”Protective factors which modify, ameliorate or alter a person’sresponse to some environmental hazard that predisposes to a maladaptiveoutcome” (Rutter, 1987, p. 316).
”The process of,capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging orthreatening circumstances” (Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990, p. 426). ”A dynamicprocess encompassing positive adaptation within the context of significantadversity” (Luthar et al., 2000, p. 543). ”A class of phenomena characterized by goodoutcomes in spite of serious threats to adaptation or development” (Masten,2001, p.
228). ”The personal qualities that enables one to thrive in the face ofadversity” (Connor & Davidson, 2003, p. 76). Interpersonalrelationships can be explained by good emotional intelligence.
Salovey and Mayer(1990) have found that the more emotional intelligence leads towards morepsychological well-being. Now a days emotionalintelligence tend to be topic of interest for students (Bhattacharyya et al., 2008).
And is widely spreading in every field of life like (school, work places. etc.)(Pellitteri, 2002). According to Landa et al (2010), Diener and Suh (2001) haveexplain that psychological well-being has positive relation with emotions.
Argyle (1987), Landa et al, (2010) explain that mental health is assured by thehigh emotional intelligence. According toArmstrong, Galligan, and Critchley (2011), Emotional intelligence is directlyrelated to resilience. Salovey, Bedell, Detweiler and Mayer (1999) theorizedthat who have higher emotional intelligence they are more able to handledifficult situation.
“Accurately perceive and appraise their emotions, know howand when to express their feelings, and can effectively regulate their moodstates” (p. 161). Resilience isalways in relation with psychological wellbeing and mental health. (Avey etal.
, 2010). For instance, He, Cao, Feng, and Peng (2013) had investigatedrelationship between resilience and psychological well-being, which waspositive relationship. Participants with high resilience had also morepsychological well-being on the other hand participants with low resilience hadless psychological wellbeing and mental strength. Similarly, McDermott, Cobham,Barry, and Stallman (2010) had discover positive relationship between resilienceand psychological well-being. More mental illness in participants depicts lowlevel of resilience. And those with less mental illness score high on resilience.Lee, Sudom, and Zamorski (2013) and significant variance was reported byresilience in psychological well-being.Past researches only explain simple relationship between psychologicalwell-being with other variables.
So there is need of study which can explainthe mediating role of resilience between emotional intelligence and psychologicalwell-being. Thus this study is aimed at finding the mediating role ofresilience between emotional intelligence and psychological well-being. MethodObjectives. In proposedstudy following objectives are formulated: 1. To investigate the relationship of emotionalintelligence and psychological well-being and Resilience.
To find out the demographic differences (gender) of Hostelite students on emotional intelligence, Psychological well-being and Resilience. Hypotheses. In this research following hypothesis have been formulated: There will be positive relationship between emotional intelligence, psychological well-being and Resilience among Hostelite students.2. Emotional intelligence, predicts the psychological well-being. 3. Resilience is the positive predictor of psychological well-being.
4.Resilience has the mediating role in the relationship between emotionalintelligence and psychological well-being. Sample. The sample for proposed study willconsist N= 200 participants. Men (n=100) and women (n =100). After taking the permission from Head of Department thesample will be drawn from the University of Sargodha.Operational definition of variables.
Theproposed study will use three variables; emotional intelligence, psychologicalwell-being and Resilience. The operational definitions of these variables aregiven below:Emotional intelligence. Goleman describes emotionalintelligence the ability, capacity, skill, or self-perceived ability toidentify, assess, and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others, and ofgroups. People who possess a high degree of emotional intelligence knowthemselves very well and are also able to sense the emotions of others (ascited in Serrat, 2009). It isoperationalized on the scores of individual on (SRMEI) scale. Psychological well-being. Individual meaningfulengagement in life, self- satisfaction, optimal psychological functioning anddevelopment at one’s true highest potential. It has six dimensions that areautonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationship withother, purpose in life and self-acceptance of individuals (Ryff, 1989).
Resilience. Resilience canbe considered as a process of adaptation to adversity and stress. Resilientindividuals tend to recover from setbacks or trauma and portray a common set ofcharacteristics that help them cope with challenges in life (McAllister , 2009; Herrman et al.
, 2011).Instrument. According to nature of study, following three scales will be selected,named self –Report measure of emotionalintelligence scale (SRMEI) , Psychological-Well-Being-Scales-(PWB)and Brief Cope Scale. Thedetailed description of these scales are given below: Self –report measure of emotionalintelligence scale (SRMEI). Self –Report measure of emotionalintelligence scale (SRMEI) will be used to accessthe emotional intelligence. This scale consists of 33items with scoring answerson five-point scale (5= strongly agree, 4= agree, 3= neither disagree noragree, 2= Disagree and 1= strongly disagree). Reliabilityof SRMEI scale is .91.
