The Effects of Health and Safety Practice on Productivity in Temporary Works Construction AUTHOR FirstCap MERGEFORMAT Nadine Jeftha 209028696 A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the BTech Degree in Civil Engineering Cape Town 28 September 2018 Declaration I declare that this research dissertation is my own unaided work. It is being submitted for the BTech Degree at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town. It has not been submitted before for any degree or examination in any other University. _______________________________________________ (Signature) Signed in Cape Town this _____________ day of ______________________ 2010 Abstract Id like to thank the BTech supervisors, and my supervisor Mr.
Nel, as well as fellow classmates and colleagues for your help and support through this study and showing that it could be done. Here we are A special thank you to HHO Consulting Enigneers, my employer, for allowing me the time and resources needed and to the participants, for taking the time to offer assistance in realising the completion of this project. I sincerely hope our paths cross again in future. To my family and friends, who understood with patience when I couldnt be around, yet always offered kind and motivating words- your belief in me kept me going. I hope Ive made you all proud and I promise therell be a long break after this To my favourite person, my best friend and husband, Kyle You sacrificed as many meals and as much sleep as I did during this time, but your persistent encouragement and unfaltering serenity kept me calm and sane through this project. Table of Contents Page TOC o 2-3 t Heading 11Title1 Declaration PAGEREF _Toc525538455 h ii Abstract PAGEREF _Toc525538456 h iii Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc525538457 h iv Table of Contents PAGEREF _Toc525538458 h v List of Figures PAGEREF _Toc525538459 h vii List of Tables PAGEREF _Toc525538460 h viii Terms and concepts PAGEREF _Toc525538461 h ix Chapter 1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525538462 h 1 1.
1 Background and Motivation PAGEREF _Toc525538463 h 1 1.2 Research problem PAGEREF _Toc525538464 h 1 1.3 Research Question PAGEREF _Toc525538465 h 1 1.4 Objectives and outcomes PAGEREF _Toc525538466 h 2 1.5 Significance PAGEREF _Toc525538467 h 2 1.6 Delineation PAGEREF _Toc525538468 h 2 1.7 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc525538469 h 2 1.
8 Organisation of dissertation PAGEREF _Toc525538470 h 2 Chapter 2 Literature review and theory PAGEREF _Toc525538471 h 3 2.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525538472 h 3 2.2 Construction of Temporary Works PAGEREF _Toc525538473 h 3 2.2.1 Formwork PAGEREF _Toc525538474 h 3 2.
2.2 Design Considerations PAGEREF _Toc525538475 h 5 2.3 Health and Safety PAGEREF _Toc525538476 h 7 2.3.1 Health and Safety Management Systems PAGEREF _Toc525538477 h 8 2.3.
2 Safety Climate PAGEREF _Toc525538478 h 9 2.3.3 Safety Culture PAGEREF _Toc525538479 h 9 2.
3.4 Clients, Designers and Contractors PAGEREF _Toc525538480 h 10 2.3.5 Prevention through Design (PtD) PAGEREF _Toc525538481 h 10 2.3.
6 Economy of Construction Health and Safety PAGEREF _Toc525538482 h 11 2.4 Productivity PAGEREF _Toc525538483 h 12 2.4.1 Factors Affecting Productivity PAGEREF _Toc525538484 h 12 2.5 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525538485 h 14 Chapter 3 Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc525538486 h 15 3.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc525538487 h 15 3.
2 Research methodology PAGEREF _Toc525538488 h 15 3.2.1 Data PAGEREF _Toc525538489 h 15 3.2.
2 Sample Selection PAGEREF _Toc525538490 h 16 3.2.3 Analysis and presentation of results PAGEREF _Toc525538491 h 17 Chapter 4 Results PAGEREF _Toc525538492 h 18 4.1 Demographic Information PAGEREF _Toc525538493 h 18 4.2 Factors affecting Productivity PAGEREF _Toc525538494 h 19 4.3 Health and Safety PAGEREF _Toc525538495 h 21 4.4 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525538496 h 22 Chapter 5 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc525538497 h 22 5.
1 Productivity PAGEREF _Toc525538498 h 22 5.1.1 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538499 h 22 5.2 Sub-section 2 PAGEREF _Toc525538500 h 23 5.2.1 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538501 h 23 5.
