THE 1. While working with naval personnel,


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General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University


This Dissertation contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma in any University or equivalent institution, and that to the best of my knowledge and belief, Contains no material previously’ submitted or written by any other person, except where due reference is made in the text of this Research paper.
I carried out the work described in this Dissertation under the supervision of Mrs.MTN Wijetunge.

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1. While working with naval personnel, it has been observed that a main problem of Sri Lankan naval personnel, is the lack of English knowledge and insufficient confidence, to express their ideas and thoughts, without hesitation. This drawback has to be rectified immediately, if the Sri Lankan Navy aspires to ensure the maximum utilization of its Personnel, and to formulate a professional Navy. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to improve the professionalism of naval personnel, by paying more attention to major problems, such as the English language deficiency, rather than focusing on minor problems. The Navy has implemented programs to improve English proficiency, but it appears that the personnel, are not benefitting much from those programs. I would assess, that the Navy is still stagnant in the traditional frame work, and not contemplating suitable action, to move out from that traditional frame work.
2. English knowledge of Sri Lanka Navy personnel, is of paramount importance, when handling documents, and working with external organizations. Further, responsibilities cannot be assigned to most, because of the English language problem. It is understood that a lot of issues crop up when carrying out duties, in the Navy due to this problem.
3. Hence, the Sri Lanka Navy has to go beyond the traditional outlook, and introduce new concepts that could be adopted, to improve the English knowledge of its personnel, for the smooth functioning of the Sri Lanka Navy. Now it is time to determine the reasons for the lack of confidence, and move forward, with more effective methods, that could be adopted, in order to ensure minimizing the English language problem, which highly affects the administration, as well as the reputation, of the Sri Lankan Navy.

1. I would like to express my gratitude to my parents, family, friends and my batch mates who encouraged me, and gave me their fullest support in every possible way, to complete this dissertation. I am also thankful to all those who helped me in numerous ways throughout my dissertation. It would not have been possible to complete this dissertation if not for the support and help of these individuals, and I wish to thank them sincerely.
2. I am also thankful to Mrs.MTN Wijetunge, my research supervisor, for the constant guidance and support given to me throughout this dissertation, from the date of commencement till it’s conclusion. I also thank the lecturers and the non-academic staff of the Faculty of Graduate Studies, for encouraging me, providing me with advice, and always being available to help me, whenever I needed advice.
3. Finally, I would also like to thank the all the respondents, who spared their time, in order to answer the questionnaire, as it would not have been possible to complete this dissertation without their valuable responses.

Table of content
Title i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Table of content iv-viii
List of Table ix
List of Figures x
Chapter 1 – Introduction/Background 1
1.0 Introduction 1-2
1.1 Research on the problem 2
1.2 Research Aim 2
1.3 Research Questions 3
1.4 Research Objectives 3
1.5 Hypothesis 3
1.6 Limitation 3-4
Chapter 2 – Review of Literature 5
2.0 Introduction 5
2.1 Language 5-6
2.2 The importance of English language 7-8
2.3 English language in Sri Lanka 8-11
2.4 Communicating with confidence in the military is highly essential 11-12
2.5 Importance of having communication competence 12-19
Chapter 3 – Methodology 20
3.0 Introduction 20
3.1 Sample 20
3.2 Data 21
3.3 Defining Variables 21
3.4 Conceptual Framework 22
3.5 Analysis of data 22
Chapter 4 – Analysis 23-46
Chapter 5 – Findings and Conclusion 47
5.0 Introduction 47
5.1 Findings 47-48
5.2 Conclusion 48-49
5.3 Suggestion for further research 49-50

References 51-53
Annexes A. Questionnaire A1 – A3
B. Evaluation Sheet B1 – B3
C. Interview Questions C1
D. Topics D1
Appendices 1. APTIS test for naval personnel, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 30 September 2016.
2. Educational qualification for recruiting Sailors for the Sri Lanka Navy. The commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 29 June 2017.
3. Educational qualification for recruiting Sailors for the Sri Lanka Navy. The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 29 June 2017.
4. English courses for those who have failed English in GCE (O/L), Comsouth General 311523dated 31 July 2017.
5. English language courses for Officers at KDU, Navy General 142032 dated 14 December 2017
6. English language courses for Sailors at KDU, Navy General 142029 dated 14 December 2017
7. Enhancing the English knowledge of Sailors, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 17 June 2016.
8. Enhancing English knowledge of naval personnel, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 30 September 2016.
9. Fernando, KPJS 2017, Factors Affecting Sri Lankan Consumers’ Adoption Intention of mobile-commerce, BBA thesis, University of Colombo.
10. Foreign courses for the Sailors, Navy General 181933 dated 18 December 2017.
11. Foreign training Selection Criteria, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 22 April 2012
12. Improving public speaking and writing skills of naval personnel, The Commander of the Navy letter No. SLN.21 dated 29 April 2016.
13. Junior Officer Refresher Course, The Commander of the Navy letter No. SLN 05 dated 05 July 2016.
14. Maintenance of journals by Officer Trainees, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 28 December 2009.
15. Naval personnel give excuses to cut off their names from the courses, Navy General 091618 March 2017.
16. Peace keeping duties selection criteria, The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 19 November 2015.
17. Recruiting Sailors for the Sri Lanka Navy 2002, Silumina, 25 August 2002.
18. Recruiting Sailors from Volunteer Special scheme. The Commander of the Navy NAHA 5 memorandum dated 07 June 2004.

List of Table

Table 1 No of naval personnel answer to the questionnaire 24
Table 2 No of people answer to the question No.3 26
Table 3 No of people answer to the question No.4 27
Table 4 No of people answer to the question No.5 28
Table 5 No of people answer to the question No.6 29
Table 6 No of people answer to the question No.7 30
Table 7 No of people answer to the question No.8 33
Table 8 No of people answer to the question No.9 35
Table 9 No of people answer to the question No.10 42
Table 10 No of people performed in oral test 43
Table 11 Performance of oral test 44
Table 12 Comparison of the people who take part the oral test 46

