PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION PROFICIENCY AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION BLEPT PERFORMANCE OF EDUCATION GRADUATES A Thesis

February 21, 2019 Critical Thinking

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION PROFICIENCY AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION BLEPT PERFORMANCE OF EDUCATION GRADUATES
A Thesis (Proposal)
Submitted to
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Saint Columban College
Pagadian City
In Partial FulfillmentOf the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Educational Management
By
ALFER JANN D. TANTOG
August 2018
Approval Sheet
Only for Thesis 2 after the oral defense, when you are ready
to submit your final copy before binding. Get from the Graduate School
THESIS ABSTRACT
Tantog, A.(2018). Professional Education Proficiency and Professional Education BLEPT Rating of Education Graduates of Saint Columban College. Unpublished Graduate Thesis, Saint Columban College, Pagadian City.

1.5 spacing
(general statement of the problem)
(summary of findings)
(conclusion)
Keywords: professional education proficiency, professional education BLEPT performance, correlation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DEDICATION
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc500315557 h 1The Problem PAGEREF _Toc500315558 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc500315559 h 1Perspective of the Researcher PAGEREF _Toc500315560 h 1Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc500315561 h 2Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc500315562 h 2Hypotheses(sis for singular) PAGEREF _Toc500315563 h 3Scope and Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc500315564 h 4Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc500315565 h 4Definition of Terms PAGEREF _Toc500315566 h 5Structure of the Thesis PAGEREF _Toc500315567 h 5Chapter 2 PAGEREF _Toc500315568 h 6Review of Related Literature PAGEREF _Toc500315569 h 6Variable 1 PAGEREF _Toc500315570 h 6Variable 2 PAGEREF _Toc500315571 h 6Variable 3 PAGEREF _Toc500315572 h 6Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc500315573 h 8Research Methods PAGEREF _Toc500315574 h 8Research Design PAGEREF _Toc500315575 h 8Research Environment PAGEREF _Toc500315576 h 8Research Participants PAGEREF _Toc500315577 h 8Sampling Techniques PAGEREF _Toc500315578 h 9Instruments PAGEREF _Toc500315579 h 9Data Gathering Techniques PAGEREF _Toc500315580 h 9Statistical Treatment for quantitative studies PAGEREF _Toc500315581 h 9Data Analysis for qualitative studies PAGEREF _Toc500315582 h 10Chapter 4 PAGEREF _Toc500315583 h 11Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data PAGEREF _Toc500315584 h 11Variable 1 PAGEREF _Toc500315585 h 11Variable 2 PAGEREF _Toc500315586 h 13Variable 3 PAGEREF _Toc500315587 h 13Testing of the Hypotheses PAGEREF _Toc500315588 h 13Chapter 5 PAGEREF _Toc500315589 h 15Summary of Findings, Conclusion/s and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc500315590 h 15Summary of Findings PAGEREF _Toc500315591 h 15Conclusion/s PAGEREF _Toc500315592 h 15Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc500315593 h 15References PAGEREF _Toc500315594 h 17Appendix A PAGEREF _Toc500315595 h 18Appendix B PAGEREF _Toc500315596 h 19Appendix C PAGEREF _Toc500315597 h 20Instrument B PAGEREF _Toc500315598 h 20Curriculum Vitae PAGEREF _Toc500315599 h 21
Chapter 1The ProblemIntroductionConnections between stimuli and responses strengthening or weakening largely depends on how accomplished the students become at the end of the teaching process. In other words, the more the given information leads to success, the better the information is internalized and used effectively (Karadut, 2012).

Karadut (2012), in his study about the effects of Edward L. Thorndike’s theory of connectionism rudiments on developing cello playing skills for beginners, concluded that the essentials of connectionism significantly contributed in the development of cello playing skills of the students. One of the laws Karadut anchored is the Law of Effect stated above.
The Law of Effect is widely used in different textbooks of learning and conditioning emphasizing its functional aspect. Furthermore, it is used as an anchor in different studies and disciplines (Nevin, 1999). In particular, it is also widely used in teacher education, specifically professional education, as one of the basis for developing competence among students. To elaborate, professional education for teachers refers to the acquisition of abilities to handle classes, impart knowledge to the students, and use assessment strategies to measure students learning.
Thorndike (as cited in Visco, 2014) proposed the (S-R) theory which focused on the principles of conditioning. In this theory, he posited that the behavior of humans is learned; if a certain response (R) yields a satisfying result, then it will reoccur in response to the same stimulus (S). Visco (2014), in his study about predictors of performance in licensure examinations, revolved his conceptual paradigm in this theory. According to the findings, the following are good predictors of performance in licensure examinations: graduate-related factors like Teaching Aptitude Test (TAT) and attendance in review classes; faculty-related variables like educational attainment, training/seminar workshops attended, academic rank and workloads; and, administrative and supervisory variables like supportive services, human relations, and linkages. In order to predict performance in licensure examinations, it was recommended to strengthen the bond between these predictors (S) in order to yield a better performance in licensure examinations (R).

