PRE-RETIREMENT PREPARATION AND PSYCHOSOCIAL WELLBEING OF
RE-RETIREES WITH MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORTS
DEP (KYU), BSDC (UMU)
16 MCP 095
A RESEARCH DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF KISUBI IN FULFILLMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD OF THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CLINICAL
AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING OF
UGANDA MARTYRS’ UNIVERSITY
SEPTEMBER, 2018DECLARATIONI, Namakula Rebecca, do hereby declare that the contents contained in this dissertation are authentic and, to the best of my knowledge, have been never submitted for an award of degree in any institution of higher learning.
APPROVALThis is to certify that this dissertation has been presented for examination in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the award of the degree of Master of Science in Clinical and Psychological Counseling with my endorsement as a research supervisor.
Signed:………………………………………………Dr. Nsereko James Rogers
UNIK RESEARCH SUPERVISOR
Br. Kiwanuka AnthonyUNIK RESEARCH SUPERVISOR
Date: ……………………………………………DEDICATIONThis work piece is dedicated to my family which encouraged me throughout this study
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis study has been a long journey and I feel indebted to those who participated in their own ways to make it a success. I thank the almighty God for his special grace, provision and protection over the entire period of my work.
I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to those persons without whom this work piece would not be in this shape. Primarily I thank my supervisors Dr. Nsereko James Rogers and Mr. Kiwanuka Anthony for the continuous and invaluable assistance they offered to me during my research. I particularly thank them for reviewing my dissertation from time to time and giving me audience during my endless consultations as I progressed with my research which enabled me to produce this work piece on time. I also appreciate my classmates Teo, Juliet, Regina and Molly for their encouragement.
Lastly, I thank all respondents who participated in the study; without whose cooperation the study would not have yielded any objective findings. Most especially, I thank all the pre-retirees of MoES, and also the staff of the Human Resource department in the MoES who were very supportive during the study
TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u
2.7 Research Gaps PAGEREF _Toc525996692 h 25CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc525996693 h 26METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc525996694 h 263.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525996695 h 263.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc525996696 h 263.2 Area of study PAGEREF _Toc525996697 h 273.3 Study population and selection of samples PAGEREF _Toc525996698 h 283.3.1 Target population PAGEREF _Toc525996699 h 283.3.2 Sample size and sampling techniques PAGEREF _Toc525996700 h 283.4 Data collection instruments PAGEREF _Toc525996701 h 293.4.1 Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc525996702 h 293.5 Data quality control PAGEREF _Toc525996703 h 303.5.1 Reliability of an instrument PAGEREF _Toc525996704 h 313.5.2 Validity of an instrument PAGEREF _Toc525996705 h 313.6 Data collection procedure PAGEREF _Toc525996706 h 323.7 Data analysis procedure PAGEREF _Toc525996707 h 323.8 Research Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc525996708 h 333.9 Limitations PAGEREF _Toc525996709 h 343.10 Dissemination PAGEREF _Toc525996710 h 343.11 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525996711 h 34CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc525996712 h 35DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc525996713 h 354.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525996714 h 354.1 The Social Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents PAGEREF _Toc525996715 h 354.2 Establishing the relationship between demographics and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees PAGEREF _Toc525996716 h 374.3 Relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc525996717 h 394.3 The relationship between social life planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc525996718 h 414.4 Relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees PAGEREF _Toc525996719 h 434.4 Relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc525996720 h 454.5 Predicting determinants of psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees using multiple regression analysis PAGEREF _Toc525996721 h 47Table 7: PAGEREF _Toc525996722 h 474.5.1 Logistic regression PAGEREF _Toc525996723 h 48CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc525996724 h 49DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc525996725 h 495.1 Discussion of Findings PAGEREF _Toc525996726 h 495.1.1 Discussing the relationship between Age, Gender, level of education, salary scale, Marital Status and psychosocial wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc525996727 h 495.1.2 Discussing the relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing PAGEREF _Toc525996728 h 505.1.4 Relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre retirees PAGEREF _Toc525996729 h 515.1.5 Relationship between health planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre retirees PAGEREF _Toc525996730 h 525.2 Summary and Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525996731 h 525.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc525996732 h 545.4 Areas of Further Research PAGEREF _Toc525996733 h 55REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc525996734 h 56APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc525996735 h 67Appendix 1: Proposed Budget PAGEREF _Toc525996736 h 67Appendix 2: Research Work Plan (2018) PAGEREF _Toc525996737 h 68Appendix 3: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc525996738 h 69Appendix 4: Morgan ;Krejcre (1970) Table for Determining Sample Size from a Given Population PAGEREF _Toc525996739 h 72
List of tables
List of figures
AARPAmerican Association of Retired Persons
DEARDirectorate of Economic Affairs and Research
DESDirectorate of Educational Standards
DITDirectorate of Industrial Training
FPRFinancial Planning for Retirement
HAIHelp Age International
MoESMinistry of Education and Sports
NCDCNational Curriculum Development Centers
NDCsNon Communicable Diseases
NCHENational Council for Higher Education
NSCNational council for Sports
UBOSUganda Bureau of Statistics
UNATCOMUganda National Commission for UNESCO
UNEBUganda National Examination Board
UNFPAUnited Nations Population Fund
Retirement is a major event in people’s life time. The transition to retirement depends on financial circumstances, attitude, health, the reaction and behavior of loved ones and friends. Retirement entails adjustment to increase leisure time, decrease income generation, increase health concerns and changes in identity and interpersonal relationship. Generally, studies on retirement planning (preparation) and its influence on psychosocial wellbeing of prospective retirees do not seem prevalent. It is against this background that this study investigated the relationship between retirement preparation and psychosocial well being of pre-retirees.
The study used descriptive survey research design. The sample comprised of 70 pre-retirees within the ages of 54-59 years who were purposively drawn from all departments of MoES. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). One research instrument with three sections was used: psychosocial wellbeing was assessed using MHC-SF a standard tool with a reliability of r=0.8 Crobanch Alpha. The study found that; age, gender, salary scale and level of education did not significantly influence psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. However, the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between marital status and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees(X2 (df: 7) =22.830, p = .000).
Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested using chi-Square tests at 0.05 level of significance and multiple regressions was used to test the variables with magnitude effect on the psychosocial well-being of pre-retirees. The study established that there was no significant relationship between financial planning and psychosocial well-being of pre-retirees. The study also showed that, there is no significant relationship between social planning and psychosocial well-being of pre-retirees. Furthermore, the study established that, there is no significant relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial well-being of pre-retirees, also, the study showed that, there is no significant relationship between health planning and psychosocial well-being of pre-retirees. However, the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between discussing retirement with spouse and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees (X2(df:3)= 4.990, p=.032).
It was recommended that, employers enhance pre-retirement planning programs for their workers and pre-retirees should consider discussing retirement with their spouses. CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.0 IntroductionThe study focused on the effects of pre-retirement preparation on pre-retirees’ psychosocial well-being. This chapter presents the background to the study, statement of the problem the purpose of the study, objectives of the study, hypotheses, scope, and significance of the study.
1.1 Background to the studyThe long-term goal of every society is to enhance the psychosocial well-being of its members. According to the United Nations Population Fund(UNFPA) and Help Age International (HAI), demographers project that for the first time in history, there will be more people aged 60 years and above than children under 15 by the year 2050 CITATION Uni121 l 1033 (United Nations Population Fund; Help Age International, 2012). While longevity is a cause for celebration, adding quality to longevity is crucial CITATION Wor01 l 1033 (Thuku, Maina, ; Gecaga, 2016).
Pre-retirement preparation is of great concern to both organizations and employees including those in civil service. Retirement involves a lot of changes in value, financial conditions and social aspects of life. It also leads to the termination of a pattern of life and a transition to a new one. The transition to retirement depends on financial circumstances, attitude, health, the reaction and behavior of loved ones and friends CITATION Flo16 l 1033 (Undiyaundaye, 2016). Retirement entails adjustment to increase leisure time, decrease income generation, increase health concerns and changes in identity and interpersonal relationship CITATION Flo16 l 1033 (Undiyaundaye, 2016). Research confirms that the transition from a role of employee to that of a retiree is inevitable and can affect an individual’s psychosocial wellbeing CITATION Won09 l 1033 (Wong & Earl, 2009) . This is because when an individual retires, he or she parts from a significant activity that affects many life domains. Some retirees are able to adjust to their new life after retiring depending on how prepared they are socially and psychologically CITATION TAO05 m MoW101 l 1033 (Ode, 2005; Wang & Shultz, 2010).
By definition, psychosocial wellbeing is an aspect of both social and psychological behavior referring to the individual’s ability to adjust and relate to its social environment CITATION JOs12 l 1033 (Osborne J. W., psychological effects of the transition to retirement, 2012) Preparation for retirement is a complex and long-lasting process which usually starts with psychological preparation CITATION Pau131 l 1033 (Thuku P. W., 2013). This helps an individual to build a positive attitude towards retirement and visualize his/her life without the job routine. This is a critical step since retirement may lead to feelings of worthlessness, low esteem and identity crisis especially for those who were not psychologically prepared for the transition CITATION Joh09 l 1033 (Osborne J. W., 2009). However, smooth transition from the employment role to quality retirement is possible if retirees prepare and perform familiar activities with their social and physical environment CITATION RCA00 l 1033 (Atchley, 2000).
1.1.1 Historical perspectiveIn the African region, enhancing psychosocial wellbeing is a particular concern given that 39 out of the 40 countries with the lowest life expectancy are on the continent CITATION Uni121 l 1033 (United Nations Population Fund; Help Age International, 2012), yet research has established that a majority of employees in Africa had undertaken few or no voluntary steps to prepare for retirement CITATION ADa l 1033 (Dan, 2004). In a study in South Africa, although retirement preparation was the best predictor of retirement adjustment, only 45% of the respondents had adequately prepared prior to retirement CITATION Pri09 l 1033 (Prinsloo, 2009). In Kenya, very few studies on psychosocial wellbeing have been conducted CITATION JOs12 l 1033 (Osborne J. W., psychological effects of the transition to retirement, 2012) and very few of the studies have analyzed the influence of retirement preparation on psychosocial wellbeing of retirees CITATION DMu14 l 1033 (Muthondeki, Sirera, ; Mwenje, 2014). In Uganda, preparation for retirement was found to be challenging due to the fact that most employees were not sure of their individual roles in achieving quality retirement CITATION SLu12 l 1033 (Lubega, 2012). On the other hand, retirement studies consistently reported inadequate retirement preparation among employees CITATION AOd11 l 1033 (Odingi ; Mugenda, 2011) and CITATION ABo05 l 1033 (Bowling, 2005). In view of the critical contribution of retirement preparation on psychosocial well-being, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in MoES.
