Other that children emerge their ideologies from the

Other communication theories were also utilized. Since it was mentioned earlier that the current study did not cover the effects of watching gender role portrayals in Disney Princess films on viewers especially children. The researchers, however, acknowledged that exposure to these films has an influence on children’s perception of each gender’s position. The constructivist approach and cultivation theory both verify the effect of viewing stereotypical gender roles on audiences. Constructivist approach argued that children emerge their ideologies from the things they observed and experienced (Martin et al. 2002), and “therefore, viewing stereotyped or egalitarian depictions of gender roles will influence children’s ideas about gender” (England et al, 2011, p. 557). Gerbner et al. (1980) discussed the role of television in the lives of viewers especially children. Cultivation theory explains that a long-term exposure to media violence may have effects at a conscious and unconscious level according to Griffin (2014). It has been proposed by Gerbner (1969) that heavy viewers might have skewed perceptions of the world due to false representations being on shown on different forms of media. Since Disney films cater mostly to younger audiences, their perceptions of the social world are rooted from the symbolic environment constructed by television. This symbolic environment is what gives order and meaning to human actions. The cultivation theory simply suggests that viewing Disney princess films for a prolonged amount of time will develop the way children perceive their norms and traditions. Therefore, if the audiences continuously view Disney princess films and the way gender roles are being portrayed, then there is a possibility that that is what they perceive to be normal in the society. Additionally, Klein (2000) along with other authors has pointed out that cultivation theory posits that higher levels of exposure to gendered messages are likely associated with stronger effects on children’s gender socialization. In the study, it was mentioned that these theories are somehow evident because parents perceive Disney as quality family entertainment which gives children an easier access to these films (Buckingham, 1997), sometimes the portrayal of gender in these films are accepted even by the parents where children are easier to influence to.


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