In the United States of America (USA), teachers pursue professional development through a National Board Certification (NBC) in order to keep up with latest trends in educational standards for optimum student performance. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools (as cited in Queen’s University of Charlotte QUC, 2018) discovered that the end-of-course achievement of students taught by teachers with NBC was considerably better than those taught by teachers without NBC. Following Thorndike’s law, it is only logical for institutions to require their faculty members to obtain an NBC since it generates better results in terms of student achievement.
In the Philippines, passing the Board Licensure Examination for Professional Teachers (BLEPT) is the standard for teaching competence. The BLEPT determines the quality of teacher education in an institution. Every education graduate is mandated to take the BLEPT to earn the right to practice the profession. Licensed teachers have an edge compared to non-licensed teachers as most educational institutions only hire teachers with license, which, again, reflects the Law of Effect as mentioned earlier. Education graduates must obtain a rating of 75% to pass the BLEPT. Elementary education graduates must obtain an overall passing rate in two areas: general education and professional education. On the other hand, secondary education graduates must obtain an overall passing rate in three areas: general education, professional education, and field of specialization.

Figuerres (2012) pointed that the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Memorandum Order No. 30, series of 2004 (CMO 30, s. of 2004), recognized as the Revised Policies and Standards for Undergraduate Teacher Education Curriculum, stressed that pre-service education is crucial to aid Philippine education prepare for the challenge of globalization. The teacher education institutions (TEIs) were given the responsibility regarding the pre-service preparation of teachers in the primary and secondary education sectors. The improvement of the quality of education in the country depends on the preparedness of the teachers to perform their duties as educators. However, the said memorandum also reported the declining competency of education graduates as shown by the PRC-BLEPT results. Specifically, the education graduates’ content knowledge is below average as well as the skills needed to practice the profession.

According to the Philippine Business for Education (PBEd) (as cited in Geronimo, 2014), private universities and those identified as Centers of Excellence (COE) in teacher education dominated the BLEPT as top performing schools from 2009 to 2013. Furthermore, it was discovered that only 10% to 12% of all TEIs nationwide yielded good BLEPT results. In a more recent study covering BLEPT performance of TEIs from 2009 to 2017, about 50% of the TEIs nationwide performed poorly. In terms of number of passers, the BLEPT only registered 31% passing rate. PBEd further noted that most poorly performing TEIs are from Mindanao. This alarmed many colleges and universities offering teacher education especially those whose performance in the BLEPT is below the national passing rate. Necessary steps were done by these schools to improve their performance and studies were conducted to determine the cause of poor performance in the BLEPT.

Certainly, education graduates of Saint Columban College are included in the foregoing scenario. Aware of this trend in Philippine education, the researcher aims to provide important information regarding the performance of education graduates in the BLEPT conducted by the PRC in order to establish an accurate predictor and strengthen its influence on performance. In particular, the researcher is interested in conducting this study on BLEPT performance so as to find whether the professional education proficiency of the education graduates can predict professional education BLEPT performance.
This study explores the possible relationship between education graduates’ professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance. Since professional education covers 40% of the overall rating (in the case of elementary education, 60%), it can contribute greatly in passing the BLEPT and it can determine whether the education graduates have the competence to handle classes, impart knowledge, and use assessment strategies to measure students’ learning.

Out of the areas of the BLEPT, the competencies in the professional education area are similar in nature to the competencies measured in USAs NBC. Both are focused in keeping up with latest trends in educational standards for optimum student performance. In accordance with Visco (2014) in his study which anchored Thorndike’s Law of Effect, the professional education proficiency (S) will influence the professional education BLEPT performance (R). If the (S) will yield a better (R), then it will become an established pattern and will continue to reoccur.

Perspective of the ResearcherThe researcher is Alfer Jann D. Tantog. A Bachelor of Elementary Education-General Education graduate at Saint Columban College, he started his teaching career in the same institution. Immediately after graduating last March 2014, he was offered to teach English and Filipino subjects during the academic year 2014-2015. During this time, the researcher took and passed the September 2014 BLEPT. The following academic year 2015-2016, he taught professional education subjects in addition to some general education subjects. This trend continued up until the 2nd semester of academic year 2016-2017 when he was transferred to the senior high school department teaching English and Filipino subjects. In the succeeding academic year 2017-2018, he handled his first advisory class.

Currently, the researcher is still practicing his profession as Instructor 1 at Saint Columban College-Senior High School department. He still handles English and Filipino subjects while serving as part-time teacher of professional education subjects in the College of Teacher Education, Arts, and Sciences and is one of the advisers of the ABM strand. He is also the one of the advisers of the official publication of the senior high school department – The Capstone-Ang Hiraya. The researcher aims for continuous professional growth and development by taking every opportunity to engage in trainings and seminars.

From his experience in teaching professional education subjects, the researcher decided to focus his study in this area. Moreover, in one of his speeches during one of the in-service trainings and seminars of the school, former school president Rev. Fr. Gilbert M. Hingone stated that teacher education is the flagship of the school. This is why the researcher wanted to contribute to the College of Teacher Education, Arts, and Sciences through establishing and strengthening the relationship between its graduates’ professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance. Since professional education constitutes 40% (in the case of elementary education, 60%) of the takers’ rating, having a high rating in this area can contribute largely in passing the examination. Furthermore, the researcher is a graduate of Bachelor of Elementary Education-General Education (with no specialization) so it is only fitting to focus his study on this area.
The researcher is interested in establishing relationship in order to predict outcomes, thus, the researcher is positivist. The researcher believed that if outcomes can be predicted, certain variables can be enhanced so that its relationship to other variables will be strengthened. For example, if pre-board examinations can predict how students will perform in licensure examinations, then a better-crafted pre-board examination will be a better predictor of their performance. This is similar to what the researcher is planning to study. If the professional education proficiency of the education graduates can predict their professional education BLEPT performance, then an improved professional education program will be a better predictor of their performance.