1.1.2 Theoretical perspectiveThe study was anchored on ecological systems theory of human development.
Ecological Systems Theory (EST)
Originally proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner, ecological systems theory has been widely adopted by developmental psychologists interested in understanding individuals in context CITATION Jen13 l 1033 (Neal ; Neal, 2013). His theory was key in changing a perspective of developmental psychology by calling attention to the large number of environmental and societal influences on one’s development. Urie Bronfenbrenner was an American developmental psychologist who helped in the formation of the head start Program in 1965 CITATION Noi17 l 1033 (Hayes, O’Toole, ; Halpenny, 2017). Ecological systems theory focuses on the individual as an integrating part with other systems. This theory works to analyze the social environment and emphasizes a social focus when working to address problem situations CITATION Noi17 l 1033 (Hayes, O’Toole, & Halpenny, 2017). This theory is a combined approach of ecological principles and systems theory first presented by Bronfenbrenner in the 1970’s as a theory of human development CITATION Ett17 l 1033 (Ettekal ; Mahoney, 2017). Conceptually, EST has been used to motivate a focus on setting level influences, guiding the development of contextual models to explain a range of phenomena including retirement planning CITATION JEK02 l 1033 (Kim ; Moen, 2002), youth activity engagement CITATION LRo09 l 1033 (Rose-Krasnor, 2009) and family influences on gender development CITATION SMM03 l 1033 (McHale, Crouter, ; Whiteman, 2003)The ecological perspective analyzes how well the individual or family fits with their environment and is based on the assumption that when a person or group is connected and engaged within a supportive environment then functioning improves CITATION Noi17 l 1033 (Hayes, O’Toole, & Halpenny, 2017). The researcher proposes that the link between retirement planning and psychosocial well-being can be best be understood through the lens of an ecological perspective (Kim & Moen, 2002). The ecology of human development CITATION Ett17 l 1033 (Ettekal & Mahoney, 2017) and role context CITATION JEK02 l 1033 (Kim & Moen, 2002) perspectives suggest locating transitions in the social contexts of other roles, relations, and developmental processes. In viewing ecological transition, the study focuses on process, the interdependence of linked lives and context as will be discussed later in chapter two.
The researcher chose this theory to be ideal for this study because they give a wide view of how retirement preparation can impact on the psychological well-being of pre-retirees.
1.1.3 Conceptual perspectiveThe section is mainly built up of four major terms; retirement, pre-retirement preparation, psychosocial well-being, and pre-retirees. For the purpose of this study, the terms should be understood in the following meaning:-
Retirement: an event that occurs when a person definitively stops working and withdraws from the formal labor market.
Pre-Retirement preparation or pre-retirement planning: for purposes of this study, the two words will be used interchangeably. The words will mean a goal-oriented behavior in which individuals devote effort to prepare for their retirement life. In this study, the words preparation and planning will be used synonymously. In this dissertation, pre-retirement preparation will be treated as an independent variable explained in terms of financial planning, social life planning, psychological planning and health planning
Pre-retirees: means those who are over the age of 50 and within six years of their anticipated retirement.
Psychosocial wellbeing: defined and operationalized in terms of psychological and social dimensions. The psychological domain of well-being includes measures that pertain to emotional wellbeing and mental distress. The social wellbeing encompasses social connectedness, networks and how pre-retirees perceive their social lives around communities. Psychosocial wellbeing will be treated as a dependent variable explained in terms of social and psychological well-being.
1.1.4 Contextual perspectiveUnderstanding that retirement planning is a protective factor for retirees, retirement in Uganda civil service is guided by Public Service Standing Orders (2010 edition), the parliamentary pensions act (2007), the Uganda Retirement Benefits Regulatory Authority Act (2011) and the Pension Act (cap 286) which deals with pensions and gratuity. All the documents mentioned give 60 years to be the age for mandatory retirement. According to the national census of 2014, Uganda has a population of 34.6 million people and 4% of the population is above 60 years CITATION Uga16 l 1033 (Uganda Bureau Stastics, 2016). The average people in civil service in 2015 were 300,372. Old age pensioners were 31,000 with an average age of 63.7 years (Directorate of Economic Affairs and Research DEAR, 2014). The increasing proportion of older adults in society calls for increased attention to their psychosocial needs.
Many of Ugandan workers are scared at the mention of the word retirement because of the unpleasant experiences of the past retirees in terms of the delay and difficulties encountered in getting their retirement benefits- gratuity and pension CITATION Yas17 l 1033 (Mugerwa, 2017). The government has at different times come under criticism from retired workers for failure to pay them their gratuity and pension on time CITATION JKa10 l 1033 (Kakooza, 2010). Since every salaried worker hopes to retire one day from the profession that he/she has spent a greater part of his/ her lifetime and energy, it is, therefore, necessary for civil servants to make effective preparations towards retirement. There is need to unearth the planning and type of preparation that civil servants make and seek before retirement to find out how it impacts on their psychosocial well-being.
1.2 Statement of the problemUganda’s development strategy outlined in Vision 2040 aims at improving the well-being of all citizens (including prospective retirees). Retirement is not a sudden event; it is rather a process by which people prepare for their later years. Unfortunately, the thought of retirement to some workers breeds anxiety, apprehension, and disillusionment CITATION Ema16 l 1033 (Allah, Ali, Said, ; Shalenda, 2016). Although retirement in itself is not a negative event CITATION Sar14 l 1033 (Asebedo ; Seay, 2014), retirement transition may lead to reduced wellbeing as individuals lose their occupational attachments, their social network of co-workers and a major anchor for their identity. Preparation for retirement can be an important factor to a well-adjusted retirement. Research confirms that retirement preparation is positively related to well-being. CITATION Won09 l 1033 (Wong ; Earl, 2009). Furthermore, studies have found that preparation for retirement is vital in enhancing retirees’ well-being (Lubega, 2012; Muthondeki, Sirera & Mwenje, 2014). In this regard, Uganda Retirement Benefits Regulatory Authority (URBRA), the National Social Security Fund (NSSF), the media and other relevant bodies have intensified retirement campaigns with a view to improving retirement preparation behavior of prospective retirees CITATION JAd16 l 1033 (Adengo J. , 2016). Yet, studies continue to report on numerous challenges faced by pre-retirees in the country CITATION JAd16 l 1033 (Adengo J. , 2016). Therefore it was deemed necessary to conduct this study to assess the relationship between retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in MoES1.3 Purpose of the studyThe general objective of the study was to assess the effects of pre-retirement preparation on pre-retirees’ psychosocial well-being in the Ministry of education and sports using a cross-sectional survey.
1.4 Specific objectivesTo examine the relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
To access the relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
To establish the relationship between psychological planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing
To investigate the relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing
1.5 Research questionsIs there a significant relationship between financial planning and psychosocial well-being among pre-retirees?
What is the relationship between social life planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing?
Is Psychological planning related to the psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees?
Is Health planning related to the psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees?
1.6 Research hypothesisThere is a significant relationship between pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in MoES1.7 Significance of the studyThe study was intended to assess the impact of pre-retirement preparation on pre-retirees’ psychosocial well-being. The results of the study might contribute to knowledge that is expected to help current and upcoming pre-retirement workers to plan for their retirement in time by preparing for their retirement.
The information gathered by the researchers would be used as a foundation for the planning of pre-retirement seminars for that they would be retirees in the teaching sector to expose them to the life they are likely to experience during retirement. The study will also help retirees to know what the society would expect of them as well as how they should plan effectively for their lives after active service.
The information collected will be used as a guide to help educate retirement counselors on how to help and assist would-be retirees to make sound and effective preparation towards their retirement. For the elderly on retirement, it will serve as a guide for the counselor to give them the various coping skills they would need to enable them to cope with life as retirees.
The findings might also be of importance to counselors and therapists who assist individuals in preparation for the role changes that are part of retirement, social isolation, and changes in personal, economic, social and psychological level that people face in the transition to retirement.
In addition, the study findings may be of use to policymakers and labor officers to devise appropriate policies for retirement plans to be adopted by the government so as to utilize the labor force and skills of the retirees during their retirement time.1.8 Conceptual Framework
The figure below illustrates the framework of the study which is based on the ecological systems theory and psychosocial theory of personality development. It was expected that pre-retirees in MoES had prepared for their retirement in the domains of finance, social life, psychological and health planning and focused on how this impacted on their psychosocial wellbeing
Social life planning
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Level of education
1.9 Scope of the study1.9.1 Geographical scopeThe study was carried out at Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) in Kampala. The headquarters has twelve Departments headed by the permanent secretary, directors, and commissioners with 408 Workers. The departments are; Finance and Administration, Education Planning, Pre-primary and Primary, Secondary Education, Higher Education, Private Schools and Institutions, Guidance and Counseling, Gender Unit, HIV Unit, Teacher Education, Special Needs and Inclusive Education, Physical Education and Sports, and BTVET. It has autonomous bodies that work under it and these are UNEB, NCDC, NCS, NCHE ESC, DIT, UNATCOM and DES. The researcher selected to carry out a study at MoES because it was convenient for the researcher and it has all levels of workers (administrators, secretaries, educational officers, commissioners, and directors) from which data was collected to generalize the impact of pre-retirement preparation on psychosocial wellbeing of civil servants.
1.9.2 Content scopeThe study was limited by the participation to civil servants who had six years and less to retire. This is because the investigator needed to find out whether these pre-retirees had prepared themselves for retirement and how it had impacted on their psychosocial well-being.