List of figures
Figure 1 Conceptual Frame Work 23
Figure 2 No. of people answer to the questionnaire 25
Figure 3 Percentage of language studied for basic education 26
Figure 4 Percentage of importance of English 27
Figure 5 Percentage of highest education level naval personnel had 28
Figure 6 Percentage time period naval personnel studied English 29
Figure 7 Percentage of speaking English 31
Figure 8 Percentage of writing English 31
Figure 9 Percentage of reading English 32
Figure 10 Percentage of understanding English 32
Figure 11 Percentage of places where English use 34
Figure 12 Percentage of reading manuals 35
Figure 13 Percentage of reading notification 36
Figure 14 Percentage of reading e-mails 36
Figure 15 Percentage of reading web pages 37
Figure 16 Percentage of reading documents 37
Figure 17 Percentage of searching information 38
Figure 18 Percentage of listening presentation 38
Figure 19 Percentage of writing e-mails 39
Figure 20 Percentage of writing documents 39
Figure 21 Percentage of speaking with colleagues 40
Figure 22 Percentage of speaking with clients or partners 40
Figure 23 Total number of people answer to the question No 9 41
Figure 24 Percentage of places where English skills are inadequate 42
Figure 25 Percentage of people who participated for test 43
Figure 26 Performance of oral test 45
Figure 27 Performance of confidence factor 45
Chapter 1: Introduction/Background
1.0 Introduction
Sri Lanka, situated in the middle of the sea lanes of the Indian Ocean, has always very much important for sea farers. As per the Sri Lankan Navy history Ceylon Naval Volunteer Force established in 1937 and once World War II over Ceylon Naval Volunteer Force was convert in to the Royal Navy as Ceylon Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. Once independence from British and from the beginning 100 Officers and men prepaired to form the Regular Navy gradually. Royal Ceylon Navy was renamed as the Sri Lanka Navy in 1972. From the beginning of the civil war in the 1980s, the Navy had to increased the fleet of patrol boats and due to that fast attack craft was introduced. Sri Lanka Navy had to face the war with LTTE, during the last three decades. During this period the Navy was expanded and also had to deal with other countries. Therefore, the English speaking skills and knowledge, became necessary. But, with the war, the quality of personnel weakened. With the increasing requirement of military personnel, recruitments to the military were made without complete fulfillment of the required academic qualifications. In this situation, Naval Personnel weakened in English Knowledge, and they faced difficulties over English language fluency. With the end of the war, Naval Personnel have got more opportunities to go to foreign countries, for furthering studies, as well as to deal with, foreign Navies. According to the former Commander of the Navy, Vice Admiral RC Wijegunarathna, naval personnel of Sri Lanka were showing failings outside the country, due to their deficiencies in English knowledge (Sri Lanka Navy, 2016).
When the Naval personnel were dealing with people outside the organization, they had to face difficulties when expressing matters in English. To overcome this language problem, the Sri Lanka Navy has to observe maximum precautions. Else it would be a burning problem for the Sri Lanka Navy. To overcome this situation, it is required to improve the English ability for good Communication skills, as well as building the confidence of naval personnel, when communicating in English. Proposals for a good communication skill development methodology, and for confidence building in English knowledge, to make Naval Personnel more professional, is highly important. It would make matters easy, for the Naval Personnel to express themselves clearly, and positively. This process would reduce the English problem in the Navy, and help the Navy in administrative matters, and smooth functioning as well, while benefitting the personnel, in making their future careers brighter, and more valued.
1.1 Research on the Problem
Around 50000 Officer and Sailors serve in the Sri Lanka Navy, and most of the time, they have dealings in English. At the same time, it is observed that some of the Officers, and most of the Sailors, are not able to handle, English language fluently, and they hesitate the usage, within and outside the organization. Unfortunately the hierarchy of the Sri Lanka Navy, has not appreciated the problem, and hence sufficient attention has not been paid, up to now.

1.2 Research Aim
The proposed aim of this research study, is to identify the standard of English knowledge, and the measures that could be taken to overcome the problem of English usage, in the Sri Lankan Naval ranks.
1.3 Research Questions
To better address the problem; the following aspects were investigated.
a. What is the English knowledge level, of naval personnel?
b. What are the methods which could be adopted, to overcome this English deficiency problem?
1.4 Research Objectives
In this research, it is expected to find out the reasons why, naval personnel lack confidence in English usage, and to suggest methods that could be adopted, by the Sri Lankan Navy, to enhance the English ability of it’s Personnel.
1.5 Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research, can be define as follows: Naval Personnel do not possess adequate English communication skills, to discharge their duties, and day to day activities, within the Navy, as well as outside the organization and as a result, they do not possess, enough confidence, to express their ideas.

1.6 Limitations
Lack of literature related to the confidence of Sri Lanka navy personnel when communicating in English, was the main limitation of the study. Since this is the first research that is being conducted on the subject, no reference material was available to be perused, prior to commencing the research.
It was originally planned to carry out the research at the Naval and Maritime academy in Trincomalee, but with the sudden change in my appointment, the research was transferred to SLNS Ruhuna. The personnel selected for the survey, consisted of Sailors with various ratings, while it was not focused on the Officers, of the Sri Lanka Navy. It is very difficult to access all the naval bases situated right round Sri Lanka, due to limited time frame, limited resources, and due to official commitments. Due to time limitations, I was unable to address the aspect, “What are the methods which could be adopted, to overcome the problem of English usage”.

Chapter 2: Review of Literature
2.0 Introduction
This chapter places the present study, in the context of previous research, and scholarly articles, relevant to the research.
2.1 Language
“Without language, one cannot talk to people and understand them; one cannot share their hopes and aspirations, grasp their history, appreciate their poetry, or savour their songs (Nelson Mandela, n.d).”
As we know, language is the main specific way, of communicating ideas with each other, by the use of sounds, gestures, and emotions. Language is basically, as we know, verbal communication with each other. As human beings, sharing ideas, feelings, wants and needs are mainly expressed through communication with each other, and communication means that they convert their wants, needs and feelings in to words, vocally. That is how language develops, to communicate with each other. As a human being, language is unique to us, and other animals have their own communication means, unique to them. When we consider the communication styles of animals and people, the main difference is that human language, separates us from animals. It also separates man and animals, because of effective communication skills that, make people cooperate with each other. Language is basically considered as the communication method of conveying wants, needs ideas and concepts, in addition to moods, feelings, and attitudes. Native or local language directs a person who is born to the world, to get the first feelings of the environment and the world, and helps to gather his or her first impressions, of the world, through his native tongue or local language. This native or local language is termed the “Mother tongue” or “First Language”. Another point noted, is that, people who speak another language as a first language and seems to be very much loyal to their mother tongue, in comparison to the other language. Languages learned and used to communicate with other nationals, or for individual purposes, is known as the foreign or alien language. Aforesaid foreign or alien languages are common, and it is not an important part, of the social and cultural background in which one lives. Language is nothing magical, and there is no hard and fast rule or pressure, to learn each and every language, from an educational or socio-cultural angle, or to carry out day to day work. A person does not require to learn those foreign or alien languages, as a personal commitment to other people within the country or society. Language is not only a tool, which helps or facilitate the people of this world in expressing their ideas, feelings, and emotions, but also shows the path to civilization. Language is an important asset to the world. Globalization is the new concept, which interconnects the world in various ways. In the present day, when the world is reaching heights in globalization, it is very important to educate people, especially children, about the world beyond their own countries or societies. The learning of English is the first and foremost criteria, to meet the challenges of globalization and reach global standards. English is more important to people who are aspiring to step-out into the world, or integrate with globalization.
“English language is the most universal language in the history, way more than the Latin of Julius Caesar. It is the most wonderful language because it is vocabulary has a certain critical mass that makes a lingo good for punning (Richard Lederer, n.d)”.
2.2 The importance of English language
English acts as the lingua franca of the 21st century. It is a world known fact, that English as a language, plays the most important role all over the world. English has become a paramount necessity in the modern-day society, and it promotes international relations between nations. When we compare with other languages, English is the most popular language in the world. English language can influence society directly, and it’s impact in society, is still seen to increase very much. English is a global or worldwide language used in many countries, both as the mother tongue, and as a second or alien language. Today, people who speak English as a second language, realizes the usage value of English.
“English communication is a skill that can be perfected only through constant practice and continuous exposure to the target language the available resources should be completely tapped so as to provide and encouraging atmosphere for learning and practicing the language (Riyaz, 2016)”.
In most countries in the world, English is taught as a subject in the schools. Now, in the modern world or society, English has become a common language, and it has become a steering wheel, to achieve goals. In modern society, English is mainly considered as the language of Science and Technology. Apart from that, English is essential, and it has become the key driving factor in International politics, Finance, Tourism, Commerce, and The Military.
“The development pace of English language as a global language had accelerated rapidly between the nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries throughout the world, particularly after the 1950s, when a greater mobility of people was facilitated by the growth of air travel and international tourism (Richards, cited in Mustafa, 2012:280)”.