Conceptual FrameworkThe conceptual framework of this study is presented in a schematic model shown in Figure 1.

Education Graduates’ Proficiency in all Professional Education Subjects:
1. Assessment of Student Learning 1 & 2
2. Field Study 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6
3. Practice Teaching
4. Facilitating Learning
5. Child and Adolescent Development
6. Principles of Teaching 1 & 2
7. Educational Technology 1 & 2
8. Curriculum Development
9. Developmental Reading 1 & 2
10. Teaching Profession
11. Social Dimensions of Education
12. Special Topics 1, 2, & 3

Professional Education BLEPT Performance
Action Plan to Enhance Professional Education BLEPT Performance

Figure 1. The Schematic Diagram of the Study
As shown in the figure, this study will treat two variables, namely, students’ proficiency in professional education subjects and Board Licensure Examination for Professional Teachers (BLEPT) performance. Proficiency in professional education is the independent variable for it is considered as the determinant in obtaining a passing rate in the professional education area of the BLEPT. Professional education BLEPT performance is treated as the dependent variable for it is believed that obtaining a passing rate in this area depends on one’s proficiency in professional education subjects. Accordingly, this study will attempt to establish a significant relationship between these two variables. The action plan is the third component of this conceptual framework. Based on the findings, a course of action will be made to enhance the professional education BLEPT performance of education graduates.
Thorndike (as cited in Visco, 2014) proposed the (S-R) theory which focused on the principles of conditioning. In this theory, he posited that the behavior of humans is learned. One of the laws in this theory is the Law of Effect which states that if a certain response (R) yields a satisfying result, then it will reoccur in response to the same stimulus (S). The conceptual framework centered on the effect of the professional education proficiency (S) on the professional education BLEPT performance (R).

This study can also be anchored on the Perspective Transformation Theory proposed by Jack Mezirow (as cited in Akazaki, 2002). This theory posits that the interpretation of new experience is regulated by the frames of reference shaped by past experiences. Accordingly, learners procure an updated or modified interpretation to guide future actions. Professional education BLEPT performance can be attributed to the ‘new experience’ while professional education proficiency can be attributed to the ‘frames of reference.’
Cornigan (2010) claimed that students will be more successful in their chosen careers if they are more proficient in communicating English effectively. This is based on the fact that English is widely used internationally as a means of communication. Similarly, this study is also anchored on the same concept as professional education is designed to equip students with the skills to successfully practice the teaching profession. Sarkisov (as cited in Tarasova, 2008) defined professional education as a means of qualifying for a specific profession or specialization. This implies that the more proficient the education graduates are in professional education, the more they will be successful in their teaching career.
Statement of the ProblemThis study will assess the professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance of education graduates of Saint Columban College. This study will focus on batches October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017. This study will be conducted during the academic year 2018-2019.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following queries:
What is the level of professional education proficiency of the education graduates in terms of the following indicators:
Assessment of Student Learning 1 & 2;
Field Study 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6;
Practice Teaching;
Facilitating Learning;
Child and Adolescent Development;
Principles of Teaching 1 & 2;
Educational Technology 1 & 2;
Curriculum Development;
Developmental Reading 1 & 2;
1.10 Teaching Profession;
1.11 Social Dimensions of Education; and
1.12 Special Topics 1, 2, & 3?
What level is the professional education BLEPT performance of the education
graduates?
Is there a significant relationship between the education graduates’ professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance?
Based on the findings, what action plan can be developed to enhance professional education BLEPT performance?
Hypothesis This hypothesis shall be tested using the 0.05 level of significance:
There is no significant relationship between the education graduates’ professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance.

Scope and Limitations of the StudyThis study will employ the descriptive-correlational design of research focusing on the possible significant relationship of the professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance of the education graduates of Saint Columban College. This study will focus on batches October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017. The scope and limitations of this study are bound by the following parameters:
Subject Matter. This study shall focus on the professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance of the education graduates of Saint Columban College. The level of the students’ professional education proficiency will be measured in terms of the following indicators: Assessment of Student Learning 1 ; 2; Field Study 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ; 6; Practice Teaching; Facilitating Learning; Child and Adolescent Development; Principles of Teaching 1 ; 2; Educational Technology 1 ; 2; Curriculum Development; Principles of Teaching 1 ; 2; Educational Technology 1 ; 2; Curriculum Development; Developmental Reading 1 ; 2; Teaching Profession; Social Dimensions of Education; and, Special Topics 1, 2, ; 3. The professional education BLEPT performance, on the other hand, will be determined by their professional education BLEPT rating comprising 40% of their overall rating.

Research Environment and Timeline. The researcher will conduct the study at Saint Columban College, Pagadian City. This study will be conducted during the academic year 2018-2019.

Research Participants. The participants of this study will be the education graduates of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City who graduated last October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017 who took the BLEPT. Their records needed for this study will be requested by the researcher from the Office of the Registrar and the Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs.