1.9.3 Time scopeThe study considered looking at pre-retirees who were to retire between 2018 and 2023. More so, the study was carried out between May 2018 and August 2018
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionThis chapter contains the theoretical review, components of pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial well-being, and research gaps. The main source of literature was scholarly journals, newspapers, published and unpublished dissertations, textbooks internet and Ministry of Education and Sports statistical abstracts. The review particularly addressed the key concepts and variables earlier shown in the conceptual framework including financial planning, social life planning, psychological planning and health planning
2.1 Pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeingRetirement means exiting from one’s job, career or occupation as a result of health, age, accident or having served the required number of years with the organization CITATION JBA15 l 1033 (Amune, Aidenojie, ; Obinyan, 2015). Since everyone expects to retire one day from his/her work it is useful to critically examine the planning that precedes retirement. This implies that the individual should plan retirement before the day comes. However, this is not the case with many people who are in active service CITATION SLu12 l 1033 (Lubega, 2012). The researchers continue to say that, a minority of people makes concrete plans for retirement and very few people are exposed to retirement preparation programmmes CITATION Pau131 l 1033 (Thuku P. W., 2013).
A few studies measuring specific domains of planning behaviors focus mainly on financial planning (Petkoska ; Earl, 2009; Muratore ; Earl, 2015). Planning for retirement should include not only providing for financial needs, but also structuring life to make it enjoyable and productive after retirement, anticipating physical or emotional problems. Preparing socially and psychologically is important because financial planning is not enough (Prinsloo, 2009; Kim, Kwon, ; Anderson, 2005).Assistance can come from pre-retirement workshops, self-help books and company-sponsored programs (Kim ; Moen, retirement transitions, gender and psychological wellbeing: a life course ecological model, 2002). In addition to financial aspects four domains of retirement preparatory activities have been identified namely, financial, health, social life, and psychological planning (Mensah ; Darkwa, 2016).
Empirical studies demonstrate that individuals who make retirement plans exhibit better retirement adjustment and post-retirement well-being. Specifically, the findings of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that more pre-retirement planning activities are associated with better physical and psychological health (Wang, 2007; Yeung, 2013), positive attitudes and adjustment to retirement (Reitzes ; Mutran, 2004; Muratore ; Earl, 2015) and higher life satisfaction CITATION GTo09 l 1033 m Jac09(Topa, Moriano, Depolo, Alcover, ; Morales, 2009; Noone, Stephens, ; Alpass, 2009). However, the underlying mechanism between pre-retirement planning and psychosocial well-being remains largely unclear. Different types of preparatory activities may increase the levels of wellbeing in the psychological, emotional, and social domains; consequently, the quality of the pre-retirees’ well-being over time may be improved (Wang & Shultz, 2010). For example, financial planning activities, such as savings or investment, contribute to the maintenance of social wellbeing (Van, Lusard, & Alessie, 2012). Health planning activities, such as regular exercises or physical check-up, may improve emotional wellbeing. Social life planning, such as the development of a supportive social network, helps to increase social well-being in pre and post-retirement life.
Preparation for one domain may potentially encompass other domains of planning activities (Noone, Stephens, & Alpass, 2009). For example, spousal discussion on retirement (as a form of psychological planning) facilitates the thoughts and planning of couples for financial and social domains, which consequently affects the well-being of pre-retirees. These findings suggest that pre-retirement planning activities, regardless of domains of preparation, can help increase the wellbeing of pre-retirees. Therefore, this study hypothesized that pre-retirement planning activities predict higher levels of psychosocial wellbeing before retirement.
Scholars have found a significant positive relationship between retirement preparation and psychosocial well-being (Wong & Earl, 2009; Muratore & Earl, 2010; Wang & Hesketh, 2012). In Austria, retirees who had prepared extensively for retirement were more likely to enjoy life. CITATION MoW12 l 1033 (Wang & Hesketh, 2012). In Brazil, Alvarenga, Kiyan, Bitencourt, and Wanderley (2009) reported a positive relation between retirement preparation and retirement satisfaction. A study conducted in Ohio (USA) found that those who were prepared adjusted better to the retirement transition than those who were unprepared CITATION LNA09 l 1033 (Alvarenga, Kiyan, Bitencourt, & Wanderley, 2009).
However, despite the general consensus highlighting the importance of retirement preparation, inadequate preparation was reported among the majority of employees worldwide. A study by Jagannathan (2008) found that over 80 percent of Indian employees, 81 percent of Mexican workers and 34 percent of those from the United Kingdom and 58 percent of Australians had not done any independent retirement preparation. Furthermore, contrary to recommendations that affirm the need to prepare for retirement in all psychosocial domains, the emphasis has been skewed in favor of financial preparation CITATION SLu12 l 1033 m KJa08(Lubega, 2012; Jagannathan, 2008). It was observed that although many employees were reasonably aware of the need for financial preparation, they overlooked the critical contribution of other domains like social planning, health planning, psychological and preparation CITATION JOs12 l 1033 (Osborne J. W., psychological effects of the transition to retirement, 2012).
Previous studies demonstrates that pre-retirement planning is associated with post-retirement wellbeing (Reitzes & Mutran, 2004; Noone, O’Loughlin, ; Kendig, 2013; Yeung , 2013), but the underlying mechanism between pre-retirement planning and psychosocial wellbeing remains aims CITATION Pet03 l 1033 (Spiegel ; Shultz, 2003). Therefore, the present study aims to fill the gap. Using the ecological systems model, pre-retirees who perform more preparatory activities are hypothesized to possess good psychosocial wellbeing
2.2 Theoretical foundations of the studyEcological systems theory
Bronfenbrenner’s model looked at several levels of determinants that influence people, including micro level and macro level determinants CITATION JMW05 l 1033 (White & Klein, 2005). He believed that a person’s development was affected by everything in their surrounding and divided the person’s environment into different five level that is, micro, mezzo, exo, macro and chrono-systems. Micro-level determinants include the individual’s immediate setting of family, peers, friends and so on, while at the macro level are the rules and regulations that influence the choices and behaviors of the individual as well as cultural, ethnic, political, and religious norms CITATION Eli05 l 1033 (Reifsnider, Gallagher, ; Forgione, 2005). Thus, the framework enables complex issues, such as retirement planning and psychosocial well-being to be explored systematically.
FIGURE 1.Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model for retirement planning
Macro levelMicro level
PeersneighborsfamilyColleagues and other informal support
Family, neighbors, informal support
Source : Hunter, Wang, & Worsley (2007)
Retirement research can be informed by Bronfenbrenner’s (2000) ecological systems model which proposes that humans develop through a process of reciprocal interactions between an active individual and its surrounding environment CITATION Bro07 l 1033 (Bronfenbrenner ; Pamela, 2007). Particular emphasis is placed on enduring patterns of interactions within a person’s immediate environment, also referred to as “proximal processes” CITATION Bro07 l 1033 (Bronfenbrenner & Pamela, 2007), and the ways in which such processes are shaped by individual characteristics and contextual factors. The ecological model further differentiates among nested environmental systems ranging from microsystems (immediate interactions within a specific setting) to mesosystems (interactions across multiple microsystems), exosystems (interactions of a person’s microsystems with external settings), and macrosystems (cultural and societal factors) CITATION Ett17 l 1033 (Ettekal ; Mahoney, 2017). Finally, the concept of chronosystems captures changes in subsystems over time.
As mentioned earlier in chapter one, the model focused on the process, the interdependence of linked lives and context. Process connotes both the dynamics of moving into retirement and possible mechanisms through which retirement status might affect psychosocial wellbeing. It also suggests that particular mechanisms may facilitate the psychological well-being of those either in or moving into retirement (Kim ; Moen, 2002). Research evidence points to three possible mechanisms linking retirement status and psychosocial well-being; economic resources, personal resources and social relational resources. Prior studies have found that inadequate incomes and financial problems predict dissatisfaction and maladjustment in retirement CITATION Kri15 l 1033 m Ano17 m JBA15 (Kanel, 2015; Adam, Frimpong, ; Boadu, 2017; Amune, Aidenojie, ; Obinyan, 2015).
To understand the links between pre-retirement planning and psychosocial wellbeing, one must also consider the contextual factors in which retirement transitions are embedded. Prior levels of psychosocial well-being are a key contextual consideration with two possible models of their moderating effects. The first is the accumulation of the advantage or disadvantage closely associated with the continuity theory, with those already high on a measure of psychosocial wellbeing experiencing the same level or even an increase following a recent transition to retirement (Kim ; Moen, 2002). Correspondingly, the most disadvantaged would be least likely to experience a positive change in psychosocial wellbeing prior to or during the transition to retirement. On the other hand, the role strain reduction perspective (Moen, Kim, ; Hofmeister, 2001) presumes that the least advantaged on a particular measure may well experience heightened psychosocial wellbeing in light of a movement out of presumably stressful career jobs and into retirement. From this point of view, becoming retired should reduce psychological distress and promote psychological wellbeing
The process-person-context model of the ecological approach (Ettekal ; Mahoney, 2017) was originally applied to childhood developmental research by Bronfenbrenner et al. 1984 but could easily adapted to the retirement process. For instance, researchers might examine how retirement intentions are linked to social interactions in the workplace (proximal processes within a microsystem) as a function of physical health (individual characteristic), work-family conflict (mesosystem), spouse’s work context (exosystem), and public incentives for retirement (macrosystem). Importantly, situating retirement-related variables within an ecological systems framework is not just an exercise in re-labeling but results in testable predictions (for example regarding the hierarchical structure of variables or the primacy of proximal processes as a force of development). A systems view is also helpful in the generation of novel research questions. For instance, when significant effects on retirement outcomes are found for one type of exosystem (like spouse’s work context) researchers may proceed to explore related exosystems (like adult children’s work context). Ecological theory is based primarily on adaptation, or the ability for the family or individual to adapt to the changing social and environmental conditions CITATION cer15 l 1033 (certified financial planner board of standards, Inc., 2015)2.3 Financial planning and psychosocial well-being
Although origins of ecological theories developed in part within family therapy perspectives ,there is considerable application to the financial planning process as well CITATION cer15 l 1033 (certified financial planner board of standards, Inc., 2015). For instance, the financial planning process often details the balance of family income and expenditures. In order for the family to maintain equilibrium, these two factors must be balanced, or the family may risk going into debt if its expenditures are more than its income CITATION mau17 l 1033 (Tam, 2017). One of the most challenging elements of retirement planning is ascertaining the percent of current income necessary to fund post-retirement lifestyle. As the main source of income in retirement is savings, proper planning during the pre-retirement stage is essential for a secure retirement life CITATION Sab14 l 1033 (Sabri & Juen, 2014)Uganda is categorized as a low income economy CITATION Wor18 l 1033 (World Bank, 2018). In fact, income can be a factor predicting wellbeing CITATION Sab14 l 1033 (Sabri & Juen, 2014). People need to have a source of income to continue their lives. If income is too low, individuals will merely have sufficient income for saving purposes which will lead to poor retirement preparations.