With the advance of tourism, English had to play a most important role, as a language, to communicate with other countries, as some countries speak their own or native language, and English as a second language. Hence, the only way to communicate with each other is in English. “A language achieves a genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognized in every country” (Crystal, cited in Mustafar, 2012:280).
“Today, it cannot be denied that English has become a global lingua franca with non-native speakers of the language outnumbering its native speakers. Since roughly only one out of every four users of English in the world is a native speaker of the language (Crystal, cited in Mustafar, 2012:280)”.
“For those, English is a contact language between people who share neither a common native tongue nor a common culture, and for whom English is the chosen foreign language of communication (Firth, cited in Mustafar, 2012:280)”.
Above statements of researchers, shows how important and what kind of important role, English plays, in the modern world. It has automatically become, and maintains status, as the global language in the world.
2.3 English language in Sri Lanka
English is now accepted as an official or dominant language, all over the world. It has moved in different forms to different sectors of the world. On the other hand, English has become the second language especially, in the African countries and in the Asian countries. The history of the usage of English in Sri Lanka, and history of teaching and learning English, are closely linked with the country’s recent history, starting from the period of British colonial rule (1796-1948).
“The English language was one of the lasting legacies of the British administration in Sri Lanka. It has become one of the official languages, widely used as a ‘link’ among various communities that call the island their home. Inevitably, English has also become ‘Ceylonise’ or ‘Lankanised’ much to the horror of purists” (Sri Lankan English, 2007).
“However, it is observed that even though the Sri Lankan students have been learning English as a second language for many years, some of their competency levels in English are not in a satisfactory level (Siriwardhana, 2012:168)”.
It seems that Sri Lankan students are weak, in the English speaking ability. Not only students, but many adults, lack capability in English speech. Many researchers have noted, that people who have to use English as a second language, should master the language.
“In most of the global companies where English is the primary language, advanced level non-native English speakers’ contribute productively at all levels. Still, many of these valued employees struggle with lack of confidence because they cannot communicate in English (David, 2009)”.
Above statements prove that the non-native English speakers, have to pay much attention to the English language, as it is of, paramount importance in the world today.
“The first aim is to make our population 100 percent English speaking. No language, however important it is, can replace the mother-tongue. It is established beyond any reasonable doubt that mother-tongue is more than a language; it is the foundation of personality. Therefore re-nationalization is out of the question (Mettananda, 2015)”.
According to Metttananda, it is very difficult to familiarize the alien language for non-native English speakers, as they have been speaking another language, from their birth. Therefore English should be mastered from childhood, and then there would be no difficulties, when they have to speak another language.
“All too often people pretend to be professional. “Professionalism” is sometimes a façade for fraud. Be pro, but be real. Honesty and transparency combined with character, competence and real results is the key to being a true pro (Richie Norton, n.d)”.
Professionalism is the most important factor, of any military force. Basic education, is the education, the person acquires, from civil society. Then professional naval and military, education helps to develop the professional naval personnel. Development of professional skills in naval personnel, is mainly dependent on the personal skills, as well as professional knowledge and training. Oxford dictionary defines skill is “The ability to do something well”. A skill is “an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained the effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving idea, things, and/or people” (business dictionary) . “Knowledge is not skill. Knowledge plus ten thousand time is skill (Shinichi Suzuki, n.d)”. Skills can be divided into two main categories, such as, technical and non-technical skills. Technical skills are the knowledge and abilities needed to accomplish mathematical, engineering, and scientific or computer related activities, as well as other specific tasks, related to technology. Non-technical skills are social, cognitive and personal skills, that can enhance the way you or your staff, carry out, tasks and procedures. Clear communication, business savvy, accounting, initiative, curiosity, and teamwork are few examples of the non-technical skills. Under non-technical skills, clear communication enhances the personal skills. “Communication-the human connection-is the key to personal and career success (Paul J Meyer, n.d)”. Communication not only directly affects an individual, but also others, who work with him. People who do not have good communication skills will be either rejected, or get distanced from others. Good communication, is the main reason, for the success of many organizations. No organization exists without good communications. All interaction between people, are based on good communications. In organizations communication is the major factor in purchasing, dealings with external parties, progress, and promotions etc. Good communication is required not only for the organizations, but also in personal life, in gatherings, communicating with friends and neighbors etc. As a human being, good communication is required more than words. Interpersonal communication basically involves, verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is in written form, hand gestures as well as body posture. Being a human, it is important to communicate with each other. Why do we communicate with others? We communicate with others to express wants and needs, to develop a social relationship. Speaking is the most important skill to be developed, to enhance effective communication. What is speaking? “Speaking is the process of making and sharing meaning by using verbal and non-verbal symbols in a different contexts” (Chaney, cited in Ahamad & Leong, 2017:35). For most of them, speaking is the difficult part, in communication with each other. Many people experience difficulties when expressing themselves, and their ideas would not be properly conveyed, due to a weak vocabulary.