Research Design. This study will use quantitative non-experimental design. In particular, the researcher will use a descriptive-correlative research design.
Significance of the StudyThis study is meaningful as it tries to establish a possible link between the
students’ professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT
performance. The result of this study is beneficial to the following individuals:

Education Students. This study will help the education students to get a passing rate in the BLEPT by strengthening their professional education proficiency. Professional education constitutes 40% (in the case of elementary education, 60%) of the takers’ rating. Having a high rating in this area can contribute largely to passing the examination.
Professional Education Teachers. This study will provide professional education teachers with an idea on how crucial professional education subjects are in taking the BLEPT since it constitutes 40% (in the case of elementary education, 60%) of the takers’ rating. This study will also help them enhance their content, and by extension, pedagogical knowledge with the suggested course of action.
Deans of Teacher Education. The results of this study will give them idea as to the best measures to improve professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance, and by extension, BLEPT performance as a whole of their respective schools. Specifically, it can help them enhance the content taught, and by extension, the pedagogical knowledge of their teachers with the suggested course of action.

Other researchers. The findings of this study could be the basis in conducting similar studies in other environment. Other researchers could also widen the scope of this study to cover other predictors of BLEPT performance as it will only focus on professional education proficiency.
Definition of TermsThe following terms will be used extensively in this study and shall be taken according to the definition given below:
BLEPT Performance. It is measured by the number of takers for a particular class of graduates who passed the board examination against those who did not pass the examination.

Education Graduates. They are the education graduates of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City who graduated last October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017 who took the BLEPT.
Professional Education. It is the second part of the BLEPT wherein takers are to answer questions that test their ability to handle classes, impart knowledge to their pupils, and use assessment strategies to measure students’ learning.
Professional Education Proficiency. It refers to the overall grade-point average of
the twelve professional education subjects taken by the education graduates of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City.
Structure of the ThesisThe study will consist five chapters: Chapter 1 The Problem, Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature, Chapter 3 Research Methods, Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data, and Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations.

Chapter 1 includes the introduction of the problem, the perspective of the researcher, the conceptual framework, the statement of the problem, the hypothesis, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations, the definition of terms, and the structure of the thesis.

Chapter 2 discusses the review of related literature of the study.

Chapter 3 covers the research methods including research design and research methods. The research methods cover research environment, research participants, research instruments, data gathering techniques, and statistical treatment.

Chapter 4 presents, analyzes, and interprets the data on the level of professional education proficiency, level of the professional education BLEPT performance, and the significant relationship between the professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance of the education graduates.

Chapter 5 summarizes the findings and presents the conclusion and recommendations of the study.

Chapter 2Review of Related Literature This chapter reviews the literature related to professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance, which will provide bases for the interpretation of the data that shall be gathered later.

Professional Education Proficiency
The invaluable role of guiding students to learn successfully is the most crucial responsibility of the teachers. For this reason, teachers should possess the skills required by engaging themselves in continuous professional growth and development. This does not only involve imparting expert knowledge that the education students learn in college but also engaging in different training programs that further enhances professional education proficiency (Krumm, 2014).

Reinmann (as cited in Krumm, 2014) states that teaching proficiency or professional education proficiency refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes which education students and teachers should possess in order to successfully manage the teaching and learning process and design lessons. It is a combination of expert and didactical knowledge, practical teaching experience, skills learned and practiced, insights and attitudes, interaction with the students and the teacher’s own role. In this context, it is the ability to adjust and adapt to a specific situation.

Teaching proficiency or professional education proficiency is possible when educators regard the teaching and learning process as a collaborative effort between teachers and students as members of a learning community (Krumm, 2014).

In this study, the education graduates’ professional education proficiency will be based on their performance in the following professional education courses offered at Saint Columban College, Pagadian City.

Assessment of Student Learning. This course is a three-unit professional education course. It is one of the theory and concept courses. It provides the broad framewok within which the methods, strategies, processes, issues, and other matters related to teaching are included and discussed. In addition, it helps education students understand measurement evaluation and assessment as means of evaluating student learning. The education students experience test construction using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The education students learn how to prepare a table of specification, describe differences between criterion and norm-referenced assessment and their uses, and identify grade descriptions (Buendicho, 2013).
Principles of Teaching. This course is devoted to the elements of teaching and learning, namely; the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment. It is centered on the principles of teaching and learning and their implication on the formulation of objectives, the selection, and organization of content, the selection and use of teaching approaches, strategies, methods, instructional materials, assessment, classroom management, questioning and reacting techniques, and the use of homework. The course also includes the latest curriculum model, the UbD (Understanding by Design) and the standards and competencies in the K to 12 curriculum (Corpuz & Salandanan, 2015).

Facilitating Learning. This course aims to facilitate learning of the various theories of learning, growth, and development. Future teachers learn to facilitate not only the students’ learning but also their own. It helps in the development of metacognition by cultivating the habit of reflective thinking (Lucas ; Corpuz, 2014).

Child and Adolescent Development. This course aims to educate future teachers regarding concepts and issues on human development and developmental theories. In order to understand the nature of learners better, this course dwells on the development of learners at various stages focusing on the physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development. The implications and of concepts and principles in development learned from this course are given not only in relation to the teaching and learning process but also in relation to childcare and parenting (Corpuz, Lucas, Borabo, ; Lucido, 2010).

Social Dimensions of Education. This course imparts the appreciation of human differences through education that provides alternatives for maximum involvement in a pluralistic society and in the making of a better, just, and humane world. It is designed to prepare future teachers for the wide diversity of students whom they are certain to encounter in their classrooms, schools, communities, and global society. It aims to educate future teachers to learn to incorporate issues of diversity in all of their teaching, including, but not limited to their interactions with children, parents, other teachers, and the community (Tamayao, 2013).