The burden on individuals to seek their financial wellbeing in retirement requires difficult choices and tradeoffs long before retirement age. CITATION DBo15 l 1033 (Boddy, Dokko, Hershbein, & Kearney, 2015). A state of being wherein a person can fully meet the current and ongoing obligation, can feel secure in their financial future and is able to make choices that allow enjoyment in life, can only be determined by financial planning CITATION Ano17 l 1033 (Adam, Frimpong, & Boadu, 2017). It has also been noted that retirement wellbeing is a function of financial literacy and retirement planning CITATION ALu11 l 1033 (Lusardi & Mitchel, 2011).
Financial planning aids individuals to achieve financial security in later life, such as regular savings or property ownership, especially through superannuation. Superannuation is an organizational pension program created by a company for the benefit of its employees CITATION Gbr17 l 1033 (Topa, Lunceford, & Boyatzis, 2018). It is also referred to as a company pension plan. Funds deposited in a superannuation account will grow, typically without any tax implications, until retirement or withdrawal.
Since the act of planning may enhance the financial experience, those who want to plan for retirement may invest in attaining financial literacy. Literature posits that increasing financial literacy is a means to financially empower people and improve their quality of life CITATION ALu15 l 1033 m Ano17 (Lusardi, 2015; Adam, Frimpong, & Boadu, 2017). People who are financially experienced are much more likely to plan for retirement CITATION ALu11 l 1033 (Lusardi & Mitchel, 2011). This reflects the life course perspective theory which stipulates that a retirement experience might be influenced by previous events in life. However little is known about financial planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing. This could be worrying since prospective retirees who are part of the elderly in the society constitute one of the vulnerable groups in society CITATION FSt09 l 1033 (Stewart & Yermo, 2009). Nevertheless, studies of wellbeing have concentrated on retirees for instance, CITATION JBA15 m DMu14 m MoW12 l 1033 (Amune, Aidenojie, & Obinyan, 2015; Muthondeki, Sirera, & Mwenje, 2014; Wang & Hesketh, 2012)) at the neglect of pre-retirees.
Before retirement, people have to make decisions about how much to spend, invest and how much to save. Research by Lusardi and Mitchel (2007) indicated that many older Americans may have saved to little to mmantain their lives in old age. Their study evaluated whether people sought to figure out how much they had to save for retirement, whether they devised a plan and whether they succeeded in the plan. It was uncovered that retirement Calculations are not an easy task: only 31% of the older people had ever tried to devise a retirement plan and only two-thirds of these succeeded. For the sample, which comprised of a nationally representative dataset of Americans over the age of 50, only 19% engaged in successful retirement planning. This could influence the wellbeing of the individual upon retirement.
In 2015, approximately half of non-retired Americans reported being confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement. Among adults between the ages 0f 18 and 29, the share was 52%. On the other hand, 45% of adults between 50-64 years old were confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement. These expectations about financial wellbeing in retirement vary relatively little across age groups, suggesting that concerns about financial wellbeing in retirement are pervasive across ages CITATION ALu15 l 1033 (Lusardi, 2015)In most cases, many middle and low income earners in developing countries are not able to save enough for retirement because their employment life is also characterized by financial strain. They therefore enter a poverty-stricken retirement life after a lifetime of poverty during their employment phase CITATION Pau131 l 1033 (Thuku P. W., 2013). Studies have found that preparing for retirement could go a long way in reducing many of the retirement challenges CITATION Pau131 l 1033 m Amo16(Thuku P. W., 2013; Mensah & Darkwa, 2016).
Other scholars like Jorgensen and Henderson as cited in CITATION MoW12 l 1033 (Wang & Hesketh, 2012) view that people can benefit from preparation for retirement years if they were able to identify activities that play important roles in their lives. To eliminate the feelings that they have nothing to contribute to society, another preparation programme, in the opinion of Jorgensen and Henderson is to help the individual to develop an identity in addition to work identity. This implies that, one should not be pre-occupied to his/her work only, and that there should be time for other activities in order to maintain a positive self-image in retirement years CITATION MoW12 l 1033 (Wang & Hesketh, 2012).
Similar situations that pertain in developed countries also pertain in Uganda which is a developing economy. Ugandans have a poor savings culture and hardly prepare for retirement (Kasujja, 2017; Adengo , 2018). Many people assume that social security is enough to maintain their lifestyle for the rest of their lives. However, another study emphasized that retirement planning, which involves organizing one’s finances in order to safeguard oneself against turbulent economic conditions in the uncertain future is more vital to the overall success of an individual CITATION Ano17 l 1033 (Adam, Frimpong, ; Boadu, 2017). Many people view savings as the major source of retiremen fund CITATION KRu11 l 1033 (Russell ; stramoski, 2011) those who do not save are generally expected to be in employment after retirement and depend on social security during their golden years, which may lead to poor wellbeing CITATION KRu11 l 1033 (Russell ; stramoski, 2011). However, it is important that many people do n ot realise the importance of saving for retirement CITATION Sab14 l 1033 (Sabri ; Juen, 2014)2.4 Social life planning and psychosocial well-being
Social life planning is another type retirement planning that helps individuals to maintain and establish a supportive social network and to develop new and enjoyable hobbies for their post-retirement life. Under this, the researcher looked at the relationship and the links between the individual, other people and the society at large and the benefit derived from the relationship before retirement. This is very crucial because human beings live with others to constitute a community CITATION JMW05 l 1033 (White ; Klein, 2005).
Social life constitutes social support that is, support an individual gets by virtue of the social ties one has with other people, groups and the larger community CITATION FOz l 1033 (Ozbay, et al., 2007) . Social support concerns anyone that can be relied upon to give us emotional support, affirmation, information, and assistance when the need arises or in time of crisis CITATION Oyi16 l 1033 (Oluwagbemiga, 2016). Lack of social support is related to lower retirement adjustment, especially for individuals who have most of their interaction at work CITATION Tay13 l 1033 (Taylor ; Schaffar, 2013). Future retirees are often advised to develop a diversified portfolio of selves so that despite losing some selves to retirement, others will be available to fill the gap CITATION MoW12 l 1033 (Wang ; Hesketh, 2012). Some of the alternate selves like family roles, club involvements, will continue into retirement and may grow to be as prominent as those aspects of identity that were job-related. Another study stressed that awareness should be created in the individual to realize that work need not be paid work CITATION KNW12 l 1033 (Wilson ; Aggrey, 2012). To them, work at home, volunteer work, and helping relatives, neighbors and the community can also be considered as work roles. When these roles are accepted, it can help the retired to adjust well to a satisfactory retirement life. Findings by Oluwagbemiga (2016) revealed that social support had a significant effect on the psychosocial wellbeing of the elderly. Based on the above, the researcher hypothesized that:
H1. There is a significant relationship between Social life planning and pre-retirees’ psychosocial well-being
2.5 Psychological planning and psychosocial well-being
Psychological planning concerns how the individual develops his/her mind to face challenges after retirement. This requires the individual to cope with issues affecting his/her mental faculties and these may include depression, anxiety, and emotional imbalance CITATION Amo16 l 1033 (Mensah & Darkwa, 2016). Psychological planning aims to promote psychological preparation for adjusting to potential changes after retirement, for example, attending pre-retirement preparation workshop or reading books on physical and psychological changes during retirement transition.
While not prevalent in literature, there have been several studies concerning a variety of non-financial areas in which one may plan for life in retirement. It is clear that psychological planning is less formal than financial planning and has been found to be a better predictor of long term retirement outcomes, such as general satisfaction when compared to financial planning CITATION Ema16 m Sar14 m Ero13 l 1033 (Allah, Ali, Said, & Shalenda, 2016; Asebedo & Seay, 2014; Demirbatir, et al., 2013). Originally psychological planning, or informal planning as it is referred to by some, was conceptualized as talking, thinking or reading about retirement CITATION Dan17 l 1033 (Yeung & Zhou, 2017). As psychological planning research has expanded, specific areas have been examined. This study looked attending preretirement workshops, reading literature about retirement and discussing retirement with spouse as key areas in psychological planning.
Retirement anxiety by its nature involves fears and worries about the future of the individual as a result of the cessation of active working life. It involves the fear that usually results from change CITATION Ema16 l 1033 (Allah, Ali, Said, & Shalenda, 2016). Anxiety is triggered by a number of factors, including challenges in health CITATION Amo16 l 1033 (Mensah & Darkwa, 2016), thus a need for health planning. How family members and friends will perceive pre-retirees to be after losing part of their income or a reduction of income and its impact on the family and friends is a great worry to them CITATION TAO05 l 1033 (Ode, 2005). More so, the challenge of managing a new and lower social status is related with anxiety because maintaining a sense of identity and self-worth without a full-time job is, in fact, the single most difficult challenge that they have to face CITATION SAK04 l 1033 (Kolawole & Mallum, 2004). This stems from the fact that there are no more subordinates officers to give them instructions. They have to do everything by themselves. This challenge may result in feelings of isolation, loneliness, and anxiety for those who cannot manage it. However, previous studies show that anxiety is not related to job satisfaction CITATION KFe12 l 1033 (Ferguson, Frost, & Hall, 2012).
Depression is a mental disease which is associated with sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, feelings of tiredness and poor concentration CITATION Wor011 l 1033 (World Health Organization, 2001). Depression is manifested in feelings of sadness or unhappiness, irritability or frustration, loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities, fatigue, tiredness and loss of energy, insomnia or excessive sleeping CITATION Ame13 l 1033 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Therefore, planning for depression and how to cope with it is very crucial for pre-retirees. The literature indicates that there is a relationship between depression and happiness CITATION Ero13 l 1033 (Demirbatir, et al., 2013). In addition, depression is a predictor of job satisfaction CITATION KFe12 l 1033 (Ferguson, Frost, & Hall, 2012).
In view of this, the researcher hypothesized that:
H1. There is a significant relationship between psychological planning and pre-retirees’ psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
2.6 Health planning and psychosocial well-beingHealth planning focuses on the maintenance of physical health, such as regular body check-up, going for leisure activities and physical exercises. Most employers who offer retiree health benefits offer them only to workers who have ten or more years of tenure with the firm and have reached age fifty five CITATION Jam12 l 1033 (James ; Woodbury, 2012). The situation is even made worse for those employers who do not provide health benefits. The implication of this is that people should plan for their health before retirement.