2.4 Communicating with confidence in the military is highly essential
As a human being, of all your skills, the ability to communicate successfully, is very essential. Good communication skills make paths for us to develop important techniques. In the work place, it is very much important to deal with fellow members, in taking good decisions, under stressful situations. Good communication skill, is the ability to share information with others effectively, and efficiently, verbally or non-verbally. It can also be considered as the tool that we could utilize to build and modify relationships. To succeed in your job or career you should develop good communication. That is you should practice clear, but brief, speech or writing, reading and patient listening, should be essential for good communication. For clear communication, you have to listen very carefully. If you are not clear, say so, and clarify your doubts. Whatever you do in the workplace, your success, depends on the strength of good communication, and so, you need to have good communication skills, to accomplish your tasks. Why is communication important to accomplish tasks? Obtain information, discuss problems, give and receive instructions, and for all these activities, good communication skills are required. For good communication, one should have good confidence in one’s self, known as self-confidence. “Confidence is a habit that can be developed by acting as if you already had the confidence you desire to have (Brian Tracy, n.d) “.
2.5 Importance of having communication competence
Why is confidence more important, for good communication? What is the reason behind the interconnection of confidence and communication “People with effective communication skills are more confident because they know they can tell other people exactly what they need (Ahamad, 2016:479)”.
“As a language, confidence is fundamental to communication, and an important catalyst to the whole process and the enjoyment at every step. Confidence is the most tangible expression of who we are (Reallifeglobal, n.d)”.
By the above quotes, confidence is accepted as the most valuable factor for communication. Without confidence, no one could express their feelings to others, correctly. What is confidence? Confidence is “Knowing what you are good at, the value you provide and acting in a way that conveys that to others” (Lifehacker, n.d). Confidence matters always. If you intend to raise your confidence level, you should have a target, and you should have an aim. To have an aim, you should have self-confidence. You should know about your capabilities, and what aspects you are good at. You should always have good self-assessment. Self-confidence comes from your ability, and that is why you should know about your ability. How do we measure confidence in communication? Many researches about confidence in English communication, is available. By the Marium Jamila research, on Bangladesh students, she reports that when they can be proficient enough, in speaking English, they would naturally be highly motivated and convinced, to face the competitive world, with their aptitudes, and, recommendations have been made to the teachers, as well as the students, to increase confidence, when communicating in English (Jamila, 2014).
As English has become the global language in the world, it has become an essential tool for the military too. English language is an important factor for the success of any military organization, as well as for the military operations all over the world. “English language has also become a major factor affecting the success of military operations all over the globe” (Mustafa ER, 2012:281). In combined operations conducted by forces of two or more nations, English language plays a vital role. According to the Sri Lankan official website, it has been mentioned, that the Sri Lanka Navy is a military organization, consisting of both officers and sailors, ensuring security around the Sri Lankan Seas, by deploying ships and crafts. For easy administration, it is divided into different branches, assigned to different roles. Officers and sailors are enlisted to the Navy under different criteria, with different educational backgrounds, suited to their profession.
It is a fact known to the world that the Sri Lankan military forces had to face a war with the LTTE. The Navy changed the educational qualifications that existed for the enlistment of sailors prior to 2009, due to the war situation. Sri Lanka Navy did not concern much, with the educational background, and focused more, on recruiting heads for the war. As such, the educational qualifications were reduced, to join the Navy (Silumina, 2002). But now the scenario has changed, and the focus is on modernizing, and updating to regular professional standards. The educational background for joining the Navy has been upgraded, and more educated personnel are enlisted now. (Sri Lanka Navy, 2017). There is another scheme for enlistment to the Navy, on special duties. They are not to the uniformed staff, but, as civilian staff, and are attached to various branches, on non-combat duties. Prior to 2009, educational qualifications, for joining the navy, were different (Sri Lanka Navy, 2004). But after the war, amendments have been made, and, educational qualifications to join the navy have been enhanced. (Sri Lanka Navy, 2017). Even though the enlistments are with good educational background now, still they fail to discharge their duties confidently, in relation to the English language. Former Commander of the Navy Admiral RC Wijegunarathna while identifying the value of professional knowledge, had also mentioned that, even though Naval personal had followed local and foreign courses, there by getting opportunities to enhance their professional knowledge, they fail still to get maximum benefit from the courses, due to deficiency in English knowledge. In the Navy, most of the documents are dispatched in English and when interpreting these documents, there would be problems arising, due to the language being English. This would be a hindrance, when the Navy is converting to a more technical format, in the future. Hence, Naval personnel are encouraged to sit for the GCE (O/L) English, as a subject and new criteria introduced in awarding marks, for selection of naval personnel, for local and foreign courses (Sri Lanka Navy, 2016). This letter indicates that, lack of English knowledge, reduces working capacity of the personnel, at their working environments, as well as their educational aspects.
In addition to the GCE (O/L), the Navy has now included the APTIS test, for eligibility to follow foreign courses. The Sri Lanka Navy has been informed by many countries, to evaluate the candidate’s English standard, as per requirements, prior to selection, for the relevant foreign courses. Hence it is mandatory to sit for the APTIS test, which is considered as the scale of the officer’s English capability. (Sri Lanka Navy, 2016).As for the naval officers, a criteria is imposed for naval sailors also, in selection to follow foreign courses. As per a former Commander of the Navy, Admiral DWAS Dissanayake, the selection board should consider, the sailor’s ability, in writing, reading, listening, and speaking English, as per the requirements for the course (Sri Lanka Navy, 2012).As an example, the internal website of the Sri Lanka Navy, indicates the qualifications required, for the foreign course, in the Indian Navy, and it clearly states that selected naval personnel, should be able to follow the course in the English medium. (Navy General 181933, 2017). Admiral JSK Colombage has mentioned that during his tenure, he wished to have a highly professional Navy. (Wijayapala, 2012). To have a highly professional Navy English is the mandatory factor. Australian Navy’s official website has mentioned, that the Sri Lanka Navy, practices multilateral cooperation with other countries, (Australian Naval Institute, 2015). By virtue of enjoying multilateral cooperation with other countries, the Navy sends personnel, for peacekeeping duties to those countries. When selecting naval personnel for the peacekeeping duties, as instructed by the former Commander of the Navy Admiral RC Wijegunarathna, the selection board has to consider the applicant’s English knowledge. (Sri Lanka Navy, 2015). Former Commander of the Navy RC Wijegunarathne also introduced a public speaking competition, to improve the public speaking skills, of Officers of the Navy ,(Sri Lanka Navy, 2016) and he implemented, the Junior Officer Refresher Course ,for junior officers to improve certain skills including speaking and writing . (Sri Lanka Navy, 2016). Quoting Major General Darshana Hettiarachchi, “‘One language sets us in a corridor for life, two languages open every door along the way” and he has also mentioned the importance of English language, during the certificate awarding ceremony of the Basic English language course for NCOs.