselling role enlightening the person about his body being the temple of God and that each person should not abuse it and can even use the bible verse which talks of Jesus acceptance of everyone (mark 2:15-17).As a social worker he or she can even educate the person on the after effects of alcohol. The client after this religious counselling can recollect with himself and quit alcohol and thus shows the importance of religion on controlling behaviour and on the practise of social work. Therefore a social worker is expected to have greater appreciation of diversity in religious matters so as to be able to listen to matters of the spirit during service providing to clients as emphasised by (Canda, 2005).

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Moreover, the significance of religion in people’s lives is that it gives hope, meaning and purpose to life. A social worker can use religion to restore hope to those at the verge of losing hope .For instance a teenager who has been impregnated and the pregnant has been denied by the owner can think of abortion or even suicide due to thoughts of being no one or facing challenges of taking care of the baby. A social worker can use religion to boost the service user’s copying mechanism. He can do this by revealing the worthy of the baby which is in line with the Christian value that is of human beings being in God’s own image (genesis 1:26).The commandment of not killing can be of great help to a social worker .One might point out that this can result in an ethical dilemma whereby the social worker is a person who holds a certain religious or moral values about abortion and at the same time he is expected to keep the principle of determination. The Christian values used by the social worker can help the teenager have hope and the courage to move on with life. This can be supported by (Rosmarin and Pargament, 2010) who reveals that religion improve positivity and hope among clients. Therefore one can be led to conclude that social workers should be well versed with religion as it helps one to be non-judgemental and to come up with strategies appropriate to deal with client’s issues. (Stander 1994) views religion as a vital source of ethical decision making which is important to social work practise.

Moreover religion is of great prominence when it comes to the physical and psychological welfare of a person as it fosters recovery from trauma. Social workers in Zimbabwe can use religion to drag a person out of distress. For example, the issue of a client who might have lost the whole family due to an aeroplane crush. In this case a social worker is supposed to assess the client’s religion background and the level of interest in using religion. Through the use of religious views basing on the clients belief, a social worker strengthens the ability of the client to copy up with the predicament as (hodge,2011) notes that religion and spirituality is recognised as a client’s strength that can aid a client’s well-being. This also reveals the aim of social workers that is to enhance the well-being of individuals and to help people so as for them to help themselves. Social workers are therefore are expected to be religious so as to be able to handle and assist their clients.

Furthermore, religion is important as it can be used for social unity whenever there is a misunderstanding or a quarrel between individuals. A social worker can make use of religion so as to restore the relationship between two or more people and in this case he can be said to have played the role of a mediator.Taking it might appear to be a challenge to a social wrker trying to respect such a decision from a client for example ,a young lady who might have quarrelled with her neighbour to thae extent of planning for a revenge.The custom of church strongly teaches that people should careand love one another.However in this case self determination is a central social work values with clients and it might appear to be a challenge to a social worker trying to respect such a decision from a client.A social worker can use the verse from the bible which teaches of loving your neighbour as one loves himself and pointing out that each and every person was created after God’s own image and reviewing that no one is perfect each person has his own wicknesses.A social worker is presented as a counsellor and a peace maker since a client might end up realising the bad side of her thought and re-unite with her neighbour.Social workers should therefre be be prepaired to identify and adress ethical dilemnas resulting from the relationship between professional and spiritual values as (Neagoe ,2013) notes that it would help a social worker in providing good services to a client.

However Karl Marx view of the rise of capitalisation in contemporary Zimbabwean shows that functionality of religion on the influence of economy can be viewed as negative because from Marx religion is seen as a source of “class ideology.” On the other hand, it can be noted that functionality of religion is sometimes based on selfishness especially in the rich as they want to continuously oppress the poor. According to Marx, religion is used by the rulers or the Bourgeoisie to justify its economic, political, and social advantages over the oppressed. He views religion as an expression of oppression and suffering of the poor by the ruling class. Conversely, he goes on to give a rather soothing side of it. Religion is reflected as a sigh of the oppressed, a sentiment of a heartless world and ‘opium of the people’. Despite these notions appearing divorced, they somehow act in a collaborative and complementary role in as far as the rise of Pentecostalism in Zimbabwe is concerned. To go against this way of life is to go against God’s plan thus proving that the functionality of religion is not only designed to benefit the society at large but mainly the rich so that they may continuously succeed while the poor will remain poorer. This source of class ideology is generated through the biblical term of master and servant which economically generate a negative relationship between the two resulting in corruption as a result of exploitation of workers. This then mark the influence of religion to be a discord to the economic cohesion of contemporary Zimbabwe.

To some up ,religion and social work practise has a great bond as religion is the foundation of social work practise.Inspiration to help others seem to have developed as part of religion.Religion restores the physical and psychological well being of individuals ,tool of social control and fosters unity. However religion promotes social inequality,socail conflict and leads to hostility. In social work practise ,social workers are thus supossed to deal with a client as a whole ,assess a client’s religious background ,the level of interest in using religious views ,social workers should advocate for proper education concerning religion,be culturally competent and to respect client’s religion so as to provide client with good services.nggh
REFERENCES
Asher, M.; 2001. Spirituality and religion in social work practice. Social Work today. Available from: http//.www.gatherthepeople.org/
Downloads/spirit-in SW (Accessed 20 June 2013).

Canda, E. and Furman, L.; 1999. Spiritual diversity in social work practice: The heart of helping. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hodge, D. R. (2011). Using spiritual interventions in practice: Developing some
Guideline from evidence based practise
International Federation of Social Workers (2014) Global Definition of Social Work. www.ifsw,org/policies/definition-of-socialwork/ retrieved 24thFebruary 2016
Martin, H. (2003) `Social Research Today: Some Dilemmas and Distinctions’ , Qualitative Social Work
Neagoe, A. (ed.) (2011b) Values and Spirituality in Social Work Practice. Bonn: Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft Culture and Science Publication.

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