Overall, 76% of employers revealed that facing talent shortages in the financial service industry (Figure 1.3). The issue is experience more in Islamic banking sectors where 82% of employers mentioned that the sector facing shortage of talents. This is followed by conventional banking with 78%, Insurace/ Takaful sector with 72% and capital market with 59% (Asian Institute of Finance, 2015). No matter how advanced the banking technology in coming years but motivated and talented employees will continue to play major role in any banking organization’s success.
Based on study released by consulting firm Quinlan ; Associates stated that some banks are experiencing up to 1 billion in cost annually related with replacing employees who leave voluntarily (Reuters, 2017). According to Sander (2013), the employment rate in Malaysia has increased to 67.5% on September 2013 due to tough job growth from service sectors.
Service sectors provided several of job opportunities to ensure that employees will be committed toward their organization. So, organization especially banking industry required committed employees to sustain competitive advantage. Banks was considered as the most stressed out sectors in the world , so highly committed employees becomes more essential (Ebiringa,2011). The turnover rate in Malaysia has increased from 9.
3% in the year of 2009 to 10.1% in the year of 2010. The highest turnover rate has been identified in financial services with 18.
3% and IT industry with 20% (Saraih, 2016). Furthermore, according to the findings received from Tower Watson’s (2014), employee turnover rate increased from 12.3% in 2012 to 13.2% in 2013 based on general industry in Malaysia. Based on the finding by Hewitt Associates (2009), high rate of intention to quit in the commercial banks influences the productivity, quality and profitability due to lack of knowledge, skills and specialize in the field (Lim, 2016). Manufacturing, conglomerates and financial industry facing a critical high percentage of staff turnover. According to Saraih (2016), turnover in manufacturing shows 24%, employee churn with 14% , BPO with 19% and financial services with 13.
3% on 2013. These percentage indicated that the rate of turnover is increasing from a year to another. Perhaps the high turnover rate by employees due to frequent switching will leads to crucial negative effect such as reduce productivity, psychological distress, quality of service and recruitment cost (Powell & York,1992; Mustapha & Mourad, 2007). Other than that, it also can lead to further work overload, distraction in workflow, mistrust and more turnover happens (Miller, 2010). According to Hamed, AB Rashid and Raja Harun (2015), the Islamic banking development maintain positive which it grows 50% faster than the overall banking sectors. Market share of Islamic banking in Malaysia is close to 30% (Ernst and Young, 2013).
The fact that Islamic banking sectors expanded all over the world due to high customers demand towards Islamic banking products and services which leads issues related to staff competency. It is because this industry facing some problems to adapt strong demand from customers even though having a strong operational base, regulatory framework and valuable support from society. As stated by Hamed, et.al (2015), customers are more knowledgeable and well-educated in banking products nowadays and demands more innovative products and services (Aslam et al.
, 2011). However, Zainol,et.al (2008), mentioned that bankers had limited knowledge on the products and services prior to working with the banks (Ab Rashid et.al , 2015). According to Madun (2013), Islamic banks in Malaysia unable to market their products in aggressive manner. So, Islamic banks should understand in better way of the needs, preferences and target customers to avoid complaints and dissatisfaction from customers.
Therefore, it is important for the Islamic banks communicate with their customers so that the customer will understand about quality and value offered by Islamic banks (Kamarulzaman & Madun , 2013). Over the past two decades, changes in technological innovation, globalization, privatization of public services, and global economic slowdown have taken place in the structure of labor market. So, these changes effects on the competition between organizations and the contract between employer and employee. The Central Bank (BNM) stringent supervisory and surveillance system has confirmed that Malaysian banking industry will remain tough in the global of financial crisis due to capitalization, healthy asset quality, improved risk management standards and practices (ABM, 2008). In fact, Malaysian banking industry has witnessed radical changes due to many innovations in products, processes, services, business models, technology and delivery system (Tan, Chew & Hamid, 2016). So, the employees are required to adapt and upgrade in the term of skills since technological advancement needs employees to be adaptive and responsive in order to contribute to the organization’s success.
The lack of emphasizing more into employee motivation factors able to decrease on the sense of possessiveness or ownership towards the banks and leads to poor work performance. Therefore, the banking industry selected for this research because it plays an important role in improving economic growth and service industry in Malaysia. Besides, would like to investigate more into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors which act as independent variable and psychological ownership act as mediating variable of this study that influence work performance of employees as dependent variable in banking sectors of Malaysia.