The base of support when jumping to lay the ball up to the hoop is absent as neither feet are in contact with the ground but when dribbling the ball towards the hoop the base of support is the area beneath the players feet. The centre of gravity is the point in a person where all mass is evenly dispersed and balanced typically found at the hip/core region. When performing a layup centre of gravity is located at the hip/core but when the player jumps up the centre of gravity shifts upwards with the rest of the body mass as a result of the jump. The line of gravity is a line that goes through the centre of gravity and should be inside of the base of support, when all of these are met a person is stable. During a basketball lay up the line of gravity is located in the centre of the body going through the centre of gravity and meets the base of support. Projectile motion is when a object is released into the air in which it then becomes a projectile, it then continues only by its own inertia and force of gravity, the optimal angle of release is 45 degrees. In a basketball lay up the basketball becomes the projectile once released from the hands to the backboard, even though the ball is released upwards gravity causes the ball to fall back down off the backboard into the hoop.
Inertia is the resistance of a physical object causing a change in the object’s speed, direction or state of rest. In a basketball lay up the basketballs inertia is resisted upon when the ball bounces off the backboard slowing the speed of the basketball and changing the direction in which the ball is travelling so it is propelled into the hoop. Force summation also applies to the layup, force summation is the process of trying to apply the maximum amount of force towards a skill by building a large amount of momentum, for this to happen the larger, slower and heavier parts of the body are used first and the small, faster and lighter parts of the body are used last. Force summation is shown in the layup skill as the big parts of the players body are used first to build momentum on the run up and the stepping stage for example the thigh muscles like the Quadriceps, hamstrings and then towards the end of the skill the wrist is used to finish the skill and lay the ball into the backboard. A lever is used in sport to gain more speed or force into an activity and contains three sections, the fulcrum, the load and the effort. In a layup a level three lever is in action, the load is the basketball in the players palm, the effort and the fulcrum is the elbow as it produces the force and also supports the action. Isaac Newton’s first law of motion states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, while an object in motion tends to stay in motion unless an external force acts upon it.
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When a player goes for a lay up it would appear that there is nothing to obstruct the ball however forces like air resistance and gravity. Newton’s second law states that acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass of the object being accelerated, the more force needed to accelerate that object.