Nowadays, by age of 18, and most start

Nowadays, there are developed countries economically and politically powerful. The most recognized worldwide are United States and China. Even though these two countries have a very strong economic, they are different and similar in several ways. Social structure in China is formal and hierarchical. Chinese know where they fit in the structure and they abide by the rules there.

There is no crossing into other areas. However, in the United States, it is much more loose and informal. It is not uncommon to see people of different social classes talking to each other and socializing.

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There are only few lines that socially are not allowed to be crossed. Chinese society places high values on the morals of their people. They mostly don’t get marry until the late twenties. In fact, dating is not allowed in young people’s lives.

The American culture is more relaxed and some could even argue that there needs to be more moral emphasize. Teens leave their parents’ house by age of 18, and most start dating when they are in Middle School. Chinese love socialization in their business. Business becomes secondary as the parties get to know each better.

If it delays a contract, that is perfectly acceptable as long as the correct social time is allotted for. In America, business associates are usually more aloof. There might be some social gathering, but the business is more important and the socializing will be sacrificed to get the job done if needed. Although there seems to be shift in America regarding this, the recognition of networking is becoming more popular.When doing business in China, be prepared for much socializing.

Business becomes secondary as the parties get to know each better. It does not mare if a contract is delay as long as they are meeting their new partner. In America, business associates are usually more apart. There might be some social meetings, but the business is more important than socializing. Socializing for Americans is always sacrificed to get the job done.

Though there seems to be shift in America regarding this. The recognition of networking is becoming more pronounced.In conclusion, these different do not make these countries better or worst. On the contrary, they make them unique. The United States and China are both monsters in the economics of the world. These different are own of their traditions and cultures.

Nowadays, Uncertainty and vogues problems become an

Nowadays, Uncertainty and vogues problems become an important issue in generating fuzzy rules from numerical data. To handle uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision problems, it is important to develop intelligent and efficient systems. Generating appropriate fuzzy rules is one of the most challenging issues in fuzzy systems’ design. Thus, there is a need for using meta-heuristic search mechanism to generate membership function automatically. The success of developing a paramount fuzzy profile and the fuzzy rule base relies on using an efficient membership function and fuzzy rule base.

1On the other hand, planning the infrastructure of a typical Telecommunication Access Network (TAN) is a challenging problem due to the implied high level of both uncertainty and ambiguity. Otherwise, Building or designing a set of fuzzy rules depends on the accuracy of human being’s knowledge or experience, which based on the existing planning regions. Membership function and fuzzy rules 2 play a very important role in making a fuzzy decision about determining the location of the Multi Services Access Node (MSAN), which considered as the new solution and recent technology for fixed telecommunication services is a complex problem based on many barriers and obstacles. In many developing countries, MSAN becomes an important technology which meets an enormous demand for new business and residential telephone service. But, there are many obstacles in determining the best location of MSAN such as, continuous increasing of a number of subscribers which makes determining the best location of MSAN with high accuracy very difficult.

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So, thus, effects on the grade of service. As well as, MSAN’s providing service wants to satisfy the needs of thousands of new subscribers with high-quality telephone service and supply the right equipment, at the right place, and at the right time to reach an acceptable grade of service with a minimum number of MSANs. 3 This paper presents a new model of ABCMax-MinFitCorr for classifying the MSAN’s planning rules. The seven MSAN’s features (barriers) are used for classifying two classes of MSAN installation decisions where the membership degrees of each MSAN’s features (barriers) will used as input. The presented ABCMax-MinFitCorr model combined the Artificial Bee Colony capabilities using correlation function as a fitness function and the mamdani inference system to select appropriate rules with respect to the training data. The classification results are used for evaluating the ABCMax-MinFitCorr.

The total classification accuracy of the ABCMax-MinFitCorr model was 98.68%. We therefore have concluded that the proposed ABCMax-MinFitCorr model can be used in classifying the MSAN’s features (barriers) by taking into consideration the misclassification rates. This paper tries to build fuzzy rules in three stages: the first stage generates automatic membership function parameters using a meta-heuristic search mechanism and the information theory measures as the fitness function to adjust particles using Particle Swarm Optimization with Total Entropy (PSO-TE). In the second stage, the result of the first stage is delivered to proposed hybrid model by using Artificial Bee Colony with correlation function (ABCMax-MINFitCorr) as a fitness function to select appropriate rules with respect to the training data. The final stage in this research will introduce the test data which will be used to check for the accuracy of the whole system.