Curriculum Development. This course imparts the concepts, nature, and purposes as well as various meanings, types, foundations, and approaches of curriculum. It explains the teaching and learning processes and curriculum development models. Education students are also taught about crafting the curriculum, implementing the curriculum, assessing the curriculum, and addressing curriculum innovations, local and global trends as well as issues and concerns (Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, ; Javier, 2008).

Teaching Profession. This course attempts to give the prospective professional teachers a comprehensive view of their multifarious task to enable them to make an informed decision on whether or not they pursue teaching as a profession. It dwells on the teacher as an individual member of the society, facilitator in the classroom and in the community, global teacher that can teach multicultural children and aware of the educational practices of other countries, and a teacher by example through living by the laws on the professionalization of teaching and the Code of Ethics for Professional teachers (Bilbao, Corpuz, Llagas, ; Salandanan, 2012).
Educational Technology. This course helps future professional teachers make their classes come alive by the full and appropriate use of educational technologies in their experiential, constructivist, and integrative teaching approaches. It focuses on the blending of traditional and new technology to enhance the teaching and learning process for better results (Corpuz ; Lucido, 2012).

Developmental Reading. This course is designed to enable college students to become more aware of themselves as readers and to develop strategies and skills to meet the demands of college reading. It also teaches the students how to develop and use instructional materials in teaching reading and grammar and to design specific and appropriate literacy activities (Bernardo, 2013).

Field Study. This course supports authentic experiential learning from field study and actual classroom immersion of the prospective teachers. It begins with fields study experiences through observation and participation and will progress to teaching internship and guided/mentored classroom teaching. The NCBTS domains are used as guideposts in developing the content, pedagogy, and implementation scheme of this course (Council of Deans for Teacher Education, 2017).

Practice Teaching. This course is a one semester full time teaching internship using a clinical approach under the mentorship of a cooperating teacher. It is done both in the in-campus or off-campus if possible. The practice teachers are required to pass a teaching portfolio as evidence of completion of the course (Council of Deans for Teacher Education, 2017).

Special Topics. This course focuses on some problems, issues, and trends related to the field of education. This allows education students to have a wider knowledge and perspective of the teaching profession through attendance and conduct of seminars on the latest trends in education. It explores emerging concern, new directions, and reforms through examining the critical issues and problems that brought about the different paradigm shifts and transformations currently found in the aims, processes, and delivery of education (Corpuz, 2013).
Professional Education BLEPT Performance

Corpuz, Faltado, and Mayordomo (2014) studied the performance of secondary education graduates in the BLEPT from October 2009 to September 2013 conducted in the Technological Institute of the Philippines. It was discovered in the study that, in terms of professional education, the lowest average rating was 71% in October 2009 and the highest average rating was 76.38% in September 2012. In comparison to general education, the overall average rating for professional education is 73.41% while the overall average rating for general education is 73.14% though the difference is infinitesimal. One of the recommendations in the study is to apply BLEPT type questions in major examinations.

Similarly, Laganao (2017) conducted a study at Bulacan State University. It was revealed in the study that among the secondary education students in different fields of specialization, only English majors (77.06%) and Physical Science majors (76.34%) got an average rating more than 75% in professional education. Second year students are recommended to take and pass a qualifying examination before they will be able to take major and professional education subjects.

The Batangas State University education graduates from 2011 to 2015 had an above national passing rate and an average overall performance in the BLEPT. However, the study also revealed that the BEED graduates encountered difficulty in professional education subjects. One of the proposed measures is for the head of the college to monitor and evaluate delivery of instruction of professional education subjects (Malaluan, 2017).

Based on the above studies, education students struggle with regards to professional education. Since it accounts for 40% (in the case of elementary education, 60%) of the test takers’ rating, having a high rating in this area can contribute in passing the examination. The following related literature discussed professional education, and by extension, academic proficiency as it encompasses professional education, general education, and field of specialization as one of the possible predictors of professional education BLEPT performance or BLEPT performance as a whole.

In the study on the Magsaysay Memorial College education graduates’ performance in the BLEPT and its relationship to the students’ academic achievement, it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between the students’ academic proficiency (general education, professional education, and field of specialization) and the probability of passing professional education and specialization components of the BLEPT. The higher the students’ grades in professional education and major subjects, the greater the chance of them passing the board examination (Figuerres, 1998). This is in line with the results of the study by Quiambao et al. (2015) conducted in Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University in that academic proficiency is one of the determining factors in passing the BLEPT. In addition, 83% of the BLEPT general average of elementary education graduates of Visayas State University in academic year 2011 to 2012 is predicted by academic proficiency (Bellen, Abela, & Truya, 2018). Likewise, the analysis of the BLEPT performance of the 2013 elementary education graduates of University of Northern Philippines showed that there is a significant relationship between academic proficiency and BLEPT performance (Rabanal, 2016).

