Science in the East has, since ancient times, remained a field of application of knowledge for solving only practical problems related to economics and technology, on the one hand, and administrative activity on the other. Eastern science was fundamentally different from the European one, and, from the point of view of the latter, it was not at all. The system of irrigation and pyramids is evidence of highly developed engineering and geometry, the art of embalming is a proof of the practical achievements of ancient Egyptian chemists and physicians.
The ancient Egyptians also possessed some elementary knowledge in the field of algebra – they were able to solve equations with one and two unknowns.
At a sufficiently high level for that time was the geometry. With a high degree of accuracy built pyramids, palaces and sculptural monuments. In the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, there are solutions to difficult problems in calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid and hemisphere. The volume of the cylinder was calculated, multiplying the area of its base by the height. This operation, connected with the cylindrical form of measure for grain, was used to account for grain in state stores. The Egyptians of the Middle Kingdom period use the “Pi” number already, taking it equal to 3.16, and in general the errors in calculating the areas of spherical surfaces do not go beyond the limits of admissible.
Chemistry in ancient Egypt – science is extremely applied, and it was partly sacred. The main area of application of chemical knowledge is the embalming of the dead in the framework of the cult of the dead. The necessity of keeping the body in order during the eternal afterlife required the creation of reliable embalming compounds that prevented rotting and decomposition of tissues.
The chemistry of the ancient Egyptian embalmers is all sorts of pitches and salt solutions, in which the body was first soaked, and then soaked through them. The saturation of the mummies with balsams was sometimes so high that the tissues were charred over the course of centuries. So, in particular, happened with the mummy of Pharaoh Tutankhamun – fatty acid contained in aromatic oils and balms, caused a complete charring of tissues, so that the image of the pharaoh was preserved only by the famous coffin made of pure gold.
The Egyptian doctors were taught, first of all, to determine the symptoms of the disease, and then to make examinations and analyzes. They were instructed to write down in detail the data of their observations and surveys. There is evidence that Egyptian doctors were supposed to say after the examination whether they can cure the patient or not. Sometimes they did surgery. Surgeons calcined their instruments on fire before the operation and tried to observe in the highest possible purity of the patient and everything that surrounds him. the most ancient and most important branch of medicine in ancient Egypt was pharmacology. Up to now, many different recipes of potions, made from vegetable and animal ingredients, have come down. In this field, science and exact knowledge particularly closely interacted with magical rituals, without which ancient Egyptian medicine was not at all conceived, as was the medicine of any other ancient civilization. It should be noted here that the doctors originally belonged to the estate of priests. Only in a rather late period, not earlier than the New Kingdom, medical treatises come out of the walls of scribe schools, secular institutions. Probably, due to the decline of the influence of the temples that came after the end of the New Kingdom, medicine was largely secularized.