Organizationalactivity of managers in any field, as in the construction and built environmentsector, is based on knowledge of the management theory and its methodologicalprinciples. Construction project managers haveto follow the basic principles and acquire skills and competence in order to fulfill their task and navigate through the project to meet client’s needs. Explainingthese principles one should begin with scientific management theory andemphasize the monograph “Principles of Scientific Management” published in 1911by Frederick W. Taylor.In his studies and experiments F. Taylor proposed four generalprinciples that formed the foundationof followingfundamental research in the field of organization theory.Four principles: · use the scientificmethod in order to study the tasks and evaluate the most efficient way toperform these tasks;· assign workers to thejobs, which match their skills and abilities;· train workers to dotheir tasks at maximum efficiency, monitor the working process to make surethat all instructions are followed;· divide the job byeach task and each task by the smallest elements, provide the workers withproper and precise instructions with efficient way to perform each task.
(Taylor,1911)As we can see, the principles above are essential in themanager performance in the construction company where the establishment of functional connection with thenumerous teams makes place and supervising of every task is required.Construction projects have a continuous need for alterations and in that senseefficient management is key to the stability of the whole project. ManagementprocessesOne can say that management process is getting things done throughpeople. In my opinion, precise interpretation was developed by George R.
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Terry.”Management process is a distinctprocess consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling,performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people andresources”. (Terry, 1971)Management processencompasses 7 elements, or functions:1.
Planning 2. Organizing3. Directing4. Controlling 5. Coordinating6.
Motivating7. CommunicationLet’s discuss in details how we can apply major managementprocesses to the construction project managing.1.
Planning Planning is a mental process which aims to consciously determinethe course of action based on acts and considered estimates.Koontz, H. and O’Donnell, C.(1984), Management (8th Ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York Planning involves looking into thefuture, forecasting of the future course and decision-making based on theseforecasts.
Planning, as a function of construction project manager, includes:· setting of the projectgoals and objectives;· forecasting ofconstruction manpower;· choosing the most efficientconstruction method and strategies;· scheduling and documentingall the jobs that must be completed;· cost estimation andbudget setting;· selecting projectparticipants;· planning communicationmechanism to establish an efficient information flow between all involvedparties ( client, architect, contractors and suppliers etc).Planning of construction activitieshelps to utilize the resources and avoid confusion, uncertainties and risks, visualizethe future problems and develop possible solutions2. OrganizingOrganizing is process of forming administrative structure, bringingresources together (personnel, capital,machinery, materials) and developingproductive relationship amongst all resources to achieve organization goals.
Organizing involves grouping duties and responsibilities,delegating authority within company, department or project structure. Theproject structure defines the relationships among members of the projectmanagement and the relationships with the external environment. Project managerdesigns this structure which can be presented in organization chart (Pic.1).Pic.1Example of organization chart (2007)Examplesof organizing in construction involves;· allocating totalconstruction work to manageable departments;· delegating specifictasks to teams and individuals;· developing the best wayto assign duties and responsibility in order for project’s working teams to carryout the tasks efficiently and in time.3.
DirectingDirecting is process of guiding and instructingpeople through the means of motivation,leadership, and effective communication. In construction industry directing is especially important. Aproject manager must develop the ability to supervise, command and direct peopleat the construction site, influence them to complete tasks well to reachproject’s goals. For example, manager creates friendly atmosphere and inspiresubordinates; ensures that personnel understands the tasks, workplace has theright resources and deadline will be meet. Effective communication involvesestablishing communication channels between manager and subordinates as well asbetween employees and managers of different levels. 4. ControllingControlling is managerial function; its purpose is to checkthe performance and results with agreed standards.
Controlling helps to preventdeviations from the plan or implement the corrective actions in case deviations occurred.A construction project manager must performthe following steps in controlling:· identifypotential problems;· control whether all theproject requirements are maintained;· maintain projectschedules and costs;· controlling subcontractors activities;· controlling the projectprocess and ensure that decisions arealways made in a time;· examine quality of workand prepare evaluation reports;· spotdeviations in schedule and take corrective measures.5. CoordinatingCoordinating deals with bringingthe unity to all elements of the project structure, coordinating the work of departments,groups and persons in order to maintain good communication. It is necessary foreach department and group to know their roles and collaborate with each other.Construction project manager must coordinate:· thesupply of materials and equipment to the construction site;· thework of all subcontractors and workers;· monthlypayments to contractors and workers;· changes,claims in design requirements.
Projectsare characterized by the division of labor and task so as project componentshave different specialization. Integrationis collaboration and understanding among the project elements required toachieve project goals. The project manager is required to develop integratingstrategies to ensure that all groups and personsintegrated well and work efficiently and in harmony.