(Civil-military coordination, 2017).The above statement shows that not only the Navy is concerned, about enhancing English knowledge in their men, the sister services are also concerned, about the English knowledge of their personnel. In June 2004 the British High Commission funded the project to enhance the Military Communication Skills as requested by the military. The purpose of the project, was to improve the quality of language and communication skills, of the military forces of Sri Lanka (Tribble, 2007). The Kotelawala Defence University of Sri Lanka, is a University, set up to train officer cadets of the tri-forces, as well as civil students. It has recognized the value of English language, and uses English, as a medium of instruction (Jayasinghe, Wijethunga 2015). As per above statements, it shows that the Navy, as well as the Kotelawala Defence University, has made a lot of efforts, to enhance the English knowledge of personnel under training. A journal has also to be submitted by officers under training, as it would enhance, their linguistic skills, in writing, comprehension and presentation. (Sri Lanka Navy, 2009) Additionally the, Naval and Maritime Academy, conducts a three months English training program, for the newly joined cadets, and the 56th Intake cadets, demonstrated their acquired proficiency on stage, by presenting, a drama and entertainment programme on 05th November 2015. (NMA official website) .A Separate English school was established on 3rd June 2011, at the Naval and Maritime Academy, to teach English ,and to develop English language competency of naval personnel, to comprehend and communicate in English, and a English language Teaching School also was established on 12th April 2013 and upgraded with ISO certification in 2013 (NMA official website). The official website of the Naval and Maritime Academy, shows how much, the Navy is concerned about the English knowledge of naval personnel, and that precautions are being taken, to avoid English language deficiency, among the personnel. Not only in the NMA, the other naval bases are also conducting courses for English, particularly for Sailors who have failed in English language at the GCE (O/L). (Comsouth General 311523, 2017).Not only within the Navy, chances for collaboration with outside English teaching institutes, are also permitted, to enhance the English knowledge of officers, as well as the sailors. The Navy is also providing opportunities to follow the English language course for officers, at the Kotelawala Defence University (Navy General 142032, 2017). Not only the officers, naval sailors also have been granted access, to the English language course, at the Kotelawala Defence University (Navy General 142029, 2017).
Apart from the Sri Lankan armed forces concern about English language, the US Navy also has recruited Hispanics, and has identified the value of English skills of naval recruits who speak English as a second language, especially Hispanics. The US Navy has conducted an English program for them, and evaluated them, after the program (Copeland, Kincaid & Swope 1982) So, the US Army also, conducts a pilot training program, for the new recruits, who speak English as a second language (Carpenter, Harman & Redish 1983).The US Army considers it mandatory, to have English language programs ,for the newly joined recruits, who speak English, as a second language and conducts English training programs for recruits, who speak English as a second language. Three-week, 6-week, and 6 month programs are held, and finally evaluated. (Carpenter, Harman & Redish 1983). Not only many years ago, recently also, US Navy conducted English training programs for new recruits, who speak English as a second language (Abalos, 1990).
“The English language is the essential tool for success in the field of trade and English is the major factor affecting for the success military operations all over the globe (Mustafa, 2012:281)”.
According to Manjola Likaj, after joining NATO in 2009, Albanian armed forces realized the importance of English, and they started a training program for the Albanian armed forces. At present Albanian troops operate in accordance, with Alliance needs (Likaj, 2013). It appears that foreign armed forces, are also very much concerned about English knowledge, especially American armed forces, focus much, on the English knowledge, of personnel, who speak English as a second language. They have arranged English language training programs, for them to enhance their knowledge.
It is accepted that English is a worldwide language, and that all should improve their English, to communicate with global society. Improving English knowledge is not sufficient, to communicate with others. Good confidence is also required. When the naval working environment is considered, confident communication in English, is of paramount importance. It is confirmed that the Navy is providing English language courses for naval personnel, and trying to promote their English knowledge. But still problems remain, with English communication, as per Navy standards. From the Navy’s point of view, though English courses are provided, naval personnel are not sufficiently interested, to follow those courses. But on the other hand, as providing courses alone, appears to be insufficient, the Navy should encourage the personnel, to apply and follow the courses. When we consider naval personnel, especially sailors, they do not display sufficient interest, to apply and follow the courses. Many reasons, such as insufficient self-confidence, to follow English courses, personal disregard for English, family and economic problems, could be some of them. But the Navy also does not seem sufficiently concerned, to change their attitudes, or encourage self-confidence, while naval personnel, are also not displaying a serious interest, in upgrading their English. When we assess the Navy’s attitude, and the point of view of naval personnel, we could see the differences, while inaction by both sides and prevail over the situation. The issue and problems remain, without solutions determined, making way for a big drawback for the Navy, in the near future .The Navy has a greater responsibility, to view the situation, and take suitable action in this regard. It is understood, that to find solutions for each and every problem, that arises regarding communication in English, within a short time period is not simple. Specially, it is hard to gauge as mentioned by me previously, regarding their family problems, and to study their attitudes, towards English communication. Hence, I intend to link, English communication, and confidence, together, in the research. The form of research may involve, a systematic review of literature, where patterns of existing research, are examined and summed up, in order to establish a total knowledge on a particular study, or to examine the application of existing research, to a specified problem. Based as above, I would strive to interconnect confidence, of the naval personnel displayed, within and outside the naval organization, when communicating in English.