Psychological-Well-Being-Scales-(PWB).The Psychological Well-Being scale (PWB) consists of eight itemsdescribing important aspects of human functioning ranging from positiverelationships, to feelings of competence, to having meaning and purpose inlife. Response format is from 1-7(strongly disagree to strongly Agree). Add up all the items high scorer will depict high psychologicalwell-being. Test-retest reliabilitycoefficient ranged between .78 and .97.
The Brief Resilience Scale. There are six items of the brief resilience scale (BRS). Item no 1,3 an5 are having positive wording while 2, 4, and 6 are reverse coded items.The BRS can be scored by reversing item number 2, 4 and 6 and then by takingmean of all 6 items. That is five point Likert scale. 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 =neutral, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree.
” Reliability analysis using Cronbach’s Alpha was .93, indicating that thescale has good reliability. Demographics. Demographicsi.
e. age. Gender Procedure. For proposed study N=200participants will be approached. Men (n=100)and women (n =100).
After taking the informed consent form, theparticipants will complete the three questionnaires used in proposed study;SRMEI, PWB and BRS scales. Thedemographic information questionnaire will be also used. Participants will begiven approximately 40 minutes to complete set of questionnaires. Proposed analysis .
After collecting data; Suitable statistical analysis will be doneby using SPSS for testing the objectives and hypotheses. Ethical consideration. I will not physically harm any person .I will make surethat the respondents have been willingly participated in the research. Anydeception regarding objective of research will be avoided. The participantswill be assured that their privacy shall be kept confidence.
ResultsTable 1Number of Participants, Mean Scores, and StandardDeviations for Emotional Intelligence Psychological Well-being, and Resilience. N M SD Emotional Intelligence 200 110.96 19.85 Psychological Well-being 200 35.83 10.
93 Resilience 200 2.96 0.44 Note: N= Number of Participants, M= Mean Score, SD=Standard DeviationThese are descriptive findings of all three variables.Table 2 Pearson co-relation between Criterion and predictedvariables. Emotional Intelligence Psychological Well-being Psychological Well-being .
692** 1 Resilience .113 .204** **.Correlation is significant at 0.01level (2-tailed)As shown in Table 2 there is significant positiverelationship of emotional intelligence with resilience (r =1.27, P < 0.01)and psychological well-being (r = 47.
88, P < 0.01). And there exists a significant positiverelationship between resilience and psychological well-being. (r = 4.
16, P <0.01).Table 3 Regression Table for the Emotional Intelligence andpsychological well-being. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F R R Square Adjusted R² ? T p Emotional Intelligence Psychological Well-being 181.
66 .692 .478 .476 .
692 13.47 .000 Table 3 shows that, emotional Intelligence hadsignificant positive effect on psychological well-being of students (F = 181.6,P < 0.01). Note: ?=Coefficientof Regression; F=F-test; t=t-test; P=Significant Level; R=Coefficient ofCorrelation; R2=Coefficient of Determination.
Table 4 Regression based on Effect of resilienceon psychological Well-being. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F R R Square Adjusted R² ? T p Resilience Psychological Well-being 8.603 .204 .042 .037 .
204 2.93 .004 Table 4 shows that, Resilience had significantpositive effect on psychological well-being (F = 8.603, P < 0.05) Note: ?=Coefficient of Regression; F=F-test; t=t-test;P=Significant Level; R=Coefficient of Correlation; R2=Coefficient ofDetermination. Table 5.
Regression ofPsychological Well-Being based on resilience by controlling the dimensions ofEmotional Intelligence. Predictor Variable Criterion Variable F P R R2 ? T P Psychological Well being 96.38 0.01 .703 .495 Emotional Intelligence .677 13.28 .
000 Resilience .128 2.504 0.01 Table No.
5 depicts that, Emotional Intelligence andResilience had significant positive effect on psychological well-being. (P <0.01, F = 96.38). Also, Results depicts that emotional intelligence (P <0.
01, ? = .677) is positive predictor of psychological well-being. Andresilience is also significant positive predictor of psychological well-being(P < 0.01, ? = .128).Note: ?=Coefficient of Regression; F=F-test; t=t-test;P=Significant Level; R=Coefficient of Correlation; R2=Coefficient ofDetermination.
Suggestions and LimitationsStudies which are going to be conducted in futureshould also consider other related variables like spiritual intelligence, self-controland psychological adjustment.Limitation Limitation of this study was that, sample was only Hostelite(university) students. And other social Groups were neglected.
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