PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS4.1 Introduction In order to generate findings from the primary data, processing and content analysis was used on the transcribed interviews involving examining, sorting, categorizing, evaluating, comparing, synthesizing and contemplating on coding, establishing patterns and arranging the data into different themes depending on the sources of information according to Neuman (2014). One of the enduring problems of qualitative data analysis is the reduction of copious amounts of written data to manageable and comprehensible proportions.The data collected through interviews emerged into categories guided by the specific objectives. The interview findings are presented according to the outline of these objectives. In addition to the predetermined objectives, additional thematic areas emerged during data analysis and these are listed below:• Industry player and their roles• Company challenges• Motives of companies • Extent of involvement of companies • Guiding Policies in waste recovery and recycling in Namibia• Legislation controlling waste recovery and recycling in Namibia • Emerging waste recycling trends.• Recycling value addition processes and products.
• Benefits chains of recycling industry in Namibia.• Network linkages in the industry.This chapter presents and interprets results of the analysis results obtained on the primary and secondary data. Primary data gathering was facilitated by semi-structured interviews with recycling companies and observations, while document search provided for secondary data. For confidentiality purposes the companies were coded as A, B, C etc.
The research results are presented in Tables, Figures and in narrative format. 4.2 Industry players and their roles, challenges, motives and extent of involvement in solid waste recycling in NamibiaThe study required to establish actors and motives behind their recycling efforts in the country during the time of research. Thus, the first objective served to establish motives, themes and extent of involvement of companies in the recycling industry. It is however, very important to present first the profiles of those companies that participated in the study.4.
2.1 Industry players and their roles Different players were involved in the recycling industry as shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.1.Source: Research Data, 2015Figure 4:1: Communication lines of the players in the industryThe following sections outline the demography of participants, the roles their companies are playing in the industry, the distributions of their operations within Namibia and the challenges they are facing.4.2.
1.1 Role of players in recycling industryBoth public and private institutions are involved in this industry in their different capacities as shown in figure 4.1. During the interviews, it emerged that these companies have been involved either as collectors and processors, manufacturers and packagers or supporters and promoters of recycling activities as given in table 4.1.Table 4.1: The role of different players in recycling industry Player RoleGovernment Regulation and promotion of the industry (policies, legislation, land and other services)Recovery participants (informal waste pickers and waste collectors) Recovery of recyclables from bins, dumb site, homes and institutionsProcessing Companies Raw material production and distributionManufacturing companies Production and selling of new productsCorporate companies Other (Supporting through transport, education, awareness raising, funding and depository facilities.) Source: Research Data, 2015 4.
2.1.2 Demography of companiesThe literature reviews on recycling in other countries around the globe shaped the initial thoughts as to who the key players in the recycling value chain are. Twenty companies were the target population of the study.
However, only 15 companies were eventually interviewed since not all companies were willing to engage the researcher. Table 4.2 shows the companies that were involved and their demographic data during the study.Table 4.2: Demography of participating companiesCompany Gender of participant Location of Company Title of participant Age of company in business Number of workersA male Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Oshakati, Swakopmund & Husab mine Business Developer 27 +_500 total 35 Swakopmund34 Walvis BayB male Windhoek Public Relations Manager 34 400C male Okahandja Director (owner) 48 74D male Okahandja Production Manager 10 35E. male Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Rundu, Ondangwa, Oshakati, Angola, Cape Town Plant manager 35 150F female Windhoek supervisor 8 56G Female Windhoek Country Representative 34 unknownH male Oshikango supervisor 20 53I male Windhoek Contract manager 15 unknownJ female Windhoek Director(owner) 8 10K.
male Windhoek Logistic Manager 4 3L female Windhoek Corporate Relations Manager 95 unknownM female Windhoek Coordinator 10 unknownN male Keetmanshoop Director (Owner) 22 17O male Windhoek Solid Waste Management Education & Marketing Officer 19 322Source: Research Data, 2015The players were identified mainly through exploratory interviews with local authorities, desktop studies through the internet as well as secondary sources like local media publications. A number of players were identified throughout the whole country. However, only those who were willing to engage the researcher made up the sample of study. Ten companies that participated in the study were located in Windhoek, the Capital City of Namibia.The results revealed that the years of existence of the companies varied from four years to ninety five years of operation, which shows how old the participating companies were in Namibia. Number of workers also varied from three to over five hundred signifying the size of companies involved in the industry.4.