Chapter 3: Methodology
3.0 Introduction
This chapter mainly describes the methodology of the study, and further describes the population strength of the study, sample selection, techniques to adopt in selecting the sample, data collection methods to be applied, and strategies to be used, in the analysis of the collected data.
3.1 Sample
A research is based generally on a large collection of individuals, or objects, forming the main focus of a scientific query. Accordingly, the individuals for this study, would be Sri Lankan Navy personnel, as the group facing difficulties, in English communication. However due to the impracticability of addressing all naval personnel in Sri Lanka , and also due to, time limitations, a sample of the target groups would be considered, for the purpose of the current study.
Navy Sailors from different branches, would be selected for the study. In a Naval population of around 50000, it would present difficulties to manage and collect data from all. Hence, a group of 30 would be selected for this research, from two hundred sailors, from SLNS Ruhuna,at Tangalle, where I am presently attached. Sailors would be selected from various branches comprising various ratings, as it would be more advantages, to receive data from sailors, at different levels and varied sections, on communicating in English, confidently. They would also be requested, to state their opinions, on improving, English communication confidence.

3.2 Data
“Data collection and analysis be depend on the research method” (Bryman, 2012 as cited in Fernando, 2017:45). “The process used at this stage of the research contributes significantly to the studies overall reliability and validity” (Saunders, 2007 as cited in Fernando, 2017:45). Regardless of the approach used in the research, the type of data collected can be separated into two types, primary and secondary sources. “This can be historical first hand source, or the data derived from the respondents in survey or interview data” (Bryman, 2012 as cited in Fernando, 2017:45). Secondary data is that which is derived from the work or opinions of the researcher” (Newman, 1998 as cited in Fernando, 2017:45). Primary data is gathered through the oral test, and an interview. Information is gathered from relevant newspapers and web sites in the internet. Both quantitative and qualitative methods would be incorporated to the study. Questionnaires issued, and interviews would be held, to carry out the survey. The researcher would issue printed questionnaires, among the sailors and interviews conducted verbally
3.3 Defining Variables
“A variable is any conditions that can vary or change in quantity or quality” (Lammers & Badia, 2005 as cited in Fernando, 2017:45). Therefore the key variables involved in this study, is the confidence of Sri Lanka Navy personnel, when communicating in English.

3.4 Conceptual Frame Work
Confidence is one of the most important factors that people should cultivate for communication in English. From past literature, it is clear that there is a relationship, between confidence and communicating, in English. The conceptual framework is presented and explained in this section, to conclude earlier discussions and form the framework for the present study. This conceptual framework, intends to illustrate the composition of the theoretical literature review, and the practical focus of the study. The concepts presented in the above sub paragraphs, are combined, and create a framework as a base, for this study.

Figure 1

3.5 Analysis of Data
Data analysis of the study, will be divided into two main parts, the preliminary analysis, and main analysis. In the preliminary analysis, data gathered through questionnaires and interviews would be carefully entered, and summarized, into format, which facilitate better and clear identification, of the variables. The main analysis consists of identifying, how confidence is affecting the communication in English. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis, would be carried out as follows. The oral test recorded according to a criteria, developed by the researcher. The questionnaire evaluated, as per answers given by the sailors.

Chapter 4: Analysis
The contents of this chapter, includes the analysis and findings of the data, collected through the questionnaire, and oral interview. Questionnaire and interview were carried out to obtain impressions on, how confidence affects, communication in English. Before distributing the questionnaire, I explained in Sinhala, the purpose of the study, and how to respond to the questions given. For better understanding by the naval personnel, introductory explanations were made in their mother tongues, as a communication gap could be created, between myself and the personnel, if the introduction is made in English. Thereafter, the questionnaire was distributed among the selected naval personnel, and they were requested to provide the answers. At the time of distributing the questionnaire, no mention regarding an oral test, or interview, to be held after finishing the questionnaire session, was made known to them. Soon after the completion of the questionnaire, they were summoned in turn, and explained, that they were expected to make, a two minute presentation. Numbered chits from one to fifteen, were offered, and they were advised to pick /select one from the fifteen. Each number indicated a topic, and the relevant topic, for the particular number selected, was disclosed. Figure 1 shows how the 30 naval personnel, submitted answers, to the questionnaire given to them.

Sr.No Question No. No. of naval personnel answer to the particular questions No. of naval personnel not answer to the particular questions
01 Question 01 30 –
02 Question 02 30 –
03 Question 03 30 –
04 Question 04 26 04
05 Question 05 30 –
06 Question 06 17 13
07 Question 07 16 14
08 Question 08 25 05
09 Question 09 14 16
10 Question 10 17 13

Table 1
Table 1 data shows in the chart as Figure 2.

Figure 2
After collecting and checking the answered questionnaire given by me, I explained each and every question, in the Sinhala medium, to the selected naval personnel. I noted down the questions they had not answered. The above Figure 1 shows that everyone had answered questions number 1, 2, 3 and 5. Some had failed to answer Questions number 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. I selected four questions out of (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10) from the questionnaire, and distributed among the naval personnel, and obtained results as follows. In number 3 the language of their basic education was requested and answers given by them, shown in table 1.
Sr. No Sinhala Tamil English Other
01 30 00 00 00
Table 2
Table 2 shows in the chart as Figure 3.

Figure 3
According to the above chart all the participant have studied in Sinhala medium.
In question no.4 I questioned the importance of English, to him personally. The answers given by them are shown in the chart as follows (Table 3).
Sr. No Answer Number of people answer to the question
01 Very important 10
02 Moderate important 05
03 Not very important 04
04 Not important at all 05
05 Not answered 06

Table 3
Table 3 data shows in the chart as Figure 4.

Figure 4
According to the above figure 4, it shows 33% of them think English is very important personally. But 17% of them think it is not important at all, and 20% have not answered the questions. In question no.5 I wanted the highest level of English education completed by them. Their answers are shown in table 3.

Sr. No Highest level of English educcation No of people
01 Up to 6th grade 00
02 O/L 16
03 A/L 13
04 University level 00
05 Not answered properly 01
Table 4
According to the above data chart as Figure 5.

Figure 5
According to the above chart 54% had gone up to the O/L only. 43% up to A/L and 3% had not answered the question properly. Then I wanted their English education time period, by years. Data obtained shown in table 4.
Sr. No Time period No. of people
01 Not studied English at all 03
02 Less than one year 04
03 1-2 years 03
04 3-5 years 02
05 6-10 & 11-15 years 02
06 More than 15 years 02
07 Not answered 14
Table 5
Above data shows in the chart as Figure 6.

Figure 6
According to the above chart 46%, have not answered the question. More than 15 years 7%, 6-15 years 7% and 3-5 years 7%. In question no. 6. I requested their self-estimation, of the English knowledge they possessed .The answers provided, are given in the chart, as Table 6.
Sr. No. Answers Fluently Fair fluently Moderate With difficulty Only few words Not at all Not answer for particular question Not answered
01 I Speak English 2 3 2 3 2 3 15
02 I write English 4 2 2 3 1 3 15
03 I read English 3 2 4 1 1 4 15
04 I understand spoken English 3 1 4 2 1 4 15
Table 6

Table 3 data shows in chart as Figure 7, 8,9,10.