Nowadays, one of the subjects which the leaders

Nowadays, in this rapidly changing world the need for effective leadership for success of organization is increasing ever before. Many organizations in the world have changed their leadership so that they could achieve their organizational goals and strategies (Ismail et al. 2013:253). Therefore one of the subjects which the leaders should change along changing the conditions is their leadership style.

Leadership has many definitions that come from numerous studies over the years. Yukl (2010:26) outline leadership as the process of influencing others to recognize and agree about what desires to be achieved and how to do it, and the process of facilitating followers and collective efforts to accomplish shared goals. Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization (House et al. 1999: 184). DuBrin (2010:2) describes leadership as an ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals.Despite the multitude of ways in which leadership has been conceptualized, Northouse, (2016:6) identified the following components as central to the phenomenon: a)Leadership is a process, b) Leadership involves influence, c) Leadership occurs in groups, d) Leadership involves common goals. Based on these components Northouse defined leadership as a process in which an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leadership has passed through number of models and theories.

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However the focus of this study is on full range leadership theory which encompasses transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles. As a new leadership approach transactional and transformational emerged in the 1970s. Inspired from Burns’ work (1978), Bass and Avolio developed the Full-range Leadership Model (Gill 2010:50). This model assumed that every leader displays the three leadership styles such as transformational, transactional and passive at different level (Avolio 2010:66). Transformational leadership focuses on what the leader accomplishes yet still pays attention to the leader’s personal characteristics and his or her relationship with group members. Transformational leader helps bring about major positive changes by moving group members beyond their self-interests and toward the good of the group, organization, or society (DuBrin, 2010: 83). Transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower’s behavior or performance. Transactional leadership depends on laying out contingencies, agreements, reinforcements, and positive contingent rewards or the more negative active or passive forms of management-by-exception (Avolio, 2011: 63).

For a leader who wants to be effective, a good balance of the three leadership styles is mandatory (Avolio 2010:49). Previous studies by different researchers demonstrated that leadership styles have an impact on the level of organizational commitment of employees. Cohen (2003: xi) described commitment as a pressure that binds an individual to a direction of activity of relevance to at least one or extra goals. Miller (2003:73) also affirms organizational commitment as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and his or her goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. This description of commitment relates to the definition of organizational commitment by Arnold (2005: 625) that is the relative strength of an individual’s identification with an involvement in an organization. Meyer and Allen (1997:106) employ the tri-dimensional model to conceptualize organizational commitment in three dimensions namely, affective, continuance and normative commitments. Affective commitment described as the employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization (Meyer and Allen 1997:11). Tetrick (1995: 589) also explains affective commitment as value rationality-based organizational commitment, which refers to the degree of value congruence between an organizational member and an organization.

Meyer and Herscovitch (2001: 316) suggest that any variable that will enhance the probability of the following three matters will help employees to become affectively committed. Firstly, an employee becomes motivated by his or her own will or absorbed in the flow, in a course of action. Secondly, an employee recognizes the value or relevance of the organization or the course of action to him or herself. Thirdly, association with the organization or a course of action will shape an employee’s identity (Meyer &Herscovitch 2001: 316.)Continuance commitment refers to awareness of the costs that would occur if the employee left the organization.

Best (1994: 71) pointed out that continuance organizational commitment will therefore be the strongest when availability of alternatives is few and the number of investments is high. This argument supports the view that when given better alternatives, employees may leave the organization. Meyer and Allen, (1997: 11) describe normative commitment as the work behavior of people, guided by a way of duty, obligation and loyalty towards the organization. Number of studies which has been conducted in different countries relates leadership styles to employees’ organizational commitment. Leadership style is a strong dimension of organization commitment when the organization culture of the organization represents employees’ values in the organization (Sabir et al 2011 pp 145-152). Study conducted by Shin (2013: iii) revealed that transformational and transactional leadership styles are positively related with organizational commitment. Raja and Palaichamy (2011:173-174) in their research showed that transformational leadership style is related to employees’ organizational commitment than the transactional leadership style. The study conducted by Lo et al.

(2010: 98) in Malaysia also revealed that leadership styles of leaders are important dimensions of the social context because they shape employees organizational commitment in various ways. Organizational commitment also positively or negatively affects an organization’s performance. In many countries different organizations including public sector organizations have changed their leadership styles in order to improve their performance.


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