2.2 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538502 h 23 5.3 Sub-section 3 PAGEREF _Toc525538503 h 23 5.3.1 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538504 h 23 5.
3.2 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538505 h 24 5.3.3 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538506 h 24 5.4 Sub-section 4 PAGEREF _Toc525538507 h 24 5.4.
1 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538508 h 24 5.4.2 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538509 h 24 5.
5 Sub-section 5 PAGEREF _Toc525538510 h 25 5.5.1 Sub-division heading – as necessary PAGEREF _Toc525538511 h 25 Chapter 6 Conclusions and recommendations PAGEREF _Toc525538512 h 25 6.
1 Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc525538513 h 25 6.2 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc525538514 h 26 References PAGEREF _Toc525538515 h 27 Appendices PAGEREF _Toc525538516 h 29 List of Figures Page Body TOC c Figure Figure 2.1 Temporary Access control at a demolition site, Cape Town (NJ, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc525123258 h 6 Figure 2.2 Showing Activities resulting on the highest rates of accidents (FEMA, March 2018) PAGEREF _Toc525123259 h 7 Figure 2.
3 Indicating the trends in days lost between the years 2013 and 2017 (FEMA, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc525123260 h 7 Figure 2.4 Key elements of a Health and Safety Management System PAGEREF _Toc525123261 h 8 Figure 4.1 Indicating percentage consensus on behaviours exhibited in certain scenarios.
PAGEREF _Toc525123262 h 21 Appendices TOC h z c A Figure HYPERLINK l _Toc261874283 Figure A.1 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874283 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874284 Figure A.2 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874284 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874285 Figure B.1 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874285 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874286 Figure B.2 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874286 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874287 Figure C.
1 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874287 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874288 Figure C.2 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874288 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874289 Figure D.1 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874289 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874290 Figure D.2 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874290 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc261874291 Figure D.3 Sample appendix figure caption PAGEREF _Toc261874291 h 4 List of Tables Page Body TOC c Table Table 2.1 Activities undertaken in formwork construction (Hallowell and Gambatese, 2009) PAGEREF _Toc525123152 h 4 Table 3.1 Sample Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc525123153 h 16 Table 4.1 Demographic information of participants PAGEREF _Toc525123154 h 18 Table 4.
2 Local factors affecting productivity. PAGEREF _Toc525123155 h 19 Table 4.3 Respondents noting Health and Safety as a considerable factor PAGEREF _Toc525123156 h 20 Table 4.4 Frequency of occurrence of the scenarios PAGEREF _Toc525123157 h 20 TOC h z c A Table Appendices HYPERLINK l _Toc256589877 Table A.
1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589877 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589878 Table A.2 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589878 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589879 Table A.3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589879 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589880 Table A.4 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589880 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589881 Table B.1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589881 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589882 Table B.2 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589882 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589883 Table B.
3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589883 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589884 Table B.4 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589884 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589885 Table C.1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589885 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589886 Table C.2 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589886 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589887 Table C.3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589887 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589888 Table C.4 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589888 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589889 Table D.1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589889 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589890 Table D.
2 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589890 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589891 Table D.3 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) PAGEREF _Toc256589891 h 4 HYPERLINK l _Toc256589892 Table D.4 Another appendix table example PAGEREF _Toc256589892 h 4 Terms and concepts AccidentAn unexpected event resulting in injury or property damage, typically unpreventable.CIDBConstruction Industry Development BoardFEMAFederated Employers Mutual Assurers CompanyHazardSource of or exposure to dangerIncidentAn unexpected or unplanned event, which may result in injury, but not necessarily. unpreventable.RiskThe probability that injury or damage will occur Introduction The construction industry contributes largely to the growth of South African employment and its economy, employing over a million people and estimating an approximate 4 contribution to the countrys GDP in 2016. It is also one of the most labour intensive and most hazardous industries (Ayessaki and Smallwood, 2017), and as such, is linked to considerable monetary expenses (Khosravi et al.