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10
When we consider the above charts, it shows that 50% of them, had not answered all the questions. According to Figure 7, 10% of them have not answered the particular question. 10% stated that they speak a few words, and another 10% stated that they speak moderately. Others answered less than 7%. According to Figure 8, 13% write English fairly well. 10% speak only a few words, and another 10% had not answered the particular question. Others answered less than 7%. According to figure 9, 13% had not answered the particular questions. 14% can read moderately, 10% can read fluently, and others answered less than 7%. According to Figure 10, 13% of them had not answered, the particular question. 14% of them understand spoken English with difficulty. 10% of them can understand fairly fluently, and others answered less than 7%.
In my questionnaire, next, I queried as to where they used English, mostly, and answers to the question, are shown in Table 7.
Sr. No Answers No. of people answer to the question.
01 At school or in my studies 04
02 In my free time 07
03 At work 09
04 I do not use English 05
05 Not answered 05
Table 7

According to the Table 7, data shows in chart as Figure 11.

Figure 11
According to the above Figure 11, 30% of them use English at work place, and that only for reading , 23% of them only use in free time, 17% of them do not use English, and 13% of them use English at studies. 17% of them had not answered the question. I questioned the personnel who had given answers, as to how they used English at work places “How do you handle English at work place”. They have answered that they used English, to read “manuals”. I asked personnel who had given answers, as to how they use English in the free time “What do you do with English in your free time”. They have answered that they use English, in the “Face Book”. When they use the Face Book, they need English. Sailors in the Medical and catering branches, have answered that they use English, for their studies. The reason being that specialization subject materials, are available in the English medium, mainly. So, they have to go use English, for the subject material. In question number 9, it was asked whether they used English in their current employment.
Almost daily About once a week About once a month Less frequently Never Not answered
Reading manuals & products description 4 1 1 2 22
Reading notification and professional literature 3 1 2 24
Reading e-mails 4 3 1 3 19
Reading web pages 5 2 3 20
Reading documents 4 3 2 21
Searching information 5 1 2 22
Listening to presentation or lectures 1 2 1 1 3 22
Writing e-mails 2 1 4 23
Writing documents 1 1 1 3 24
Speaking with colleagues 1 1 5 23
Speaking with clients and partners face to face 2 5 23
Total 29 12 6 6 34 243
Table 8

Table 7 data shows in the Figures 12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21 and 22.

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21

Figure 22
When we analyze above figures 12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21 and 22 we can see that more than 60% of them had not answered the particulars in question number 9. Comparing answers they have given, “Never” is high. Then we can see the total number of people who answered the questions.

Figure 23
According to the above figure 23, there are people who practice these activities included in question number 9, almost daily.
Question number ten, queried the situations, where they felt English skills were not adequate, and the answers given under a to j. Here they could give multiple answers. Answers given by the personnel, are shown in Table 9.
Answer “a” – When reading in English
Answer “b” – When writing in English
Answer “e” – When discussing non-native speakers of English
Answer “h” – In all kind of situation
Answer “j” – I do not feel that my English skills are inadequate in any situation

Sr. No Type of answer given Number of people
01 Only for the answer a 06
02 Only for the answer b 01
03 For the answer a & b 03
04 Only for the answer e 01
05 Only for the answer h 01
06 Only for the answer j 01
07 Answered without understanding 03
08 Not answered 14

Table 9
Table 9, data is shown in the chart as Figure 24.

Figure 24
According to the above chart 47% of them had not answered the questions, and 20% of them answered “a”. 10% of them answered both “a” and “b”. 10% had given answers without understanding the questions, as well as directions given by me. Other answers less than 4%.
Considering the oral test session, personnel who responded, and who had not, are shown in table 10.

No. of people
Performed 10
Not performed 20
Table 10

Table 10 data is shown under Figure 25.

Figure 25
According to the above Figure 25, 67% of then have not responded to the oral test, while 33% of them have responded, to the oral test. The replies of the 33% who responded, are shown in the table.

Sr. No Very Good Good Fair Bad
01 Vocabulary 00 00 06 04
02 Expression 00 00 06 04
03 Pronunciation 00 00 06 04
04 The content 00 00 06 04
05 The background 00 00 05 05
06 Start 00 00 06 04
07 Conduct 00 00 06 04
08 Conclusion 00 00 03 07
09 Facial Expression 00 00 01 09
10 Tone 00 00 03 07
11 Hand Gesture 00 00 02 08
12 Movement 00 00 02 08
13 Confidence 00 00 03 07
Table 11

Figure 26
Considering the confidence factor, according to figure 26, three of them had fair confidence, and others did not have any confidence, as seen in the chart.
Figure 27
Considering the confidence factor according to figure 27, 52% of did not have confidence, while 48% had fair confidence in speaking. According to Table 5, and Figure 6, 6.67% had mentioned that they could speak, fairly fluently, 10% moderately, 6.67% with difficulty, and 10% had mentioned that they could speak only a few words. That is altogether, 10 personnel had mentioned that they could speak, as above. According to table 10, only ten of the personnel attended, to finish the oral test. When we go deep into the data, we feel some doubt, as to whether those ten personnel, shown in table three, actually took part in the oral test.
Sr. No People who mentioned in the table 3 Answer given to question no seven Sr. No 1 People who take part of the oral test Answer given to question no seven Sr. No 1
01 Subject i Moderately Subject ii Not at all
02 Subject iii Moderately Subject iv Not answered
03 Subject v Fair fluently Subject v
04 Subject vi Moderately Subject vi
05 Subject vii Only few words Subject vii
06 Subgect viii With difficulty Subject ix Not at all
07 Subject x Only few words Subject xi Not answered
08 Subject xii Only few words Subject xii
09 Subject xiii Fair fluently Subject xiii
10 Subject xiv With difficulty Subject xiv
Table 12
Only ten personnel had given answers to question number seven, serial number one (I speak English). Only ten people have taken part in the oral test session. When we compare those two groups we see the same six personnel in the two groups (Highlighted in blue colour). We also see four personnel, who took part in the oral test, other than the above mentioned six persons, either had not answered question number seven, or answer given as “not at all”. Then I summoned thirty of them by turn, and queried? “Why cannot you speak English” and “why did you not take part, in the oral test”. They mentioned that they had difficulties with English language, and vocabulary. Without a good vocabulary, they do not have confidence, to express their ideas. Finally, I explained to them that their lack of English knowledge was due to their not having, confidence to Speak in English. I questioned them “Why do not you study English”, and they have given various reasons, for that. Their family problems, not thought to be in the studying ages, lack of interest etc. But the main reason I found is that, once they are categorized in to the sailor’s category, they feel that English is not necessary, and their interest declines.

