Task onepart A- A detailedexplanation of the structure and function of each of the different pathogensand parasites; including their routes of transmission, how they grow andreproduce, and the impact of different environmental conditions on their growthand reproduction, and their effects on the health of animals. Bacteria SalmonellaReproduction: They only produce two at a timeand they are generally identical to the first one. The reproduction occurs at arapid pace, reproducing once every 20-40 minutes approx. It only goes quick ifthe conditions are perfect for them to reproduce. Growth (Conditions): The conditions are usuallyenvironmental factors. Those factors are: temperature, pH, water activity,Atmosphere, and chemicals.
Temperature helps salmonella grow because typically,they can grow in the temperature range of 7-48oc, but below 10ocit grows at a slower rate. Structure: Salmonella is a group ofrod-shaped capsule, with little pilus and prokaryotic flagellum to help themmove around. Aetiology: Salmonellais usually transmitted from person to person or animal to person. How it istransmitted is contact with contaminated food or water that has been exposed toinfected faecal material. Bordetella pertussisReproduction: The Bordetella pertussis isreproduced by binary fission. Growth (Conditions): Bordetella pertussis is abacterium that initially grows on the mucous membranes of the respiratorytracts. Structure: Bordetella’s structure is a rod-shapedcapsule with fimbriae around it to help it move from one location to the other.
Aetiology:Bordetella is transmitted by either direct contact or airborne droplets fromthe host of the bacteria. Fungus AspergillusReproduction: The reproduction of aspergilluscan be vegetative reproduction, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction,but sexual reproduction happens on rare occasion. For vegetative reproduction,there is one method of two, fragmentation. It happens when the mycelium breaks up into small piecesand each piece grows independently to adjust to their new environment. Forasexual reproduction, it has the same genes and characteristics when theyseparate. For sexual reproduction, as it’s very rare it is done with a male andfemale organs.
Growth (Conditions): Some species of Aspergillus growas a toxin in the laboratory as they’re present in the air and some species ofAspergillus is found in the soil. For example, aspergillus can be easily grownjust by keeping a piece of cheese in a humid environment. It can also grow onother organic foods, such as fruits and vegetables, jams, cheese etc.Structure: The body of aspergillus ismycelial, it consists a slender, tube-shaped, and pale coloured, branched, andthin walled.
Aetiology: For aspergillus to transmit, itneeds to be inhaled as it lives in the environment. Cryptococcus GattiiReproduction: The reproduction is by inbreedingand outbreeding, the diagram below will show you how it works. It typicallyreproduce by asexual budding but it is done in either the yeast or thebloodstream. Growth (Conditions): As C.
gattii lives in theenvironment, it’s usually near trees and in the soils around the tress. Theymostly live in tropical and sub-tropical areas in the world.Structure: The structure of C.
gattii is asort of circular shape and it is capable of changing the size and the shape ofitself so it can avoid the immune response from its host. Aetiology: As C.gattii is not contagious, the only way you can get this infection is byinhaling airborne, dried yeast cells or spores that comes from the environment.When it’s breathed in, the body’s temperature allows it to transform it intoyeast and the cells grow thicker to protect themselves. After infecting thelungs, it goes into the bloodstream and infects other parts of the body. Virus ParvovirusReproduction: The reproduction of the parvovirusis asexual reproduction but in order to be a virus, they need help of the rapiddividing of the cells and it begins by attacking the tonsils of the puppies ordogs. Growth (Conditions): Parvovirus can be resistant todifferent weather conditions.
The weather conditions that parvovirus isresistant to is the cold, different humidity, and heat. This helps theparvovirus to survive in the environment of that specific place. Structure: Thepicture below will show the structure of the parvovirus with it annotated toallow us to know what is what.
Aetiology: Parvovirus is transmitted by oralor nasal and it has to be direct contact with the infected area. Parvovirus isusually found in the faeces but it can be in the soil that dogs dig up. I canbe transmitted through contaminated formites. This is done indirectly becauseit is passed on by the environment as it is environmentally found. Feline InfluenzaReproduction:Growth (Conditions): Feline influenza can survive up toa week in the environment Structure:Aetiology: Feline influenza can be transmittedby direct contact with others that GlossaryAetiology- It can be the causation or the transmission. Mycelial- In the mycelial, it is the vegetative part fromeither a fungus or a fungus like bacterial colony.