Refugio (2003) wanted to discover the predictors of the secondary education BLEPT in order to propose a regression model. In this study conducted in Jose Rizal Memorial State College, he concluded that professional education is one of the significant predictors of BLEPT performance. In the proposed regression model of the ten (10) identified significant predictors, there is a 95% chance of passing the BLEPT with an overall rating between 78.48% and 80.75%.
Garcia (2013), on the other hand, seems to have a different finding in his study. He concluded that there is a weak positive correlation coefficient between the students’ professional education proficiency and BLEPT performance in contrast to the high correlation coefficient between the students’ proficiency in their field of specialization and BLEPT performance. Overall, the correlation between the academic proficiency and BLEPT performance is moderately significant. However, he stressed that academic proficiency is not a determinant in passing the board examination. This was based on the data of the respondents of PRC BLEPT examinees of Southern Leyte State University – San Juan from 2007 to 2010, in his study that concluded whether the academic proficiency can be considered as a determinant in passing the BLEPT.
A study on the BLEPT from 2010 to 2013 of Polytechnic University of the Philippines – San Pedro’s Bachelor in Secondary Education Major in Mathematics and English graduates and its relationship on their academic performance supported Garcia (2013) as it concluded that there is a weak linear relationship between the academic proficiency and BLEPT performance of the students in terms of professional education (Antonio, Malvar, Ferrer, ; Pambuena, 2016). Further, in the study on the BLEPT performance of Rizal Technological University teacher education graduates, it was found out that there is a slight correlation between professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance. As a whole, a weak relationship exists between academic proficiency and BLEPT performance (Allaga ; Pachejo, 2013).
Salundaguit (2009) revealed that there is a significant relationship between the Bachelor of Elementary Education students’ academic proficiency and BLEPT performance. The result of his study appears to be different than that of Garcia (2013), Malvar et al. (2016), and Allaga and Pachejo (2013) and supported the finding of Figuerres (1998), Bellen et al. (2018), Rabanal (2016), and Refugio (2003) in that the better the academic proficiency of the students, the higher the probability of them passing the BLEPT. Further, Pascua and Navalta (2011) stated in their study conducted in a state university that a higher academic proficiency can lead to a better BLEPT performance.
In their quest to explore the formula for success in BLEPT, Gerundio and Balagtas (2014) revealed in the study conducted in a prominent TEI in the country that professional education proficiency is one of the significant factors in passing the BLEPT for both elementary and secondary education graduates.
BLEPT Performance
According to the Philippine Business for Education (PBEd) (as cited in Geronimo, 2014), private universities and those identified as Centers of Excellence (COE) in teacher education dominated the BLEPT as top performing schools from 2009 to 2013. Furthermore, it was discovered that only 10% to 12% of all TEIs nationwide yielded good BLEPT results. In a more recent study covering BLEPT performance of TEIs from 2009 to 2017, about 50% of the TEIs nationwide performed poorly. In terms of number of passers, the BLEPT only registered 31% passing rate. PBEd further noted that most poorly performing TEIs are from Mindanao. This alarmed many colleges and universities offering teacher education especially those whose performance in the BLEPT is below the national passing rate. Necessary steps were done by these schools to improve their performance and studies were conducted to determine the cause of poor performance in the BLEPT.

After examining the above related literature, the researcher discovered that there are theories that could be anchored in this study as explained in the description of the conceptual framework. In particular, emphasis is placed upon the Law of Effect by Edward L. Throndike as the main anchor of this study.
Law of Effect
The Law of Effect is illustrated in one of Thorndike’s famous experiments. In this experiment, he placed a cat inside a puzzle box and encouraged it to escape to reach a piece of fish placed outside. The cat tried different means to escape the box. Eventually, the cat stumbled upon a lever which will open the puzzle box and allow it to escape. Thorndike noted the time it took the cat to escape the puzzle box. Every time the cat escaped, it was then placed back inside the puzzle box, and the time it took to escape was noted again. In successive tries, the cat eventually discovered that pressing the lever would open the puzzle box and allow it to escape. The cat realized that pressing the lever would yield positive consequences and adopted this behaviour, pressing the lever quickly to escape at a shorter time duration (McLeod, 2018).

In his biographical memoir of Thorndike, Woodworth (1952) stated that when Thorndike devoted himself to educational psychology, he realized that the Law of Effect is directly applicable to education. Thorndike stressed that a child should find satisfaction from correct responses and that the lessons should be within his/her interest so that he/she would find satisfaction in his/her achievement. Since the child yields a favorable consequence, the behavior will strengthen and he/she will continue to excel.

Connections between stimuli and responses strengthening or weakening largely depends on how accomplished the students become at the end of the teaching process. In other words, the more the given information leads to success, the better the information is internalized and used effectively (Karadut, 2012).

Karadut (2012), in his study about the effects of Edward L. Thorndike’s theory of connectionism rudiments on developing cello playing skills for beginners, concluded that the essentials of connectionism significantly contributed in the development of cello playing skills of the students. One of the laws Karadut anchored is the Law of Effect stated above.
The Law of Effect is widely used in different textbooks of learning and conditioning emphasizing its functional aspect. Furthermore, it is used as an anchor in different studies and disciplines (Nevin, 1999). In particular, it is also widely used in teacher education, specifically professional education, as one of the basis for developing competence among students.
Thorndike (as cited in Visco, 2014) proposed the (S-R) theory which focused on the principles of conditioning. In this theory, he posited that the behavior of humans is learned; if a certain response (R) yields a satisfying result, then it will reoccur in response to the same stimulus (S). Visco (2014), in his study about predictors of performance in licensure examinations, revolved his conceptual paradigm in this theory. According to the findings, the following are good predictors of performance in licensure examinations: graduate-related factors like Teaching Aptitude Test (TAT) and attendance in review classes; faculty-related variables like educational attainment, training/seminar workshops attended, academic rank and workloads; and, administrative and supervisory variables like supportive services, human relations, and linkages. In order to predict performance in licensure examinations, it was recommended to strengthen the bond between these predictors (S) in order to yield a better performance in licensure examinations (R).