, 2014) and susceptibility to low levels of productivity as a result of workers not performing optimally (Okoro et al., 2017). Background and Motivation Construction workers are the social participation in construction practice, and thus are very active components in production (Okoro et al., 2017). Incident fatality and risk management are extremely intricate, and incident avoidance starts with the comprehension of the factors that cause these (Khosravi et al., 2014). The construction labour force makes up a large chunk of the construction cost, and the amount of hours spent performing a task is likely to be influenced by management, indicating it to be a principal and persistent concern to achieving the projects objectives (Ayessaki Smallwood, 2017). Negligence or inadequate attention given to health and safety on construction sites can lead to several injuries or accidents of varying degrees, and have considerable effects on projects, such as schedule delays, decreased employee morale, having to redo work and compensation pay- outs, all factors which have an impact on overall project productivity.
There remains discussion around who should be held responsible for construction health and safety, however, studies have shown that the inclusion of effective Health and Safety management systems at pre- tender, pre- construction and project execution phases have an effect of safety performance and subsequently project productivity. Thus, the Construction Regulations (2014) states that all project stakeholders should develop and ensure the implementation of comprehensive health and safety plans and hence, there has been a strong movement in engaging all parties in ensuring construction Health and Safety is addressed from all angles, and at all stages of a project. Research problem Health and Safety practice in the construction industry is seldom fully adhered to, and often leads to accidents and injury, and subsequently project delays and extra costs. While it is not practical to envisage a site with absolutely zero accidents or incidents, the implementation of comprehensive Health and Safety management systems may be effective in reducing and managing these occurrences, while simultaneously improving the performance of the industry. Research Question How do comprehensive health and safety management systems influence productivity Objectives and outcomes The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of current health and safety practices on the productivity of temporary works construction. In order to achieve this, the following objectives were to be met To determine factors affecting productivity To determine what health and safety practices are currently in place It was expected that the completion of this study would draw attention to the effects of Health and Safety management on constructing temporary works, and how this might be addressed through considering construction safety at the design stage. The following outcomes were expected The relationship between HS management and productivity. The effectiveness of current health and safety practices on managing productivity, and possible areas for improvement.
Significance This research was conducted within the Civil Engineering Industry, drawing focus to managing health and safety in construction- specifically with respect to the construction of temporary works. Delineation This study did not investigate disputes arising out of health and safety related disagreements between contractors, sub- contractors, clients and design engineers, and it did not attempt to address the labourers perspective on health and safety. Methodology Structured interviews were carried out with independent Health and Safety officers, and site foreman/ agents and project managers/directors who have experience in temporary works. The results were then analysed using the relative index method. Organisation of dissertation Chapter 2 Literature Review The Literature review highlights the current state of health and safety in the construction industry and provides a comparison for the results obtained in this study.
Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology Chapter 3 provides a description of the research design employed in this project as well as how and why the particular design was chosen and applied. Chapter 4 Results Chapter 4 presents the actual findings of the study in clear and concise manner. Chapter 5 Discussion Chapter 5 presents the comparison in results between the literature review and the study that was conducted.
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Recommendations Chapter 6 summarizes the study and proposes recommendations for further studies. Literature review and theory No two construction projects are identical and may be implicated by various factors such as location, design, site conditions, labour limitations (skilled, semi or unskilled), and climatic conditions, amongst others. Introduction This literature review serves to identify what is involved in the process of constructing temporary works, specifically formwork, global factors that have an influence on the productivity of construction, as well as the state of health and safety in construction. Construction of Temporary Works Temporary structures are vital elements of the construction process. In addition to providing safety to the workers as well as the general public, there exists also the relationship between the temporary structures and the permanent structure. Temporary works may remain a part of the finished works or it may be dismantled at the end of its value, in either case, it is usually the responsibility of the contractor to ensure the work is supervised and constructed in accordance with legislation and contract requirements. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Act (1993) and Regulations for Construction (2014) Temporary works is defined as formwork, scaffold, shoring, falsework, support work or any other impermanent erections designed to offer support or access during the course of construction (Department of Labour, 2017. Pg.
71) Formwork Formwork is described as the mould erected to support fresh concrete until such time that the concrete has sufficient strength to support itself. Thus, formwork activities make up an important part of construction projects. Unfortunately it is also linked to a high number of injuries (Jha, 2012). It is therefore apparent that downtime, as a result of injury, would have an impact on the productivity of the project as a whole. Different types of formwork have evolved over the years. Although it is not necessarily possible to move entirely away from the traditional method, the availability of alternatives have shown benefits in terms of increased quality, reduced time, increased safety and increased productivity.
