performs to judge whether a project has reached its goals and delivered what is expected according to its original plan.
At the program level, the motivation behind monitoring and evaluation is to track execution and yields deliberately, and measure the adequacy of projects. It decides precisely when a program is on track and when changes might be required. Monitoring and evaluation shapes the reason for change of intercessions and evaluating the nature of exercises being directed.
Monitoring and evaluation can be utilized to show that program endeavors have measurably affected expected results and have been executed successfully. It is fundamental in helping managers, planners, implementers, policy makers and donors acquire the information and understanding they need to make informed decisions about programme operations.
As adapted from Gage and Dunna( 2009), Frankel and Gage (2007), Monitoring and evaluation assists with recognizing the most important and productive utilization of assets. It is basic for creating target ends in regards to the degree to which projects can be judged a “win”. Monitoring and evaluation together provide the necessary data to guide strategic planning, to design and implement programmes and projects, and to allocate, and re-allocate resources in better ways. Evaluation
Evaluation clearly state what the developments of the project is and what are the last yields. From one perspective, this will reinforce the general consistency of the project proposition. Then again, you will ensure that the benefactor has solid approaches to survey the halfway and last aftereffects of the project, accordingly adding to ensure an effective correspondence. . Evaluation can be defined as a process which determines as systematically and as objectively as possible the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability and impact of activities in the light of a project or programme performance, focusing on the analysis of the progress made towards the achievement of the stated objectives.
In most cases, evaluation is not given emphasis in projects, as what is normally considered most is monitoring.
Purpose of Evaluation
Evaluation has several purposes, which include the following:
• It assists to determine the degree of achievement of the objectives.
• It determines and identifies the problems associated with programme planning and implementation.
• It generates data that allows for cumulative learning which, in turn, contributes to better designed
programmes, improved management and a better assessment of their impact. The key words in this scenario are “lessons learned”.
• It assists in the reformulation of objectives, policies, and strategies in projects or programmes.
It should also be noted that in some cases, evaluation has been used to resolve non-programme issues affecting different donors. For instance, two organizations involved in separate but similar programmes on land management may undertake an evaluation of the entire programme to assess the extent to which they can cooperate. Consequently, evaluation can be seen as a process that determines the viability of programmes or projects and facilitates decisions on further resource commitment.
Project monitoring system is a process of comparing actual use of inputs and completed outputs with planned use of inputs and planned completed outputs, the purpose of a project monitoring system is to provide information to stakeholders that can be used to make decisions during the implementation of the project. Then, through brainstorming, groups can identify the possible stakeholders in a project. Among these could be the beneficiaries, the project management staff, regional and national ministry officials, and the donors or financiers. Once this is done, it is important that a clear plan of how to accomplish monitoring while ensuring maximum benefits is put in place. This system monitors the output and inputs as highlighted below:
Monitoring of outputs:
This clearly elaborates on a methodology able to constantly monitor the development of the project so that the evaluation of partial and final outputs is consistent with the monitoring process. For instance, if the output is to train 10 students to use a specific software, make sure to monitor the progress they make every week. In this way, you will be able to provide evidence on how the final output has been reached.
Monitoring of outcomes and impacts
Outcomes and impacts are more difficult to assess. Whereas it is clear how to measure the success of an implemented project by stating that a certain goal was reached, to measure the impact of an activity in community dynamics is more challenging. Thus, find your way to monitor what happens ‘around the project’. For instance, you can elaborate on a strategy able to prove that not only these students are learning how to use the new software, but also that by acquiring a new skill the quality of their lives is somehow improving. By designing a monitoring strategy able to assess outcomes and impacts, you will succeed in proving to your donor that the implemented activities will have a positive, long-term effect in the community. Further, you can draw on the results of your monitoring practice to design new follow-up projects or to ensure potential new donors on the project’s capacity to proactively engage with real problems and positively affect the lives of those you and with whom you are working, Wild, R., (1995).
A project is a temporary entity established to deliver specific (often tangible) outputs in line with predefined time, cost and quality constraints. A project should always be defined and executed and evaluated relative to an (Executive) approved business case which balances the costs, benefits and risks of the project. The project business case should be managed under change control.
According PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) third version, A project is characterized as an “impermanent undertaking with a start and an end and it must be utilized to make a one of a kind item, administration or result”. Further, it is logically explained. What this meaning of an undertaking implies is that projects are those exercises that can’t go on uncertainly and must have a characterized reason. A project is a movement to meet the making of an interesting item or administration and in this manner exercises that are attempted to achieve routine exercises can’t be thought about undertakings.
A project must be logically expounded. This implies the project advances in steps and proceeds by increases. This additionally implies the meaning of the project is refined at each progression and eventually the reason for the advance is articulated. This implies an undertaking is first characterized at first and afterward as the project advances, the definition is returned to and greater clearness is added to the extent of the project and in addition the basic suppositions about the undertaking. Banks, L(2017) stresses that a project is a win on the off chance that it meets the destinations of time, cost, specialized and business. Undertaking destinations are characterized in the preparatory project scope explanation. As said over, an undertaking is esteemed finished if the project destinations have been met.
Program planning involves a portfolio comprised of multiple projects that are managed and coordinated as one unit with the objective of achieving (often intangible) outcomes and benefits for the organization. Programs usually span a far greater duration than a project. This might seem like an arbitrary difference. However, managing a program involves long term strategic planning that’s not required of a project. The ongoing nature of programs also means that they engage in continuous process improvement, Kerzner, H. (1997).
A program plan is the outline of events and activities that members follow to reach the goals of the organization. A successful program plan provides detail and shows how each activity supports the organization’s mission.
Program planning is the process by which a program is conceived and brought to fruition. Program planning involves multiple steps including the identification of a problem, selection of desired outcomes, assessment of available resources, implementation, and evaluation of the program. Program planning is sometimes called program design or program design planning.
A program is created when an organization identifies a need and creates a plan for addressing that need. In order to be successful, a program must have specific goals and a process for meeting those goals. Program planning is the means by which this objective is achieved. Various models, such as the logic model or evidence-based model, may be used to create a program plan. When planning, an organization will consider the problem that has been identified, potential solutions and desired outcomes, and the resources available to implement the program. Support and participation by stakeholders, or other interested parties, and ongoing program evaluations are key elements of solid program planning.
In a nut shell, this essay highlighted the link between logical framework and planning, monitoring and evaluation and it further established the rational of monitoring and evaluation system in a project and also the difference between programme planning and a project. Log frames give a structured, logical approach to setting priorities, and determining the intended purpose and results of a project. If used correctly, log frames can provide a sound mechanism for project development. Logical frameworks also lay the basis for activity scheduling, budgeting, monitoring, and for evaluating the impact, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of a project. The Logical Framework, or simply logframe, is a widely applied tool for comprehensive project formulation since it encourages concise project description in a standardized way. The logframe is a practical monitoring tool during the implementation of projects. Its function as a management tool is however less known and the use of the Logical framework during the implementation period depends widely on how it was designed during the identification and formulation stage of a project.
The rational for establishing Monitoring and Evaluation systems is that they are separate practices dedicated to the assessment of the project’s overall performance. Monitoring and evaluation are also valuable planning and management tools. Building observing frameworks and conceiving assessments at the start of the program plans and audit goals and to estimate future asset needs. It enables associations to distinguish where they may have neglected to have the proposed affect or even where they have had an unintended effect, which might be certain or negative. A project is a temporary entity established to deliver specific (often tangible) outputs in line with predefined time, cost and quality constraints.
A project should always be defined and executed and evaluated relative to an (Executive) approved business case which balances the costs, benefits and risks of the project. The project business case should be managed under change control.
Program planning involves a portfolio comprised of multiple projects that are managed and coordinated as one unit with the objective of achieving (often intangible) outcomes and benefits for the organization. Programs usually span a far greater duration than a project. This might seem like an arbitrary difference. However, managing a program involves long term strategic planning that’s not required of a project. The ongoing nature of programs also means that they engage in continuous process improvement.