Pollution and wood, and the presence of

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants.has always accompanied civilizations.

Pollution started from prehistoric times, when man created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, “soot” found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires.”4 Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production.5Urban pollutionAir pollution in the US, 1973The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution. The Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem;67 the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today.

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London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems and clean water.8In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe.

August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1870s:”Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a truly fearsome smell. There were no public toilets in the streets or squares. Visitors, especially women, often became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive….As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870.

“9The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers, and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world’s model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented “the most complete application of science, order and method of public life,” adding “it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is.”10The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure.

As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as “miracles of cleanliness.”.11 By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles.

12Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.13Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution

Pollution pollution happens when toxic or harmful

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change (they cause harm or discomfort to the ecosystem). It is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. Pollution is one of the environmental issues in South Africa and other developing countries in the world. South Africa is affected by various pollution types which can also affect its future resources.
The types of pollution that we have in south Africa.
Water pollution
Water pollution happens when toxic or harmful substances enter water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans, getting dissolved in them and lying suspended in the water. This degrade the quality of water. One of South Africa’s biggest issues is lack of clean water. Many places in South Africa does not have access to clean water due to water pollution. For example; most people in the rural outskirts of Johannesburg depend on Vaal dam for drinking water, but the sewage waste from the city pollutes the water in the dam making it poisonous and people around these rural communities end up not having access to clean water. Garbage or solid waste also contribute to water pollution because as it rains, the water from dumping sites may end up running off to the dams.
How water pollution is a threat to our future resources
According to researcher David Hemson writing in the SA Health Review 2016, the clean water supply that south Africa has is under threat from several pollutants. Water pollution is a threat to our future water resources because as people continue polluting water or dumping waste into the water, in future South Africa will experience the problem of water shortages.
How the problem of water pollution can be addressed
People should be encouraged to recycle because recycling is good for the environment and it can help improve water too. When people recycle they keep plastics and other chemical materials out of landfills. This reduces pollution in groundwater surrounding those landfills. People should also avoid directing sewage water into the dams.
Air pollution
It occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases and biological molecules are introduced into Earth’s atmosphere. It may cause diseases, allergies and death of humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural or built environment. South Africa relies on coal for 97% of its primary energy and the smoke that comes from using coal causes air pollution which affect the environment and people’s health. The air pollution situation in South Africa is like that of other developing countries. The main sources of air pollution in South Africa are burning of coal, oil, natural gas in industrial processes, power generation and in vehicles (Oliver 2001).
How air pollution is a threat to our future resources
Air pollution is a threat to our future resources.

How the problem of air pollution can be addressed
In addressing the problem of pollution, South African citizens must be educated about the harmful effects of air pollution. To reduce the amount of air pollution, people must be encouraged to use public transport to limit the number of cars that produces bad smoke on the roads. Instead of burning waste, people should be encouraged to recycle the things that are recyclable (things such as plastic bags and bottles), because burning them produces smoke that is harmful to the environment. People should also be encouraged to use environmentally friendly chemicals.

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Solid waste pollution
Solid waste includes garbage, rubbish, ashes and construction waste. With the increase of population, and an increase in the number of people who are moving to urbanized areas, the number of solid waste produced is increasing.
How solid waste pollution is a threat to our future resources
Solid waste pollution is a threat to our future resources. In future, the country will have no space for the development of new residence because of the large amount of garbage or rubbish that is dumped on the land that is not used. The country will end up experiencing the problem of deforestation because the trees will be cut down to create dumping sites because of the large amount of garbage that we have in South Africa.
How the problem of solid waste pollution can be addressed
To reduce the problem of solid waste, people should be encouraged to recycle things such as plastic bags and bottles, to reduce the number of ashes that adds to solid waste. People should also be encouraged to use paper bags instead of using plastic bags .
Conclusion

References
1. Savides, Matthew (March 6, 2001) Water shortage loom for Durban
2. Oliver D.D. 2001. Diesel vehicle emission testing in the city of Cape Town. Proceedings of national Associations for Clean Air Conference

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