2.1.3 Distribution of companies and contributory factorsRecycling activities in Namibia are concentrated in Windhoek, Swakopmund, Walvis Bay, Keetmanshoop in the southern parts of the country and the northern towns, where Namibia’s largest concentration of people or major industrial activities are located. Nevertheless, in the other small urban centers recycling efforts were being facilitated through the establishment of collection depots and buy-back centers.According to an official of one company “Namibia is a very large country and because of that, peripheral areas are sometimes left out in the operations yet there is a lot of recyclables lying all over the country for, example in resort areas and small settlements.
Move around, and see how many plastic and glass bottles are lying around.” The researcher also observed these recyclables heaped next to roads at small business centres especially in the northern part of Namibia: Oshana, Oshikoto, Ohangwena and Omusati regions. According to the participants, this was attributed to a number of challenges highlighted in the next section and general awareness especially in towns. Thus, recycling efforts are concentrated in major towns but the majority of small centres on the country-side it remains a challenge.4.
2.2 Challenges in the industryWhile the issue of motives and extent of company involvement in recycling was being investigated, it came out that the industry is faced with a number of challenges which if they could be addressed, the industry will recognize its full potential, as respondents pointed out. Most participants revealed that the industry was not an easy one. On further probing into this matter, participants brought up challenges they were confronted with in the industry.
The researcher asked the question “What challenges are you experiencing in this industry?” The responses show that companies had different kinds of challenges they were facing. Poor public participation stood out as the major challenge, with ten participants reporting it, and labor issues were also highlighted as another worry some challenge. Labour issues included lack of commitment appeared to be one of the main source of concern. In Keetmanshoop at company N, on the interview day, the researcher confirmed during site observation, that one out of seventeen workers was present. To make it worse, at the same company, vandalized equipment was observed. The researcher was shown some of the crushing machines that had their wheels removed.
Challenges that were revealed are all shown in the table 4.3.Table 4.3: Challenges in recycling industry in NamibiaChallenge Number of ResponsesTransport and Logistics high transport costs, lack of transport 3Labor issuesLack of trained staff (skills shortage),lack of commitment and high turnover of skilled staff 54Financial constraintsindustry is expensive and not viable 4Weather ConditionHarsh weather conditions especially coastal environment 2SpaceShortage of storage and operational space 5Low Volumes To establish viable recycling plants 4MachineryLack of operating machinery and equipmentVandalism and theft of equipment a big issue 21Public ParticipationPoor public participation and cooperationLack of awareness on recycling 10Enabling EnvironmentLack of clear policies and legislation on recycling Lack of enough government support 42Market forces 2Monopoly by big companies Low raw material prices on the international market 23Source: Research Data4.2.3 Motives for Recycling For the researcher to establish motives, the following question was posed to all participants who were interviewed “What motivated you to be involved in recycling activities?” Respondents gave different views and these were some of the responses as captured in table 4.4.Table 4.4: Motives for Recycling by CompaniesCompany Environmental Economic Social Core or Side ActivityA Protecting the environment Business Raw Materials SideB Right thing to do for the environment BusinessRaw materials CoreC Protecting the environment Business CoreD Environmental Business CoreE Waste reduction Business CoreF Cleanliness business Earn a living CoreG Safeguarding environment Entrepreneurs-hip Uplifting families CoreH cleanliness Business raw material CoreI Waste reduction SideJ Environmental Economic livelihood CoreK Environmental protection SideL Environmental Protection Raw materials ssideM Environmental protection CoreN Environmental Protection Economic CoreO Protect and Cleaning of the environment Economic SideTotal 15 13 3 Percentage 100 86.6 20 Source: Research data