Based on the review of related literature, the status of professional education as one of the possible predictors of professional education BLEPT performance or BLEPT performance as a whole is not consistent across all of the related studies presented. In fact, some of the studies even concluded that in some TEIs, professional education is a struggle for education students and in a recent study conducted by PBEd (as cited by Geronimo, 2014), the BLEPT only registered a 31% passing rate. As it is mentioned throughout the entire paper, since professional education comprises 40% (in the case of elementary education, 60%) of the test takers’ rating, having a high rating in this area can contribute in passing the examination. In addition, while the related studies included professional education as one of the possible predictors of BLEPT performance, none of these studies actually focused on professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance alone.
Since the researcher has experience teaching professional education subjects, he wanted to establish and strengthen its relationship to professional education BLEPT performance not only to have a single focus in the study but also to help in the advancement of the professional education program of the institution where he belongs. Following the Law of Effect, the professional education proficiency (S) will influence the professional education BLEPT performance (R). If the (S) will yield a better (R), then it will become an established pattern and will continue to reoccur.
The above reasons prompt the researcher to explore the relationship between professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance.

Chapter 3Research MethodsThis chapter presents the research methods of the study. It includes discussion on the research design, research environment, research participants, sampling techniques, instrumentation, data gathering techniques, statistical treatment, and ethical considerations.

Research DesignThis study will utilize the quantitative non-experimental design. In particular, the researcher will use a descriptive-correlational research design. Leedy and Ormrod (as cited in Curtis, Comiskey, ; Dempsey, 2016) stated that correlational research is about building up connections between at least two factors in a similar populace or between similar factors in two populaces. Discoveries from correlational research can be utilized to decide pervasiveness and connections among factors, and to predict events from current data and knowledge (Curtis, Comiskey, ; Dempsey, 2016).
According to the Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching (n.d.), correlational research may not be a viable option in determining causations but it can be used to investigate the relationships between and among variables, specifically, the level and direction of the relationship. It is further noted that while there are instances that relationships between multiple variables may be established based on chance, it can still yield useful insights and can be used as the basis in further investigation of relationships through experimental studies. Moreover, it is stated that a researcher using this design will have no problems with regards to the number of data collected because it is capable of handling a large sample size as compared to an experimental research design, for example. In this study, the researcher will investigate the relationship between professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance and will be expected to handle large amount of data.
Research EnvironmentThe research environment of this study is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Satellite View of Saint Columban College
The researcher will conduct the study at Saint Columban College. It is a private educational institution run by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pagadian in Pagadian City, Philippines. Founded in 1957 as Saint Columban School, it is the largest among the Diocesan Schools of Pagadian. Saint Columban offers elementary, secondary, and tertiary education. In 2016, the institution established its senior high school program in accordance to the K-12 program of the Department of Education (DepEd).
Research ParticipantsThe participants of this study will be the education graduates of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City who graduated last October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017 who took the BLEPT. Their records needed for this study will be requested by the researcher from the Office of the Registrar and the Office of the Vice President of Academic Affairs. The specific number and the tabular information will be provided later upon the granting of the researcher’s request.

Sampling TechniquesThis study will employ the non-probability sampling, in particular, purposive sampling. A researcher using non-probability sampling will select samples based on subjective opinion as opposed to random selection which is the basis for probability sampling (Laerd Dissertation, n.d.).
One type of non-probability sampling is purposive sampling. “Statistics How To” (2015) stated that purposive sampling is where a researcher bases the selection of a sample based on the knowledge of the population and the study itself; the aim of the study is the main factor in selecting the study participants. To be more specific, since a specific set of participants will be chosen in this study, homogeneous sampling will be employed by the researcher.

InstrumentsSchool documents will be used in conducting this study. The professional education grades and professional education BLEPT rating of the education graduates of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City will be utilized by the researcher. The professional education grades will be provided to the researcher by the Office of the Registrar. From the records of the PRC, the professional education BLEPT ratings obtained by the Vice President of Academic Affairs will be provided to the researcher upon request.Data Gathering TechniquesBefore the necessary data for the study will be obtained, the researcher will secure a permit to conduct the study from the following: School President of Saint Columban College, Pagadian City; upon approval, the Vice President for Academic Affairs, the School Registrar and the Dean of the College of Teacher Education, Arts, and Sciences will be informed about the study.

The official results of the Board Licensure Examination for Teachers from PRC Manila for education graduates who graduated last October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017 who took the BLEPT will be provided by the Office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs (VPAA) upon approval of the researcher’s request.

The researcher will formally write to the school registrar to allow him to have access to the school records of the education graduates who graduated last October 2015, March 2016, October 2016, March 2017, and October 2017 who took the BLEPT. Upon the granting of the request, the researcher will immediately record on his tally sheets all the professional education grades of the said education graduates from the files of the officers assigned to the education courses. The researcher will then get the overall grade-point-average of the education graduates for each class to determine their achievement in professional education.