A study by Dave, Rashad and Spasojevic (2006) indicate that complete retirement leads 5-16% increase in difficulties associated with mobility and daily activities, a 5-6 % increase in illness conditions and 6-9% decline in mental health. Models indicate that effects tend to operate through life style changes including declines in physical activity and social interactions CITATION The06 l 1033 (Dhaval, Inas, ; Jasmina, 2006).
Greater involvement in leisure activities prior to retirement facilitates adjustment to retirement thus improved psychosocial well-being CITATION HSo05 l 1033 (Van ; Henkens, 2005). Previous studies have shown that the level of activity and leisure activities were significantly related to depression CITATION AOO07 l 1033 (Okatahi, 2007). More so, leisure activities have the potential to promote self-worth after the worker role ends, which may influence attitudes towards retirement and the willingness to plan. For instance Rosenkoetter and Garris (2001) found a correlation between the number of retirement planning activities and use of time during retirement. Retirees who had planned more for retirement were involved inactivities that promoted reading, participation in social and religious activities. However, developing leisure interests were found to be more important for single adults than married adults CITATION Dav07 l 1033 (Davis, 2007). Single adults may have greater concerns about social relationships during retirement and developing new leisure interests may facilitate social interaction. It is expected that greater leisure activities will facilitate psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Changes from routine work require adequate leisure time for good health and the new emotional environment CITATION Ema16 l 1033 (Allah, Ali, Said, ; Shalenda, 2016).
Warburton, Nicol, and Bredin (2006) found a linear relationship between physical activity and health status, suggesting that increases in physical activity corresponds with enhanced health. It is almost undisputed that physical fitness and regular physical activity are positively correlated with physical and emotional wellbeing CITATION DER06 l 1033 (Warburton, Nicol, ; Bredin, 2006).
Uganda, under the Ministry of Health launched a National physical activity day on 8th July 2018 at Kololo independence grounds, under the theme “Be physically active, be healthy- my health, my responsibility” CITATION Min18 l 1033 (Ministry of Health, 2018). It was part of the campaign to raise awareness on the growing burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Uganda as cited in the Uganda NCD risk factor survey (2014). Results from the Uganda NCD risk factor survey (2014) showed that Ugandans are becoming increasingly physically inactive. High physical inactivity was noted especially among the urban population where eight percent of the adults were considered physically inactive compared to 3.5 percent among the rural population. The survey further indicated that adults aged between 50-69 years are more physically inactive (7.8%) compared to the young age groups that is, 18-29 years (4.1%) and 30-39 years (3.2%) CITATION Min14 l 1033 (Ministry of health, 2014).
It is generally accepted as true that increases in physical activity can lead to improvements in other areas of one’s life CITATION Nic15 l 1033 (Carr, Sages, Fernatt, Nabeshima, & Grable, 2015). Increased levels of physical activity improve a person’s mood and life satisfaction, as well as decreasing depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness CITATION ASt02 l 1033 (Stathi, Fox, ; McKenna, 2002). This implies that the effects of increased levels of physical fitness are far-reaching. That is, physical activity not only enhances a person’s physical conditioning and self esteem, but also improves other aspects of a person’s life like mood, life satisfaction and psychosocial wellbeing CITATION Nic15 l 1033 (Carr, Sages, Fernatt, Nabeshima, ; Grable, 2015)2.7 Research GapsVarious studies that examine pre-retirement factors contributing to retirement satisfaction and wellbeing focus on the financial aspect, such studies leave many unanswered questions regarding other factors relevant to facilitating pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing. Studies which are relevant to this study have all been done to look at various factors leading to retirement satisfaction but none has been done to look at the role of pre-retirement preparation plays to ensure the psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees.
The legal frameworks in Uganda, recognize only the legal age for retirement and the associated entitlements but has not put forth measures that will respond to challenges of retirees to adjust to the after job life. It is thus a focus of this study to find out if pre-retirees prepare well enough in time and if they do, how it impacts on their psychosocial well-being.
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionThe aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in Ministry of Education and Sports.
The study objectives were;
To examine the relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
To access the relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
To establish the relationship between psychological planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing
To investigate the relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing
The chapter describes the research design, area of study, study population, sample of the population, sampling techniques, instruments for data collection, validity and reliability of the tools, administration of the instruments, methods of data analysis, and ethical considerations are discussed
Methodology in research refers to a systematic way of gathering data from a given population so as to understand a phenomena to generate facts obtained from a larger population CITATION Pun05 l 1033 (Punch, 2005)3.1 Research designThe purpose of a research design is to provide a plan for answering the research question and is a “blue print for action” (Kothari, 2009). It is the overall plan that spells pot strategies that the researcher uses to develop accurate, objective and interpretative information. The study used a mixed approach of both quantitative and qualitative descriptive cross-sectional survey design to assess the relationship between pre-retirement preparation and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing. A quantitative descriptive research design was chosen for this study to give a detailed description of how pre-retirement preparation is related to psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Quantitative research is a formal, objective and systematic process for generating information about the world CITATION Pun05 l 1033 (Punch, 2005). The specific questions addressed will generate knowledge which will directly improve psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Cross-sectional survey design was chosen because it was the most appropriate given the nature of the objectives and limited time available to conduct this research. The design was adopted because it helps to explain, confirm, prove and or test theory CITATION JWC13 l 1033 (Creswell, qualitative inquiry and research design, 2013) and requires logical deductions and objectivity CITATION JWC14 l 1033 (Creswell, 2014). The design also allows flexibility in the use of questionnaires as tools for data collection
The survey research is one which collects data quantitative or qualitative from sample of people.In other words only part of the population is studied and findings from this are expected to be generalized to the entire population CITATION Pun05 l 1033 (Punch, 2005). A survey was chosen for this study for the following reason;
It is appropriate for the research objectives of this study as the aim of the study is not to infer cause and effect but to describe some sample in terms of simple proportions and percentages of people who respond in this way or that to different questions CITATION Pun05 l 1033 (Punch, 2005)
There is no active intervention on the part of the investigator that may produce researcher bias CITATION JWC14 l 1033 (Creswell, 2014)3.2 Area of studyThe study was conducted in Ministry of Education and Sports in Kampala is situated in Kampala, central division at Kyadondo road legacy towers and Embassy house, parliamentary avenue. The population of the Ministry has both males and females. The researcher chose the study area because it was near and convenient to the researcher and it had a reasonable population of pre-retirees of different designations.
3.3 Study population and selection of samplesThe study population is the entire set of objects, things and people under consideration in an investigation. In this study, the study population was 408 civil servants. The target population refers to the total number of subjects or the total environment of interest to the researcher CITATION JWC14 l 1033 (Creswell, 2014). In this study, the target population was 83 civil servants.
3.3.1 Target populationPopulation is the total collection of elements about which we wish to make some references CITATION Kot09 l 1033 (Kothari R. C., 2009). The total population of civil servants at the MoES is 408 employees. The target population for the study was the education civil servants who had 6 years and less to retire. These were 83 civil servants (from HR MoES). MoES has several categories of employee levels such as drivers, office messengers, office typists, Educational Officers, Senior Educational Officers, Principle Educational Officers, Assistant Commissioners, Commissioners, and Directors. For the purpose of this study, the respondents were chosen from all categories.
3.3.2 Sample size and sampling techniques
A sample is a section of the population chosen to represent the whole population CITATION MEA04 l 1033 (Amin, 2004). The essence of sampling was to obtain data from a smaller particular sample which in turn increased efficiency by allowing generalizations to deduce about the population without necessarily having to examine every member. On average 14 civil servants from MoES retire every year. The researcher intended to look at pre-retirees who had six years and less to retire. The sample size for this study was 70 respondents. The sample size (70) respondents were determined using Krejeie and Morgan (1970) table.
Since the study was targeting civil servants who are approaching retirement the sampling techniques used was purposive. Purposive sampling was used because the sample frame was small and the time the researcher had for the study was very short.
3.4 Data collection instruments3.4.1 QuestionnairesA questionnaire is a carefully designed instrument for collecting data in accordance with the specifications of research questions. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the selected respondents using structured questions. The structured questionnaire was used because of its convenience. It takes a short time to complete and eases analysis. The questionnaire was used because it reduces bias that might result from personal characteristics of the interviewer. There is also greater anonymity since the interviewer is absent.
The questionnaire was divided into three sections A, B and C. The first section concerned the general information about pre-retirees that is, socio-demographic section. This part was developed by the researcher to document the personal characteristics of the participant pre-retiree. It included questions about age, gender, educational level, marital status and salary scale.
The second section dealt with questions about pre-retirement preparation and this had 12 items. Section B was structured in a modified dichotomized fashion on a scale of Yes and No. The questionnaire section had items on pre-retirement planning which covered issues on financial planning that is, saving for retirement, investing and spending free time generating extra income; social life planning that is, spending free time on religious activities, spending free time with colleagues and spending free time with family; psychological planning that is, attending pre-retirement workshops, reading books on physical and psychological changes during retirement transition and discussing retirement with spouse, and health planning that is, spending free time on leisure, doing regular body checkups and doing physical exercises.
Section C was a standard tool measuring psychosocial wellbeing (Mental Health Continuum-Short Form -MHC-SF). It was made up of 14 items asking how the respondent felt in the previous month. It was on a five-point Likert scale of 5. That is never=0, once or twice =1, about once a week=2, twice or 3 times a week= 3, almost every day= 4, everyday=5. In analysis, the likert was dichotomized into flourishing coded as 1 and languishing coded as 2.
Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was used to measure the psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. The MHC-SF consists of 14 items that were chosen as the most prototypical items representing the construct definition for each facet of well-being. Three items were chosen (happy, interested in life, and satisfied) to represent emotional well-being, six items (one item from each of the 6 dimensions) were chosen to represent psychological well-being. The 6 dimensions in psychological wellbeing are; self-acceptance, environmental mastery, positive relations with others, personal growth, autonomy and purpose in life, and five items (one item from each of the 5 dimensions) were chosen to represent social well-being. The 5 dimensions of social well-being are; social contribution, social integration, social actualization, social acceptance and social coherence. The estimates of internal consistency reliability for each of the three sets of measures- emotional, psychological and social wellbeing- in the MHC-SF has been high (greater than 0.80). The MHC-SF measures of social and psychological well-being have been validated and used in hundreds of studies over the past two decades as summarized in (Keyes, 2007).
