The conceptual framework of the study is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 shows the association between the independent variables: job demands and job resources to the dependent variable, work engagement.The Job demands-resources model illustrate job resources as the sole predictor of work engagement and specific job resources, such as social support by colleagues, supervisory coaching, performance feedback and time control have a significant opposite relation to turnover intentions and organizational involvement (Bakker, Demerouti & Schaufeli, 2003). According to the JD-R model’s explanation of burnout, job demands predict feelings of exhaustion and a lack of job resources leads to work disengagement (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner ; Schaufeli, 2001). Studies on work engagement by Bakker, Demerouti, Hakanen ; Xanthopoulou (2007 as cited De Braine ; Roodt, 2011) reported that the JD-R model confirmed that work engagement is predicted by job resources primarily when job demands are high.According to Bakker and Demerouti (2007) the JD-R model of work engagement assumed that job resources and personal resources autonomously or collectively predict work engagement. When job demands are high, job and personal resources have a positive impact on engagement and in turn have a positive impact on job performance. As such, engaged employees who are performing well are able to create their own resources, which then foster engagement again over time (Bakker ; Demerouti, 2007).
The JD-R model of Bakker and Demerouti (2001) posits that work engagement can be predicted by balance of demands and resources within the work environment. An example of demands within the work environment of teachers is provided by educational reforms which involve considerable extra paperwork and other tasks, thereby increasing teachers’ workloads without factoring time for their completion into the school day (Williamson and Myhill, 2008). In the current study, three job resources that have been identified either as major motivators that increase commitment or engagement: (1) job autonomy, (2) performance feedback, and (3) social support and supervision (Coladarci, 1992) and included three job demands that have been identified as major causes of psychological strain among teachers were included: (1) emotional demand, (2) work overload, and (3) technology.
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In addition, on work engagement, it is a new concept that refers to a state that demonstrates vigor, dedication and absorption in the job (Bakker & Demerouti 2008:209).