Statistical Treatment The Grade Point Averages (GPAs) of the education students in professional education subjects will be converted into ratings similar to the ratings used in the BLEPT so as to give all quantitative data in this study the same direction relative to their corresponding magnitudes. The conversion of GPA to percentage rating will be based on the Saint Columban College Students’ Handbook.
Descriptive-correlational statistics will be employed in this study to establish relationship of the variables since it is descriptive in nature. Frequencies will be determined in each education graduates’ grades in professional education subjects that test their ability to handle classes, impart knowledge to their pupils, and use assessment strategies to measure students’ learning and percentage frequency distribution will be used. Furthermore, weighted mean will be applied as the basis in determining the education students’ achievement in professional education subjects and professional education BLEPT performance. In order to test the significant relationship between professional education proficiency and professional education BLEPT performance, Pearson Product Moment of Correlation or the Zero Order Correlation Coefficient will be utilized.

Ethical Considerations in Research
In pursuant to the ethical considerations in quantitative research, this study will protect the participants by non-disclosure of their identity. In order to achieve this, the researcher will assign codes to represent each participant so that their identity will not be disclosed. The data obtained from the Office of the Registrar and the Office of the Vice President of Academic Affairs will be handled carefully so that it will not be disclosed and exploited by other parties. Furthermore, this study will not fabricate and falsify data, findings, or conclusions so as to provide and promote truth which is the goal of research.

Chapter 4Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of DataThis chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the data on Variable 1, Variable 2 and Variable 3. The components of Variable 1 are: component 1, component 2 and component 3. The indicators for volume 2 are Indicator 1, indicator 2 and indicator 3. Variable 3 consists of indicator a, indicator b, and indicator c.

Variable 1This study includes the following indicators of variable 1: indicator 1, indicator 2 and indicator 3. Tables 2 to 5 present the data on Variable 1.

Present first the overall weighted mean. Second, the item with highest weighted mean. Third, the item with lowest weighted mean.

Indicator 1. Table 2 presents the data on indicator 1. As shown, the overall weighted mean of indicator 1 is 3.5, interpreted as Very Good. The table also presents that Item No. 4 etc etc etc got the highest weighted mean of 3.8, interpreted as very good. Item No. 1 The teacher is etc etc etc posted the lowest weighted mean of 2.6, interpreted as Good.

(Interpret the data (why are they so? Why highest, why lowest)
(Support with literature. Highlight how your data are similar or different from the findings of related literature. Why is it so?)
ex. The results indicated that etc. etc. etc. The results find support from Agustero (2013), etc. etc etc. However, Lim (2013: p.12) argued that “etc., etc., etc., etc”.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Indicator 1
Items Weighted Mean Interpretation
1 The teachers is etc etc etc2.60 Skilled
2 3.25 Skilled
3 3.27 Highly Skilled
4 3.80 Highly Skilled
5 1.78 Not Skilled
Overall Mean Response 2.94 Skilled
Hypothetical Mean Range:1.00-1.75Highly Not Skilled
1.76 – 2.5 Not Skilled
2.51 – 3.25 Skilled
3.26 – 4.00 Highly Skilled
The interpretation of the hypothetical mean must align with the question asked in the statement of the problem. e.g. Q1 level of skills hence interpreted as highly skilled, skilled, not skilled, highly not skilled.

Indicator 2. The data on Indicator 2 are presented in Table 3. As shown, the overall weighted mean of Indicator 2 is 3.26, interpreted Very Good. The table also presents that Item No. 4 etc etc etc got the highest weighted mean of 3.8, interpreted as very good. Item No. 3 The teacher is etc etc etc posted the lowest weighted mean of 2.5, interpreted as Fair.

(Present first the overall weighted mean. Second, the item with highest weighted mean. Third, the item with lowest weighted mean.)
(Interpret the data (why are they so? Why highest, why lowest)
(Support with literature. Highlight how your data are similar or different from the findings of related literature. Why is it so?)
ex. According to Agustero (2013), etc. etc etc. Anghad (2013) supported this contention by saying “etc etc, etc etc”.

Summary Data on Variable 1. Table 5 shows the summary of data on V1
Indicators Overall Weighted Mean Interpretation
1 Indicator 1 2 Indicator 2 3 Indicator 3 Overall Mean Response Hypothetical Mean Range:1.00-1.75Highly Not Skilled
1.76 – 2.5 Not Skilled
2.51 – 3.25 Skilled
3.26 – 4.00 Highly Skilled
Variable 2(Same as variable 1)
Variable 3(Same as variable 2)
Testing of the HypothesesThe following hypotheses were tested using the 0.05 level of significance.

There is a significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in terms of …..

Action Plan (desired output)
Based on the findings, an action plan was developed to enhance V3 (cf. Appendix 5). (Discuss the action plan).
Chapter 5Summary of Findings, Conclusion/s and RecommendationsIntroductory paragraph stating the contents of the chapter.

Summary of FindingsIntroductory paragraph.

(Question 1)
Answer to Question 1
(Question 2)
Answer to Question 2
And so on
Conclusion/s(Refer to your general statement of the problem) Make a general statement relevant to the purpose of your study. Add statements on so what? (ex. Students’ engagement in online games affects their social behaviors and academic-related behaviors. Then HEIs/Guidance Center should ….still generic statements. )
RecommendationsBased on the findings, the researcher endorses the following recommendations:
(identify the target group/persons who will implement the recommendation, then state the specific course of action.)
And so on…
C
C
C
c

References
Appendix APermission to conduct the study

Appendix B(Instrument A)(
Appendix CInstrument B
Curriculum VitaeInsert picture in toga