3.5 Data quality controlReliability and validity are important in quantitative research designs. Appropriate sampling techniques and accurate measurements promote validity and reliability.
3.5.1 Reliability of an instrumentReliability is a measure of consistency of scores obtained. The reliability of the questionnaires for this study was determined via test and re-test procedure. The test and re-test reliability is the degree to which scores on the same test by the same individuals are consistent over time CITATION Kot09 l 1033 (Kothari R. C., 2009). In this study, the reliability of the self-constructed questionnaire was determined after pilot testing. The MHC-SF is a standard tool with its reliability being greater than 0.8.
3.5.2 Validity of an instrumentThe validity of the instrument refers to the extent to which the instrument measures what it is intended to measure CITATION Kot09 l 1033 (Kothari R. C., 2009). The perfect questionnaire gives a complete measure and adequate coverage of all aspects of what is being investigated. MHC-SF was validated and used in many studies over the past two decades.
To ensure the content validity of the instrument, the researcher first availed the draft self-constructed questionnaire to the supervisor and colleagues to find out how valid the instrument was by checking on the language clarity, relevance, and comprehensiveness of content and length of the questionnaire. The supervisor suggested structuring the questionnaire in a dichotomized fashion and corrections were made. Content Validity index was calculated to find out whether section B is appropriate. The formula below was used and CVI was 0.8
CVI = Number of items declared valid x100
Total number of items
section C is a standard tool whose validity and reliability has already been proved to be high
3.6 Data collection procedureResearcher got an introductory letter from the University of Kisubi in order to collect data from the field. The researcher further got permission from commissioner human resource to carry out the study within the MoES. Having validated the questionnaire, a pilot testing was carried out on the instrument using 5 pre-retirees. This was done in order to see;
How the respondents will react to the questionnaire to which they would not like to respond
Whether items were clear enough and easily understood
Whether there was need to include more items in certain areas , or whether there are some
However, from the pilot test the researcher was able to understand the ambiguity of some items and so had to modify them.
After the pilot test, and all necessary modifications, the questionnaires were administered directly to the chosen sample for the study. 70 questionnaires were given out were successfully completed and returned. The possibility of retrieving all the questionnaires was a result of researcher’s colleagues who offered a helping hand. Finally, assembling, analyzing, and interpreting the data, writing a draft and final reports was done.
3.7 Data analysis procedureAfter collecting data, data were reviewed and cleaned carefully. The questionnaires were then coded before being keyed into the computer using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 2016. The output was described using percentages, frequency distribution, tables and cross tabulations. Further chi-square tests (using the 95 percent confidence level) were conducted to test for significance of relationships between variables. The chi-square test was selected because the variables were measured at nominal and ordinal levels
Data on the MHC-SF was scored and dichotomized into flourishing (good psychosocial well-being) and languishing (poor psychosocial well-being). Data on financial planning, social life planning, psychological planning and health planning were also scored on a dichotomized scale of Yes and No.
Chi-square statistics were used to determine relationships. Logistic regression was used to produce an estimate of the probability that some were flourishing or languishing based on their financial planning, social life planning, psychological planning and health planning.
3.8 Research Ethical ConsiderationsEthics relate to two groups of people; those conducting research, who should be aware of their obligations and responsibilities, and the researched upon”, who have basic rights that should be protected CITATION Hol13 l 1033 (Hollyway & Jefferson, 2013). This section highlights the following ethical guidelines and how they were considered in this study: Informed consent, confidentiality, and anonymity.
Informed consent is an ethical requirement which demands that respondents be allowed to choose to participate or not to participate in the research after receiving full information about possible risks or benefits of participating. In this study, the researcher informed selected participants about the purpose of the study and the participants were given the freedom to choose to participate or not.
Confidentiality and anonymity: confidentiality indicates the researcher’s ethical obligation to keep the respondent’s identity and responses private. A respondent has the right to have his or her identity remain anonymous. In this study, confidentiality and anonymity were ensured by not asking participants to write their names on the questionnaires and data was grouped rather than presenting individual responses.
3.9 LimitationsA few limitations should be considered when interpreting the findings reported in this study. First the study was conducted with a small sample of pre-retirees from MoES. So the findings may not be generalized to pre-retirees in other sectors because of the differences in their retirement and social welfare systems. In addition, the study sample was drawn only from pre-retirees from formal employment sector meaning that the opinion of those who are yet to retire from the informal sector was not considered. A survey design was used implying that the findings only reflect things as they were at the time of the study but would not capture the trend over time.
The sample was moderate and a larger, more diversified sample could help gain better insight into the phenomena
3.10 DisseminationThe research results and findings will be communicated in a report form which was shared with different responsible stakeholders like education human resource department, counselors and the University of Kisubi.
3.11 ConclusionThis chapter described the research methodology and ethical considerations. Chapter four presents the data analysis and interpretation of findings
CHAPTER FOURDATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS4.0 Introduction
This chapter focuses on presentation, interpretation and discussion of findings. The results are presented in form of tables. The chapter starts with the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents which are fundamental in describing the general characteristics of study participants.
4.1 The Social Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Table 1 illustrates that men are the dominant group and the majority of the pre-retirees are between that ages 56-57. In addition, the majority of the pre-retirees have graduate level of education whilst the married constitute the majority of the pre-retirees.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: frequency table for socio demographic characteristic of respondents
Variable Frequency Percent Cumulative percent
Age of respondents
Source : primary data
The results in the above table reveal that 57.1% (40) of the pre-retirees in the ministry of education and sports are male while the remaining 42.9% (30) are female. This means that males exceed their female counterparts by a percentage of 14.2%. Thus the Ministry of Education and Sports is gender sensitive in its employment policies. The results in table 1 above reveal that 80% (56) of the respondents were married, 8.6% (6) were single, and 7.1% (5) were widowed while the remaining 4.3% (3) were divorced. The observation here is that a larger percentage of the respondents were married while the least were divorced.
The table further shows that 37.1% (26) of the respondents are within 54 – 55 years of age, 40% (28) of the respondents are within 56 – 57 years of age and 22.9% (16) of the respondents were in the age group 58 – 59. The average age of respondents was 56.33 years
The education level of the respondents who participated in the study as shown in the table above; is that 10% (7) of the respondents were of secondary level, 18.6% (13) had attained education level of college, 37.1% (26) were graduates and 34.3% (24) were on a level of post graduate.
4.2 Establishing the relationship between demographics and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retireesTable SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Relationship between gender, marital status, age, education level, salary scale and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
Psychosocial wellbeing POOR GOOD Variable N(%) N(%) X2 p-value
Gender Male 5 (7.1) 35 (50) .728 .299
Female 6 (8.6) 24 (34.3) Marital status Married 4(5.7) 52(74.3) 22.830 .000
Single 2(2.9) 4(5.7) Widowed 2(2.9) 3(4.3) Divorced 3(4.3) 0(0) Age 54-55 3(4.3) 23(32.9) 3.786 .151
56-57 3(4.3) 85(35.7) 58-59 5(7.1) 11(15.7) Education level Secondary 1(1.4) 6(8.6) 4.023 .259
College 3(4.3) 10(14.3) Graduate 6(8.6) 20(28.6) Post grad 1(1.4) 23(32.9) Levels N M(SD) F p-value
Salary scale U1 11 49.1(15.3) .673 .673
U2 8 51(9.6) U3 21 44.7(14) U4 12 50.7(10.9) U5 7 52(8.1) U6 8 48(14.6) U7 3 41(13) Source: primary data
Table 2 reveals that there is no relationship between gender, age, education level , salary scale and psychosocial well being of pre-retirees that is, gender X2 (df:3)=.728, p=.299, age X2 (df:5)=3.786, p=.151 education level X2 (df:7)=4.023 p=.259 and salary scale p-value= .673 respectively. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between marital status and psychosocial wellbeing was statistically significant (X2 (df: 7) =22.830, p = .000). Meaning that there is a relationship between marital status and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
4.3 Relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeingThe researcher was interested in establishing whether there is a significant relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees and the results are shown in the table below which answers the hypotheses stated. The study was interested in establishing whether the respondents where saving for their retirement, investing for their retirement, and were spending free time generating extra income.
H0: There is no significant relation between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of
Pre-retirees in the Ministry of Education and Sports
H1: There is a significant relation between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of
Pre-retirees in the Ministry of Education and Sports
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Relationship between Financial Planning and Psychosocial Wellbeing
Psychosocial wellbeing POOR GOOD Variable N(%) N(%) X2 p-value
I save for my retirement YES 9(12.9) 50 (71.4) .060 .551
NO 2(2.9) 9 (12.9) I invest for retirement YES 7(10) 49(70) 2.184 .143
NO 4(5.7) 10(14.3) I spend free time generating extra income YES 8(11.4) 47(67.1) .265 .433
NO 3(4.3) 12 (17.1) Source: primary data
The table reveals that out of the 59 (84.3%) respondents who were saving for retirement, 50 (71.4%) had good psychosocial wellbeing (flourishing) while 9 (12.9%) had poor psychosocial wellbeing (languishing). Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between saving for retirement and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant(X2(df:3)=.60,p=.551). Those who were investing for retirement were 56 (80%). 49 (70%) of these were flourishing while 7 (10%) were languishing. 14 (20%) of the respondents reported not saving for retirement. Out of these, 4 (5.7%) and 10 (14.3%) had poor and good psychosocial wellbeing respectively. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between investing for retirement and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=2.184,p=.143).