Traditional or conventional formwork refers to the method of compiling structural forms on site by means of cutting, nailing and bracing required forms. This method is predominantly used with timber supports and plywood as the primary materials, however it can also be used with steel as the primary material and metal beams as props. It has been realised that the traditional method of constructing formwork is largely labour intensive and requires a certain amount of skill and maintenance, the lack of which could result in formwork failure, causing rework and accident or injury. Modular formwork refers to the construction of pre- made components, whether it be from plywood, steel or aluminium. It is typically favoured as it allows off- site forming, requires less repetitive and manual actions, and allows for faster, more cost-effective construction. Hallowell and Gambatese (2009), after observing 256 labour hours, noted 13 activities performed in the construction of formwork. It was found that these activities account for as much as 86 percent of productive time, and are listed and described as in Table 1 below.
Although this information has been substantiated by industry professionals, with years of experience, it is worth noting that it is used here only as a guide, and is not indicative of the state within industry. Table STYLEREF 1 s 2. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 1 Activities undertaken in formwork construction (Hallowell and Gambatese, 2009) ActivityDescription1Climb up/down LadderActivities above or below ground level sometimes require the use of a ladder.
Ladders are made up of a variety of materials and vary in size. In some instances, workers may be inclined to ascend/ descend formwork supports instead.2Static LiftMay be required when workers have to temporarily support part of the concrete form while other workers are connecting elements3nail/ screw/ drillConnecting elements of formwork by means of hammering, nail guns, impact wrench, electric screwdriver and/ or staple gun, often a repetitive task4Motorized transportTransporting of materials via trucks, cranes, scissor lifts. Dependant on the size of the site5Crane MaterialWorkers may need to accept or load materials to a crane, guide the crane operator as material is moved and in some cases manually guide the material6Cutting of materialUsing machinery such as circular saws to cut form material to the required size7Inspecting and planningWorkers or crew leaders inspect previous or current work and plan following activities 8Lift/ Lower MaterialRefers to unassisted vertical lifting of materials, form components and equipment.
Workers may be required to lift materials or concrete form ground level up. 9Manual TransportTransferring materials of varying weights, such as formwork elements, ties, cat heads, pipe braces, from one point to another.10Hammer MaterialRefers to the use of a larger equipment such as a sledgehammer, delivering larger blows in lower frequency11Plumb/ Level FormsLevelling or adjusting formwork by means of bodyweight, prybars, or screwjacks. Workers may be required to assist with surveying, using hand levels and plumb bobs to ensure proper placement12ExcavationRemoving material below ground level, typically by means of a backhoe or bulldozer13Oil/ LubricationSpraying of form oil and/ or curing compounds and setting/ wetting curing blankets and expansion material The study concluded that the main safety risks for the construction of formwork for concrete structures is the exposure to harmful substances, fall to lower level, and struck by. The data collected during this survey was further analysed to determine the activities which carry the highest risk. These were identified as lubrication and preparation, ascending and descending ladders, accepting and loading materials from a crane, and motorized transport (Hallowell and Gambatese, 2009). Design Considerations The design of temporary works is mostly dependant on the kind of temporary works required, however, in the case of more complex structures, the temporary works may be designed by the designers of the permanent structure. In instances of simpler temporary works, such as access ramps for excavations, the excavations contractor may execute the design of the temporary works.
In the cases falling between the simple and complex provisions, are contractors who choose to specialise in the provision of temporary works (Nemati, 2007). The following factors are identified for consideration when erecting temporary works, irrespective of the type of temporary works required Safety As with many construction activities, a primary concern is safety, although it may not be addressed as such. As noted in the Construction Regulation amendments, the responsibility to ensure safety practice should be distributed amongst all stakeholders involved at all stages of the project. Figure 2.1 below shows a demolition site in Cape Town, where it can be seen that a building has already been demolished, yet there is only a temporary fence as a safety measure, there are no signs indicating hazards or the nature of the environment to the staff or general public. Cost The erection of temporary structures can incur high costs on a project and could, in some cases, cost as much as the concrete. However this could easily be offset if used effectively. Collaboration with designers to influence construction methodology and sequencing could see more cost effective use of temporary works.
