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ol1 {list-style-type: decimal}AbstractThere is a remarkable growth in the field of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Developing Countries (DCs). Telecommunication is one of the areas where ICT is recording an ongoing rapid change. Wireless sensor communications play a key role in the emerging Internet of Things digital ecosystem. As the industry now gets ready to roll out the second generation of IoT-devices, effort is directed to fully standardize the protocol suite of wireless sensor networks, and assure full IP connectivity with devices. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), as distributed networks of sensors with the ability to sense, process and communicate, have been increasingly used in various fields including engineering, health and environment, to intelligently monitor remote locations at low cost.

Sensors also known as nodes in such networks are responsible for four major tasks: data aggregation, sending and receiving data, and in-network data processing. This implies that they must effectively utilize their resources, including memory usage, CPU power and, more importantly, energy, to increase their lifetime and productivity. Besides harvesting energy, increasing the lifetime of sensors in the network by decreasing their energy consumption has become one of the main challenges of using WSNs in practical applications.IntroductionThe development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has recently opened up a new and interesting area for the creation of new types of applications. WSNs consist of a large number of small sensing nodes that monitor their environment, process data if necessary (using microprocessors) and send/receive processed data to/from other sensing nodes.

These sensing nodes, distributed in the environment, are connected to a sink node in centralized networks or to other sensing nodes via a network. In centralized networks, the sink collects sensor data to be used by the end user. In many cases, the sink is also capable of activating sensing nodes via broadcasting, by sending network policy and control information. As with other networks, there are three common design challenges that highly influence the connectivity and productivity of the entire network: (1) using network protocols to minimize control and data packets, (2) selecting the best topology by positioning nodes in the right places, and (3) deploying a routing algorithm that effectively passes data through the network from the origin node to destination node/nodes.    In this sort of system which basically data would be collected from the sensor through the central processor and would be categorized for further processing.Figure of WSNAs the nodes are under control, the communication between nodes is programmable and management and maintenance of the nodes is easier; also, because a lower number of nodes is used in the environment, the cost is much lower.

Different sights of WSNRecently, wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become popular due to their exceptional capabilities. Applications for WSNs cover a substantial range of domains varying from military to farming applications; for example, precision agriculture, where a farmer can control temperature and humidity, or surveillance systems to detect and monitor enemies or threats. Other examples include observing the activities of birds, small animals and insects, tracking the effects on crops and livestock of various environmental conditions, monitoring earth’s activities and planetary exploration, discovering forest fires, detecting floods, mapping environment bio complexity and studying environmental pollution. WSNs can also be used to address numerous challenges in the field of health and medicine by monitoring and directing data to a base station; it can create an interface to observe conditions of disabled and integrated patients, monitor diagnostics and drug administration in hospitals, observe human physiological data and track doctors and patients inside a hospital. Typically, a WSN application consists of a set of sensor nodes distributed in the studied area and a few sinks, all nodes cooperate with each other to create and pass generated data to the sink. The role of every node is to sense data, depending on the application, and then send it to the related sink via a single hop or through multiple hops. Each application needs a different type of sensor network architecture and communication protocol; for example, military applications are designed based on a dense deployment of sensors supporting self-organizing, rapid deployment, and fault tolerance.

On the other hand, health applications need only a limited number of sensors connected to a patient with reliable data transmission. Challenges of EH-WSNOne of the biggest problem is the constant energy which is would not be provided by Ambient. In the other hand harvest energy can at any time be very low which would be excess of the storage capacity of the nodes on other occasions.In the system which ambient would provide the sources and location for the harvest energy, for instance consider one node placed next to a window with direct sunlight and the other one positioned in a bookshelf.Sensor hardware capabilities  There are various types of sensors with specific uses in special environments.

Some of the commercially available wireless sensor nodes for health monitoring one of the widest applications of WSNs include pulse oxygen saturation sensors to evaluate the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen, and heart rate, blood pressure sensors, electrocardiograms to detect heart abnormalities by measuring its electrical activity, electromyograms for evaluating muscle activities, temperature sensors, respiration sensors, blood flow sensors and blood oxygen level sensors oximeters for measuring cardiovascular exertion ,distress, to name a few.ConclusionIn this project I have tried to show the different sights of WSN in different situations and also in different function of the WSN in the new day of technology. I have tried briefly to talk and discuss about the Hardwar and software of the WSN, difficulties and the problem and also briefly discussed about the history and usage of WSN in my project.


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