National power means all of the resources available to a state to fulfill its national interests and strenghten itself in the world politics.
Elements of National Power
Geography of a state greatly affects its relations with other states.Some states are born rich because of their geographical location while others are dependant on the geography of other states.If we go back to history we can see that Britain occupied subcontinent for nearly two hundred years and used its people and resources to strengthen itself in the world.The bigger the size of a state,the powerful and dominating it can become.State with large size means more population,more natural resources and at the time of any external attack there are more people to defend its territories.
2. Natural Resources
Water,land and minerls are the natural resources a state can have.The states with more natural resources are considered more rich,powerful and can dominate in the world.For example Saudi Arabia has power because of its petroleum resources and its economy primarily depends on oil.Some states are rich in minerals but due to lack of machinery they fail to extract them.Some states are blessed with land resource meaning they have fertile land available for agricultural purposes.For example Pakistan’s agricultural sector contributes 21% of GDP into its economy.Another example can be of China which generates 20% of its electricity through hydropower.
Huge population can play an important role in the economic development of a state.For example China ranks at number one with most number of people in the world.Being the highly populated state it is leading the world market because of its skillful and multitalented population.World bank economic report of 2016 shows that China’s economic growth with an average of 10% annually has lifted over 800 million people from absolute poverty.This shows that if a state invests in human resource development than in no time its economy starts rising and unemployment diminishes.
In the past military,geographic position and population were considered the main aspects of national power but today national power of a state is also recognized by its advancement in the technology.Technological advanced states are considered developed states.USA and other developed countries have only one thing in common and that is they have advanced technology.It has been the advanced technological ability of developed states that majorly contributed to their power and progress.It is believed that technological advancement is more important than capital formation.But capital formation alone can bring out economic development to a limited extent and the progess stops if there is no technological change.A state cannot remain dependant on the import of technology.A nation that spends more on science and technical research will tend to grow faster than another country accumulating more capital but spending less on technology.
Military is one of the most important tangible element of national power.A state with strong military power is admired and respected by other states and it can not be threatened easily.The advent of nuclear bombs and missile technology has totally altered the definition of military power.In today’s world a state without advance military weapons can not survive alone.It has to develop strong friendly relations with its neighboring countries with the help of expert diplomats.America became super power because of its advanced military power and having expert diplomats.This is the main reason that America does not have enemies in its surroundings.
Diplomacy is one instrument among many that a government utilizes in its pursuit of the national interest.In its simplest,most original form diplomacy is the official means by which one state formally relates to other states.
Diplomats are agents of the state.They act on instruction.They build mutual understanding and support for state policies by reaching directly to publics in foreign countries,working with social media websites;educational,cultural and sports programs and all manner of people-to-people exchange.They are the channels of communication which the transmission of messages between the foreign ministries of the parent state and the host state.Along with the nature of the message,the manner and style of delivering the message greatly influences the course of negotiations.It is mainly through negotiations that a diplomat seeks to secure agreements and compromises over various conflictual issues and problems among states.