Design Challenges Unique working conditions expose the temporary works to loadings not applicable to the permanent structure. Site characteristics such as soil conditions, wetlands, or rock may influence the manoeuvrability of workers, and may be addressed by the designers. Experience Quite often, the contractor has the most experience with respect to the construction of temporary structures. If required, the contractor must employ his/ her own designer, or perform the design of the temporary works themselves. This supports design- and- contract procurement structures, as it ensures collaboration of the designers and contractors throughout the project lifecycle. It is essential that the individual managing the site is familiar with the thought process of the engineers, as well as the behaviours of the intended structure, so as to have the ability to address structural and technical issues which may arise. This knowledge is paramount in ensuring the safety of the site, any persons who may be on the site, as well as the safety of the structure itself.
Figure STYLEREF 1 s 2. SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 1 Temporary Access control at a demolition site, Cape Town (NJ, 2018) Case Study Bridge Widening- Road over Road Two existing highway bridges, running parallel to each other, with an open gap between their decks, are to be joined as part of a road widening project. It is noted in the bridge report that, due to the age of the existing bridges, their structural capacity under traffic needs to be assessed in line with current bridge design standards, as it is likely they were designed to the old British Code (circa 1963)- which considered lesser traffic loads. The new bridge was designed to be constructed with precast beams, as this would be less disturbing to the operational roadway beneath the bridge and would also be the most cost effective and efficient option.
The contractors method statement for launching the precast beams involved the positioning of a singular crane on one of the existing bridges. The project designer, not confident in the existing bridge capacity to support the crane as well as its transporting load, requested a proposed alternate launching method from the contractor. Being under pressure of facing standing time delays, the contractor assumed the simplest solution and hired two cranes to launch the precast beams, however upon submitting a claim for the extra cost incurred, the project designers declined payment, stating that it is the responsibility of the contractor to provide the requirements for the construction of temporary works. In this case, as with most, the contractor is not employed to conduct initial design checks on existing structures that may be used to facilitate the erection of a new structure. On the other hand, had the designer anticipated that the contractor might have had difficulty with the location of temporary works while launching the precast beams, they could have included a clause in the specification document at tender stage, stating limitations of the use of the existing structure, thus affording the contractor the opportunity to have made time and cost allowances for alternative construction methods. Health and Safety FEMA (Federated Employers Mutual Assurance Company) statistics recorded that, as at March 2018, the highest percentage of accidents resulting in injury in the Western Cape, was as a result of being Struck by, at 26.8 followed by slip or over- exertion striking against and fall onto different levels whose percentages were recorded at 18,04, 15,46, and 11,34 respectively. Figure 2.
3 below shows accident statistics for the Western Cape (Fema, 2018). Figure STYLEREF 1 s 2. SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 2 Activities resulting in the highest rates of accidents (FEMA, March 2018) Figure 2.4 indicates the trends of days lost as a result of injury over the years 2013 to 2017. There appears to be a significant decline in days lost as a result of being caught on/ in/ between Fall onto different levels and Struck by between the years 2016 and 2017.
As recorded at December 2017, the Struck by accidents resulted in a loss of 1035 days. Striking against lost 424 days, Slip/ over- exertion lost 248 days, while fall onto different levels lost 1031 days. Indicating that the most occurring cause of accidents is also responsible for the most days lost. Figure STYLEREF 1 s 2.
SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 3 Trends in days lost between the years 2013 and 2017 (FEMA, 2018) With respect to the erection/ dismantling of shoring/ shuttering, 2017 recorded 46 accidents over 215 employees, 5 of which resulted in permanent disability with no pension. This statistic alone saw an average cost of R10560 per accident, and is an increase from the sectors performance in comparison to the four preceding years. Typically, safety performance is measured based on accident and injury data, which is collected after the fact, and as such may be seen as inaccurate, backdated, not considerate of risk exposure and insufficiently sensitive. Alternate approaches, addressing safety climate and culture, assesses the environment surrounding Health and Safety establishment, and as such offers room for preventative rather than corrective measures to be employed (HSE, 2001). Health and Safety Management Systems A Health and Safety Management System can be described as systematic processes implemented by employers to reduce the exposure of employees to risks and hazards.