Chapter 5: Findings and conclusion
5.0 Introduction
The previous chapter presented the analysis of the current study, and this chapter examines the analysis in the previous chapter, and it will be delved into, deeply.
The data used for analysis, was collected through a questionnaire, and oral test, through selected 30 naval ratings, in the Sri Lanka Navy. The data collected was then analyzed using tables, columns and charts including pie charts. Based on the research analysis in chapter four, following factors were identified.
5.1 Findings
a. All participants studied in Sinhala medium.
b. Even though I explained the questionnaire in Sinhala language also most of the participants could not answer the questions properly. Majority has not provided answers, as they are not familiar with the English language, as they do not use it.
c. More than the half of the participants studied only up to the O/L.
d. Most of the participants have had Basic English education, less than two years.
e. Most of the participants have to use English, at their work place. As an example, they have to read manuals, written in the English medium.
f. Participants use English for their social networking (Using limited words).
g. Many of them think that they could speak English, but in practical situations, they would stall. The main reason that I found, for this condition is that, they do not have, a sufficient vocabulary, and sufficient English knowledge. Due to aforesaid reasons, they do not have the confidence to speak at least a few words, in English.
h. Once they get access in to, the sailor category, they feel that they do not need English, and they loose interest to learn.
5.2 Conclusion
Sri Lanka Navy faces a difficult situation due to the weak English knowledge of naval personnel. Finding suitable methods to overcome this difficulty of the naval personnel, is a major task for the Sri Lanka Navy. But till now no research on this situation has been carried out. This research sheds light on this problem of the naval personnel, and their confidence, when they speak in the English medium.
The findings of this study, provides some awareness, to the policy planners of the Sri Lanka Navy. Findings show the necessity of improving English knowledge, of the naval personnel, as more than half of them, were not able to answer the questionnaire, and oral test. Even the answers to the questionnaire, have been given without understanding the questions properly and as for the oral test ,only a few of them were able to face with any success and others were struggling from the beginning, due to lacking ,in vocabulary. Based on discussion, the main reason for their inadequacy of English knowledge, was that they did not receive a Basic English knowledge, from the early days, (from the School days) and also, as the participants had studied in the Sinhala medium. The reason being that most of the naval personnel, especially sailors, having joined from rural areas, where they do not have schools providing a good English background. Now it is impracticable, to give them the knowledge from the beginning, since they are occupied in carrying out naval duties. Hence, it is required to identify a suitable English module, to enhance their English knowledge, to suit the Navy requirements. If the Sri Lankan Navy handles this situation successfully, it would be possible to produce, English fluent, naval personnel.
5.3 Suggestion for future research
The current study was conducted to determine the confidence of naval personnel when communicating in English. Further studies may focus on the following aspects.
a. In a global context, English is very important. As we know today, English is considered as the main communication medium in global society and also, most of the foreign organizations, function in the English medium and most of the documents are printed in English. As such, for dealings with organizations outside the country, naval personnel, should possess a good English knowledge. But in my research, it was found that naval personnel who came to the sailor category, thought that they would not have any necessity to use English, and felt no interest in learning English. They have given various excuses and presented problems to avoid applying for English courses, offered by the Navy (Navy Genera 091618, 2017). It is suggested to carry out a research on the topic “Why naval personnel are not interested to study English”.
b. As mentioned in the literature review, the Navy provides English certificate programs, and English diploma programs, for naval personnel. Through these courses, naval personnel are able to enhance their English knowledge. But, no research have been published so far on whether the naval personnel benefited from the English courses, provided by the Navy”.
c. In my study, I found that naval personnel, use their leisure, for social media networking. For this they should have at least a marginal English knowledge, to handle social media networking. Therefore, the importance of English language and the need for it to engage in social networking can be found out in future”.
d. It is very necessary, to determine suitable methods to be adopted, by the Sri Lanka Navy, to enhance the English knowledge of naval personnel. In my research, I have detailed the background regarding this. Hence a research on the methods which can be adopted, to overcome this English deficiency aspect” can be conducted as well.

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Annex A
1. What is your name? ………………………………………..
2. What is your gender?
a. Male
b. Female
3. What was the language of your basic education?
a. Sinhala
b. Tamil
c. English
d. Other
4. How important is English to you personally?
a. Very important
b. Moderately important
c. Not very important
d. Not important at all
5. Which of the options below indicate the highest level of education you have completed?
a. Up to 6th Grade
b. O/L
c. A/L
d. University level
6. Estimate how long you have studied English altogether. Study is understood here as any form of institutional education and self-study.
a. I have not studied English at all
b. Less than a year
c. 1–2 years
d. 3–5 years
e. 6–10 years 6 11–15 years
f. More than 15 years

7. How do you evaluate your skills in English according to the options below?
Fluently Fair Fluently Moderately With Difficulty Only few words Not at all
I speak English
I write English
I read English
I understand spoken English

8. Where do you use English the most? Choose only one answer.
a. At school or in my studies
b. In my free time
c. At work
d. I do not use English

9. The following concerns your use of English while you are working. Do you use English in your current job for?

Almost daily About once a week About once a month Less frequently Never
Reading manuals and product descriptions
Reading nonfiction and professional literature
Reading e-mails
Reading web pages
Reading documents
Searching information (e.g. Google)
Listening to presentations or lectures
Writing e-mails
Writing documents
Speaking with colleagues
Speaking with clients and partners face to face

10. In which kind of situations do you feel your English skills are inadequate?
You can choose several options
a. When reading in English
b. When writing in English
c. In situations which require listening comprehension (e.g. on the telephone)
d. When discussing with native speakers of English
e. When discussing with non-native speakers of English
f. When in situations that require knowledge of specialist terminology or jargon
g. When travelling abroad
h. In all kinds of situations
i. Elsewhere, were?
j. I do not feel that my English skills are inadequate in any situation

Annex B
Evaluation Sheet

1. Name :-…………………………………………………
2. Topic :-…………………………………………………
3. Time :-…………………………………………………

a. Language

Vocabulary – Very Good

Expression – Very Good

Pronunciation – Very good
b. Content

The Content – Very Good

The Background- Very Good
c. Format

Start – Very Good

Conduct – Very Good

Conclusion – Very Good

d. Body Language

Facial Expression- Very Good

Tone (Voice) – Very Good
Hand Gesture – Very Good

Movements – Very Good

e. Confidence – Very Good


Annex C
Interview Questions
1. How do you handle English at work place?
2. What do you do with English in your free time?
3. Why cannot you speak English?
4. Why did you not take part, in the oral test?
5. Why do not you study English?

Annex D
1. Asking road direction
2. Meeting friends
3. Meeting doctor
4. At restaurant (ordering menu)
5. At reception of hotel (booking a room)
6. Shopping (looking for buy a shirt)
7. At airport (asking flight details)
8. At bus (asking a ticket)
9. At class room (with friends)
10. At car sale (asking prices of cars)
11. At book shop (Looking for a novel)
12. At police station (making a complaint)
13. At super market
14. At fish stall
15. At pet shop


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