Those who reported spending their free time generating extra income were 55 (78.6%). Out of these, 47 (67.1%) were flourishing while 8 (11.4%) were languishing. Those who said NO on spending free time generating extra income were 15(21.4%). 12 (17.1%) of these were flourishing while 3 (4.3%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between spending free time generating extra income and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant(X2(df:3)=.265,p=.433). This implies that there is no relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees.We therefore reject the alternate hypothesis and conclude with the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in the Ministry of Education and Sports. The observation here is that financial planning by pre-retirees has no influence on the psychosocial well-being of the pre-retirees.4.3 The relationship between social life planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeingThe researcher computed the chi-square tests to test the hypotheses below
H0: There is no significant relationship between social life planning and pre-retiree psychosocial
H1: There is a significant relationship between social life planning and pre-retiree psychosocial
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing
Psychosocial wellbeing POOR GOOD Variable N(%) N(%) X2 p-value
I spend free time on religious activities YES 7 (10) 33 (47.1) .225 .448
NO 4(5.7) 26 (37.7) I spend free time with colleagues YES 10 (14.3) 42 (60) 1.888 .160
NO 1 (1.4) 17 (24.3) I spend free time with family YES 9 (12.9) 53(75.7) .588 .368
NO 2(2.9) 6(8.6) Source: primary data
The table reveals that 40 (57.1%) respondents spend free time on religious activities and amongst these 33 (47.1) had good psychosocial wellbeing while 7 (10%) had poor psychosocial wellbeing. 30 (42.9%) respondents said NO to spending free time on religious activities. Among those, 26 (37.1%) were flourishing and 4(5.7%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between spending time on religious activities and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df: 3) =.225, p=.448).
The table further reveals that 52 (74.3%) respondents said YES to spending free time with colleagues while 18 (25.7%) said NO. Out of those who said YES, 42 (60%) were flourishing while 10 (14.3%) were languishing. 17 (24.3%) of those who said NO to spending free time with colleagues were flourishing and 1(1.4%) was languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between spending free time with colleagues and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=1.888,p=.160)
62 (88.6%) and 8(11.4%) respondents said YES and NO respectively to spending free time with family members. 53(75.7%) of those who spend time with family members were flourishing while 9(12.9%) were languishing. Among those who denied spending free time with family members, 6 (8.6%) were flourishing while 2 (2.9%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between spending free time with family members and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=.588,p=.368).
This shows that there is no relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Thus there the alternate hypothesis is rejected and we conclude with the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in the Ministry of Education and Sports.
4.4 Relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retireesThe findings on the relationship between psychological planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeing are revealed in the table below answering the following hypotheses;
H0: There is no significant relationship between psychological planning and pre-retiree psychosocial Wellbeing
H1: There is a significant relationship between psychological planning and pre-retiree psychosocial
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5: Relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
Psychosocial wellbeing POOR GOOD Variable N (%) N (%) X2 p-value
I attend pre-retirement workshops YES 3(4.3) 28 (40.0) 1.531 .183
NO 8 (11.4) 31 (44.3) I read books on physical and psychological changes during retirement YES 5 (7.1) 38 (54.3) 1.406 .197
NO 6 (8.6) 21 (30.0) I discuss retirement with spouse YES 4 (5.57) 42 (60) 4.990 .032
NO 7 (10) 17 (24.3) Source: Primary Data
Table 5 above reveals that 31(44.3%) and 39 (55.7%) of the respondents said YES and NO respectively to attending pre-retirement workshops. 28(40%) of those who attended pre-retirement workshops were flourishing while 3(4.3%) were languishing. Amongst those who were not attending pre-retirement workshops, 31(44.3%) were flourishing and 8 (11.4%) were languishing. The chi-square computed was 1.531 and the P-value was .183 implying that there is no relationship between attending pre-retirement workshops and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees of pre-retirees
About reading books on physical and psychological changes during retirement, 43 (61.4%) agreed to it, while 27 (38.6%) did not agree. Among those who agreed to it, 38 (54.3%) had good psychosocial wellbeing while 5 (7.1%) had poor psychosocial wellbeing. Those who disagreed to reading books on physical and psychological changes during retirement 21 (30%) had good psychosocial wellbeing while 6 (8.6%) had poor psychosocial wellbeing. The computed chi-square on this, at df:3 was 1.404 and p-value was .197 implying that there is no relationship between reading books on physical and psychological changes during retirement and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
About discussing retirement with spouse, 46 (65.7%) respondents agreed to it while 24 (34.3%) of respondents did not agree to it. Amongst those who agreed 42 (60%) were flourishing while 4 (5.7%) were languishing. For those who did not agree, 17 (24.3%) were flourishing while 7 (10%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between discussing retirement with spouse and psychosocial wellbeing was statistically significant (X2(df:3)= 4.990, p=.032).
4.4 Relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial wellbeingThe study was interested in establishing whether the participants were planning for their health and how this affected their psychosocial wellbeing. The researcher used a chi square test to examine the relationship between health planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. The hypotheses to be tested were;
H0: There is no significant relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial Wellbeing
H1: There is a significant relationship between health planning and pre-retiree psychosocial
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6: Relationship between health planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
Psychosocial wellbeing POOR GOOD Variable N (%) N (%) X2 p-value
I spend free time on leisure YES 8 (11.4) 26 (37.1) 3.049 .077
NO 3 (4.3) 33 (47.1) I do regular body checkups YES 7 (10) 27 (38.6) 1.186 .224
NO 4 (5.7) 32 (45.7) I do physical exercises YES 7 (10) 30 (42.9) .609 .328
NO 4 (5.7) 29 (41.4) Source: primary data
The table reveals that 34 (48.6%) respondents agreed to spending free time on leisure and amongst these 26 (37.1%) were flourishing while 8 (11.4%) were languishing. 36 (51.4) disagreed to spending free time on leisure. 33 (47.1%) were flourishing while 3 (4.3%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between spending free time on leisure and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=3.049,p=.077).
About doing regular body checkups, 34 (48.6%) said YES while 36(51.4%) said NO. Amongst those who said YES, 27 (38.6%) were flourishing while 7 (10%) were languishing. For those who said NO, 32(45.7%) were flourishing while 4(5.7%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between doing regular body checkups and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=1.186,p=.224).
As far as doing physical exercises were concerned, 37(52.9%) respondents agreed to it while 33(47.1%) disagreed. Among those who agreed to it, 30(42.9%) were flourishing while 7 (10%) were languishing. For those who disagreed to doing physical exercises, 29(41.4%) were flourishing while 4 (5.7%) were languishing. Chi Square analysis, however showed that the relationship between doing physical exercises and psychosocial wellbeing was not statistically significant (X2(df:3)=.609,p =.328).
Since all the variables handled in health planning showed no significant relationship to psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees, the null hypothesis was retained and the alternate rejected. Therefore, the study concluded that there is no significant relationship between health planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees.
4.5 Predicting determinants of psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees using multiple regression analysisTable SEQ Table * ARABIC 7:Predicting determinants of psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees using multiple regression analysis.
Variable Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Intervals) Likelihood ratio test P-value
Marital status Married (Ref) – –
Single .181 (.023 – 1.421) .104*
Widowed .114 (.013 – .989) .049*
Divorced .000 (.000) .999*
Discussing retirement with spouse NO(Ref) – –
YES 3.821 (.744 – 19.630) .108*
Note. * Significant at 0.05
4.5.1 Logistic regressionMultiple logistic regression was performed to predict the role of marital status, and discussing retirement with spouse on psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Both marital status and discussing retirement with spouse variables were entered into the model. Omnibus test showed that the logistic regression model was statistically significant, (X2(4) =20.369, p < .001) and correctly classified 88.6% of the cases. The model explained 43.5% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Compared to married pre-retiree, widowed pre-retirees were more likely to have low psychosocial wellbeing scores—that is languishing (OR=0.114, 95%CI=.013-.989). Similarly single pre-retirees were more likely to be languishing (OR=.181, 95%CI= .023 – 1.421) even though the model showed that this relationships did not reach statistical significance. As regards discussing retirement with spouse, the model showed that those who discuss retirement with their spouse were almost four times more likely to have good (flourishing) psychosocial wellbeing compared to those who did not (OR=3.821, 95%CI= .744 – 19.630).CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Discussion of Findings
This section discusses the findings from 70 pre-retirees of different ages, gender, marital status, education, and income levels. The sample comprised of more males than females. All the pre-retirees were aged 54 years and above with a mode age bracket of 56-57. Majority were married and the least number had separated/divorced. Next section examines relationship between psychosocial wellbeing and the demographic factors of interest namely; age, gender, marital status, level of education and salary scale
5.1.1 Discussing the relationship between Age, Gender, level of education, salary scale, Marital Status and psychosocial wellbeingThe statistical tests showed that the demographic characteristics of age, gender, level of education and salary scale did not significantly influence psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees.
These findings do not directly contract the work of other researchers; rather, findings add to the existing literature in several ways. For instance, Oluwagbemiga (2016) and Allah, Ali, Said, & Shalenda (2016) noted that socio demographic factors like age, gender and income did not have an impact on one’s wellbeing. Findings from this study add to this insight by suggesting that psychosocial wellbeing may be more of what one perceives to be rather than what one is. However, a study by Thuku (2013) revealed that wellbeing of females was higher than that of males. This was probably because men are scared of losing their role identity which lead to identity crisis for those who do have not planned for other roles to substitute for the lost employment role. Women on the other hand continue to be busy with their domestic and familial roles which make them feel more useful than male retirees.
In addition to gender, marital status was another factor that directly influenced psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Pre-retirees who were married were found to be more flourishing than those who were single, widowed and divorced/separated. These findings concur with findings by Thuku (2013) and Kubicek, Korunka and Raymo (2010) that revealed that retirees who were married were found to be happier than their colleagues who were single. This was probably because married individuals combine their economic and social resources with theier spouses, discuss retirement, leading to more and better social and financial investiments and they are also likely to give each other emotional support.
As regards educational level, the findings revealed that educational level did not affect psychological wellbeing of preretirees. An earlier study revealed that there is no significant relationship between between educational level and happiness (subjective wellbeing) of pre-retirees (Thuku, 2013). This is possible because the forthcoming loss of occupational prestige may make the pre-retiree to languish or may make the pre-retiree very expectant to enjoy free timr and therefore flourish.
The following sections discuss the study findings based on the study objectives.
