## Single – (V_d / R_SH)……………………… (1.1) Where:

Single diode equivalent circuit model of a solar cell is shown in Figure 2.2 .I_L represents the light generated current in the cell, I_D represents diode current and I_Sh represents the current lost due to shunt resistance.

Figure 2.2 Equivalent circuit of solar cell

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In Photovoltaic (PV) system, solar cell is the basic component. This photovoltaic system can generate direct current electricity, when is exposed to sunlight. Each Solar cell is similar to a diode with a p-n junction that directly converts light energy into electricity formed by semiconductor material. The output characteristic of PV module depends on the cell temperature, solar irradiation, and output voltage of the module.

Figure 2.3 I-V and P-V curve of solar cell

Figure 2.3 shows the output I-V curve and P-V curve of cell. It can be seen that a maximum power point exists on each output power characteristic curve. The equivalent circuit of a solar cell consists of current source, diode, a parallel resistor and a series resistor. The current equation of the solar cell is given as
I = Iph – I_d– Ish = Iph –Io exp (qV_d / nKT) – (V_d / R_SH)……………………… (1.1)
Where:
I_Ph = Photo current (A)
I_d= Diode current (A)
I_Sh = Shunt current (A)
V_d = Voltage across diode (Volt)
I_0 = Diode reverse saturation current (A)
q = Electron charge = 1.6X10-19 (C)
k = Boltzman constant = 1.38X10-23 (J/K)
T = Cell temperature (K)
Rs = series resistance (?)
Rsh = shunt resistance (?)

Power output of solar cell is P = V*I……………………………….. (1.2)

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