REVIEW OF LITERATURE FOR THIS STUDY(Nagendrappa.A, et al, 2017) done a study on the prevalence, typology and specified demographic and clinical correlates of SD among female patients seeking treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) on 40 women with ADS and 40 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for SD using a Sexual Dysfunction Checklist (SDC) and Arizona Sexual Experience Questionnaire (ASEX) and found 55% of ADS patients had one or more SD as per ASEX and most common being low sexual desire, followed by inability to reach orgasm (52.5%), and dissatisfaction with orgasm (50%) with women. As per SDC, low sexual desire (55%), anorgasmia (52.
5%) and dissatisfaction with own sexual function (45%) were the most common SD noted. In comparison with HC, the prevalence of SD in patients with ADS was significantly higher in all domains. Low educational qualification, initiation of alcohol at earlier age, longer duration of alcohol consumption and dependence and sever dependence appeared to be the most significant predictors of developing SD. As a result, SD rates are higher among patients with ADS compared to HC and all domains of sexual functioning are affected. Clinicians need to routinely assess sexual functioning and plan for gender sensitive, multidimensional treatment.(Pundhir.
A et al, 2015) conducted a study on Dhat syndrome that is also called as cultural bound syndrome in which affected individuals have morbid pre occupation with semen loss in their urine and its impact on the body for duration of three months, this mixed method study was conducted in Rohilkhand Medical College campus; individuals were approached both in and outside the Psychiatric Outpatient Department using purposive sampling procedure. ICD-10 diagnostic criterion was used to include affected individual in the study sample. Subsequently, a semi-structured questionnaire to document their socio demographic data and symptomatology was used. Further, previous consultation to quack, ACMPs and allopathic practitioners other than psychiatrist and advice given to the patient by them was obtained via in-depth interview and found 38 out of 110 with Dhat syndrome. Invariably, they complained of undue concern regarding debilitating effects of seminal discharge and harmful for the body. A total 21.1% had prior consultation to ACMPs and attributing it to masturbation and hot weather. Surprisingly, allopathic practitioners consulted gave incorrect advices.
As a result it affects individuals irrespective of their social and education background and sex education among the masses and emphasis for awareness of this syndrome among ACMPs and allopathic practitioners other than psychiatrist is necessary to reduce this cultural bound syndrome. (Rajkumar, 2015. Conducted a study on Distinctive clinical features of Dhat syndrome with comorbid sexual dysfunction by examining the case records of 48 men presenting with a diagnosis of Dhat syndrome in the period 2012–2014, and compared patients with and without comorbid sexual dysfunction and this work was carried out in accordance with the principles of the institute’s Scientific Advisory and Ethical Committees. Out of 48 men with Dhat syndrome, thirteen (27.
1%) were diagnosed as having a comorbid psychogenic sexual disorder: 6 (12.5%) had premature ejaculation (PE), 4 (8.3%) had erectile dysfunction (ED), and 3 (6.
25%) had both PE and ED. In twelve of these 13 men, semen-loss anxiety post-dated the onset of sexual dysfunction, with a mean interval of 2.48 years (range, 1 to 5 years). As a result, men with comorbid Dhat syndrome and sexual dysfunction may benefit from a greater focus on the latter diagnosis, and on risk factors such as childhood adversity, anxiety and substance abuse. (Marshal, 2003) conducted a study on The effects of alcohol use on marital functioning by implying two hypothesis, One hypothesis conceptualizes alcohol use as maladaptive and proposes that it serves as a chronic stressor that causes marital dysfunction and subsequent dissolution. An opposing hypothesis proposes that alcohol use is adaptive and serves to temporarily relieve stressors that cause marital dysfunction, stabilizing the marital relationship, and perhaps preventing dissolution. As a results the alcohol use is maladaptive, and that it is associated with dissatisfaction, negative marital interaction patterns, and higher levels of marital violence.
A small subset of studies found that light drinking patterns are associated with adaptive marital functioning.(Kazuo Yamaguchi, and Denise B. Kandel, 1985) conducted a study on A Life Event History Analysis of Family Roles and Marijuana Use by seeing inverse relationships with marriage and being a parent; positive relationships with separation/divorce. Role selection and role socialization are two processes contribute to the resolution of potential incompatibilities between family roles and marijuana use whereas Role selection effects of marijuana use are reflected in postponement of marriage and parenthood and increased risk of marital dissolution.
Socialization effects of family roles on marijuana use are reflected in the reduced risk of marijuana initiation after marriage among women and the increased rate of stopping marijuana use after marriage among women and after parenthood among men. Anticipatory socialization is reflected in an increased propensity to stop marijuana use before marriage among men and women and before parenthood among women.(Sharon D. Johnson) conducted study on the prevalence of DSM-III sexual dysfunctions and their association with comorbid drug and alcohol use in a community epidemiologic sample of prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general population conducted in 1981–83 on 3,004 adult community residents in the St. Louis area was queried on DSM-III sexual dysfunctions of inhibited orgasm, functional dyspareunia (painful sex), inhibited sexual excitement (i.
e., lack of erection/arousal), and inhibited sexual desire and found the prevalence rate of 11% for inhibited orgasm, 13% for painful sex, 5% for inhibited sexual excitement, 7% for inhibited sexual desire, and 26% for any of these sexual dysfunctions (14% for men and 33% for women). The prevalence of qualifying lifetime substance users was 37%, with males meeting more drug and alcohol use criteria than females. After controlling for demographics, health status variables, and psychiatric comorbidity (depression disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and residual disorders), inhibited orgasm was associated with marijuana and alcohol use. Painful sex was associated with illicit drug use and marijuana use. Inhibited sexual excitement was more likely among illicit drug users.
Inhibited sexual desire was not associated with drug or alcohol use.