5.1.2 Discussing the relationship between financial planning and psychosocial wellbeing
The study found that more than half of the respondents were planning financially for their retirement by investing, saving and engaging in other activities that are income generating. Although earlier studies revealed that financial planning was very important for one’s quality of life and wellbeing CITATION AMM15 l 1033 m Dan17 m Dan13 (Muratore & Earl, 2015; Yeung & Zhou, 2017; Yeung D. Y., 2013), findings from this study revealed that there was no significant relationship between psychosocial well being and financial planning. The findings for this study concur with findings of an earlier study which revealed that saving did not make a unique contribution to retirement confidence CITATION Sab14 l 1033 (Sabri & Juen, 2014). Although owning a savings account indicates that the individuals do practice financial planning, this act does not mean the individual is well prepared for future retirement life. The amount of savings and the saving motives should be taken into account. More so, the findings could be that because the sample size was small and the study was cross sectional and not longitudinal. 5.1.3 Relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
Social life planning of pre-retirees was measured by determining whether one spends free time on religious activities, spends time with colleagues and spends free time with family. Results indicated that there was no relationship between social life planning and psychosocial wellbeing. Whereas some studies have found fewer incidents of poor psychosocial wellbeing among employees with social support (Krause et al, 1997 as cited by Kubicek, Korunka, & Raymo, 2010 ) and others show that social preparation influence happiness CITATION KLS13 l 1033 m ARo14 (Siedlecki, Salthouse, Oishi, & Jeswani, 2013; Rodriguez-Pose & Berlepsch, 2014), others indicated that social support exerts no influence on psychosocial wellbeing of employees ( CITATION Bet10 l 1033 (Kubicek, Korunka, & Raymo, 2010). As per this study, this could be as a result of the variables considered in social life plan. Therefore, the study recommends that another study be carried out putting into consideration other aspects of social life planning.`5.1.4 Relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre retirees
This section seeks to establish whether psychological planning influenced psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in any way. The relationship between psychological planning and psychosocial wellbeing was tested by asking the pre-retirees whether they attended pre-retirement workshops, read literature on retirement and discussed retirement with spouse. Findings revealed that it was only discussing retirement with spouse that had a significant relationship with pre-retiree psychosocial well being. Earlier studies have also emphasized the importance of talking and thinking about retirement (Osborne , 2012) and also seeking for psychological help when preparing for retirement CITATION Ema16 l 1033 (Allah, Ali, Said, & Shalenda, 2016). This is probably because when one discusses retirement with spouse, the anxiety levels are lower compared to one who does not discuss with spouse; and keeps on wondering how the spouse will react when time for retirement comes.
The study findings by Allah, Ali, Said, and Shalenda (2016) further revealed that majority of the particpants were having some degree of anxiety with more than a half having a severe degree of anxiety. This reflected the misconception among the employees about retirement phase and inadequate psychological planning thus a need for psychological planning.
5.1.5 Relationship between health planning and psychosocial wellbeing of pre retirees
Under health planning, the researcher was looking at spending time on leisure activities, doing regular body checkups and doing regular physical activities. The result revealed that there was no significant relationship between health planning and psychological planning. This contradicts findings from prior studies which support the importance of leisure activities, regular physical checkups and physical exercises in enhancing one’s psychosocial wellbeing CITATION Nic15 l 1033 m DER06 (Carr, Sages, Fernatt, Nabeshima, ; Grable, 2015; Warburton, Nicol, ; Bredin, 2006). This probably because earlier studies were looking at people who have already retired not those in service. In addition to this, those who are still in service can take care of themselves and access health centers whenever need arise. So to them, planning for health in the aspects mentioned could not affect their wellbeing.
5.2 Summary and ConclusionThe section presents summary, conclusion and recommendations of the study as shown below; Retirement although sometimes necessary and inevitable, comes with its multiplicity of problems ranging from the retirees inability to identify economic resources and strategies for managing some resources if available that may all lead to diminished psychosocial wellbeing. This study found that age, gender, salary scale, level of education health planning, financial and social investments are not major factors influencing psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees. Whilst marital status was a major factor influencing psychosocial wellbeing, those who were single, divorced and separated were more affected than those who were married. This was probably because those who are married can discuss retirement with their spouses.
In concurrence with earlier studies, this study found that pre-retirement preparation influences psychosocial wellbeing CITATION JEK05 l 1033 m Amo16 (Kim, Kwon, ; Anderson, 2005; Mensah ; Darkwa, 2016). In particular, discussing retirement with spouse provided the continuity needed in retirement thus enhancing psychosocial wellbeing. Family and friends provide the psychosocial support needed for a smooth retirement transition and reduce the emotional void previously filled by former colleagues. Extra income-generating activities not only provide the much needed income but also social support and reduction of boredom.
A positive relationship was found between marital status and psychosocial wellbeing. This finding corresponded with the observation in the literature review that those who are married are more likely to adjust to retirement easily than those who are not married CITATION JBA15 l 1033 m Pau131 m Flo16 (Amune, Aidenojie, ; Obinyan, 2015; Thuku P. W., 2013; Undiyaundaye, 2016).
Although some of the study results concurred with the findings in the literature that was reviewed, there were a few that were contrary to the reviewed literature as explained below:
The level of education did not significantly influence psychosocial wellbeing among the sampled pre-retirees. This was surprising considering that the study found the level of education to have a significant influence on retirement preparation among the sample of prospective retirees. Logically, since education influenced retirement preparation, more educated retirees were expected to be flourishing. Perhaps the busy schedules cause pre-retiree poor psychosocial wellbeing irrespective of educational attainment.
5.3 RecommendationsIn view of the findings, this study recommends that discussing retirement with spouse be emphasized as a critical component of the retirement preparation process. In view of the lack of significant relationship established between financial planning, social life planning, and health planning and psychosocial wellbeing, this study recommends that further studies be done to analyze these variables more. It could be that the sample was not representative enough.
Ministry should organize pre-retirement planning programs to prepare their employees for a smooth transition to retirement without adverse psychological problems
Employers should ensure that employees get the correct information on retirement by organizing for them workshops on retirement planning to sensitize them on what to plan for, how to plan and why they need to plan. They need to be enlightened on the social, physiological and financial challenges that come with retirement and the need to start planning early for retirement.
To enable employees to plan better for their retirement economic benefits, they should be encouraged while still in employment to invest in financial schemes such as co-operatives, purchase of government bonds and company/corporate shares. Income from sources such as these will enhance their financial status during retirement.
Part of preparation for retirement through seminars, workshops and written documents must stress to prospective retirees the importance of an active social life during retirement. Hence, prospective retirees need to be informed of the need to seek membership in social groups including religious associations and to maintain kinship networks for mutual social support.
Further studies should be conducted to address impact of pre-retirement planning program on physical and psychosocial wellbeing of retirees
Further studies involving a large number of retirees’ are needed to confirm these findings and those studies should include other variables such as the attitude towards retirement.
Finally, through the efforts of employers, workers’ and employers’ representative, employees should be given psychological counseling on prospective challenges posed by life in retirement and strategies of coping with emergent challenges.
5.4 Areas of Further Research
There is need to conduct a study on retirement on individuals from the informal sector because this study only focused on the formal sector. Informal sector in this case includes small business enterprises mostly owned by private individuals and have more than two employees.
Since this study only covered one sector, similar studies should be conducted in different sectors and if possible compare psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees and that of retirees.
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APPENDICESAppendix 1: Proposed BudgetThe researcher worked with in the budget below;
No Item Description Amount
Stationary 6 reams of photocopying paper @ 18000/=
1 flash disc (16 GB) @ 60000/=
Writing materials @ 500/=
1 scientific calculator @ 20000/= 108000/=
Transport Pilot survey
Researcher and 1 research assistant @ 20000/= per day for 14 days 50000/=
Photocopy @ 100/=
Printing @ 500/=
Binding 6 copies @ 20000/= 120000/=
Consultancy Data analysis 500,000/=
Internet Airtime/ data for modem for 4 months 100000/=
Subsistence Breakfast and lunch for both researcher and research assistant 700000/=
Grand total 2,261,000/=
Source: developed by Researcher
Appendix 2: Research Work Plan (2018)Activity March
2018 June 2018 July 2018 July
writing Proposal defending Data collection Data analysis and report writing Dissertation
submission Source: Researcher Appendix 3: QuestionnaireQuestionnaire no: ……………………………
Retirement preparation in relation to psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees
The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between pre-retirement preparation and psychosocial wellbeing of pre-retirees in ministry of education and sports. You are kindly requested to fill the questionnaire genuinely.
The information obtained will be treated with utmost confidentiality and only used for the purpose of this study.
SECTION A: Pre-retiree profile
Please tick the appropriate box for your answers
Please indicate your Gender (?)
Your Marital status (?)
Married Single Widowed Divorced
Your Age Group (?)
54-55 56-57 58-59
What is your highest level of education? (?)
Secondary college graduate Post graduate
What is your salary scale? (?)
U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8
This tool is about pre-retirement preparation. Please tick the appropriate box for you in the tables below
Financial planning I save for my retirement I invested or I am investing for my retirement I spend free time generating extra income Yes No
Social life planning I spend free time on religious activities I spend free time with colleagues I spend free time with family Psychological planning
I attend pre-retirement workshops I read books on physical and psychological changes during retirement transition I discuss retirement with spouse Health planning
I spend free time on leisure I do regular body checkups I do physical exercises SECTION C
Please answer the following questions are about how you have been feeling during the past month. Place a check mark in the box that best represents how often you have experienced or felt the following
During the past month, how often did you feel.Never Once or twice About once a week About 2 or 3 times a week Almost everyday Every day
1.Happy 2.Interested in life 3.Satisfied with life 4.That you had something important to contribute to society 5.That you belonged to a community (like a social group) 6.That our society is a good place or becoming a better place for people like you 7.That people are basically good 8.That the way our society works makes sense to you 9.That you liked most parts of your personality 10.Good at managing the responsibilities of your daily life 11.That you had warm and trusting relationships with others 12.That you had experiences that challenged you to grow and become a better person 13.Confident to think or express your own ideas and opinions 14.That your life has a sense of direction or meaning to it.
Appendix 4: Morgan ;Krejcre (1970) Table for Determining Sample Size from a Given PopulationN S S N N S N S
APPENDIX 5: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION
To whom it may concern
I am a student at the University of Kisubi undertaking a Master of Science Degree in Clinical and psychological Counseling, registration No: 16 MCPC 095. As part of the requirements, I am carrying out a research entitled, “Pre-Retirement Preparation and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Pre-Retirees with Ministry of Education and Sports
The study involves administering questionnaires to pre-retirees within the Ministry and
will also involve filling in of the questionnaires I kindly request you to assist me get the relevant information meant for academic purposes. The information will be treated with utmost confidentiality for the purpose of this study only.