Therefore, the effective control of risks is based on an effective Health and Safety Management System (HSE, 2001). As with various other management systems, the typical approach is to Plan- Do- Check- Act. Thus the key elements of an effective Health and Safety management system can be summarised as a) Policy Development b) Organizing c) Planning and Implementation d) Monitoring and e) Audit and review, and is illustrated in Figure 2.5 below. Figure STYLEREF 1 s 2.
SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 4 Key elements of a Health and Safety Management System Safety Climate The term Safety Climate may best be used to describe the perceptions, attitudes, beliefs about risk and safety, and the patterns of conduct, of the employees. This suggesting that group safety climate encompasses the consensual ideas and views shared within a group. This shared sentiment is believed to create a standard of acceptable behaviour, relative to Health and Safety, within the organisation (Schneider, 1975). As the concept of safety climate reflects views, attitudes, behaviours and beliefs, it proves to be quite challenging to measure as a whole. Schwatka et al. (2016), reinforces this after conducting an in- depth literature review on measuring and defining safety climate. While multiple indicators have been investigated as a means of measurement, it has been shown by Schwatka et al.
(2016) and Lingard et al, (2010) that the top investigated aspects of construction safety climate are management commitment to safety, safety practices, supervisory support for safety, and work pressure. Studies conducted on safety climate in the construction industry, indicate that workers opinions of managements obligation to safety, and employees participation in on- site safety, are vital features to safety climate (Lingard et al, 2010). There are also indications that there is discrepancy between the perception of an organizations safety climate, and that of a workgroup. This supports evidence that supervisors and co- workers have an impact on safety climate, and the belief that they are supportive of safety, results in workers who are more likely to adopt safe practices.
Safety Culture The Safety culture concept refers to the reflection of values, norms, assumptions and expectations which reside in the societal culture, and how organizational members interact and perform, to form a shared view of safety, and reducing exposure to dangerous conditions. Hecker and Goldenhar (2014) conducted a literature review study on the understanding of safety climate and safety culture, and determined that although the two concepts are distinct, they are related. Safety culture reflects norms and profounder ideals, while safety climate reflects mutual observations amidst a fairly similar group. Clients, Designers and Contractors In the traditional procurement process, the client would usually employ a designer, and then, once the design is complete, employ a contractor. This method maintains division of responsibility of safe construction, leaving clients and designers with little to no responsibility undertaken. This is also not fair to the contractor, as he/she is employed to build what is designed and any temporary works required for the completion of the design. Often- times contractors face challenges with the erection of temporary works, and may be liable for additional costs as a result of time delays caused by site challenges, or incidents occurring as a result of unsafe working conditions. Since the client and contractor have a vested interested in speedy and safe construction, it is then beneficial for the contractor to have an input at the design stage, to be able to raise concerns around safe constructability and address said issues prior to the commencement of construction.
Studies have concluded that more non- traditional forms of contracts such as design and build, and partnering and management contracting may result in improved project management, communication, co- ordination, logistics, and work place ethics (Naoum, 2016). Smallwood (2017) conducted a study to determine the impact that a client contractor health and safety programme has on the health and safety performance of construction contractors. The importance of 6 project parameters, namely Quality, schedule, Health and Safety, productivity, cost and environment, to both clients and contractors were questioned, and it was concluded that both parties ranked quality as most important, while clients ranked schedule second. This insinuating that Health and Safety is not particularly a project value. Studies conducted by Smallwood (2017), and Kikwasi and Smallwood (2016) both indicate that clients and consultants have an influence on contractor Health and Safety performance. While Smallwood (2017) found that the establishment of an external health and safety programme improved health and safety performance of the contractor, Kikwasi and Smallwood (2016) found that consultants with contracting experience were more risk conscious and therefore sought to provisions made in tender and contractual documents.
This is in line with the latest Occupational Health and Safety legislation, which states that designers should have their designs checked by an external health and safety consultant, not only to ensure that the design is safe and compliant with relative codes and standards, but also to evaluate the safety in constructability (Department of Labour, 2017). Prevention through Design (PtD) Prevention through Design can be defined as the design of equipment, tools, procedures, supplies, and facility/ infrastructure constituents that will significantly moderate or reduce risks. Designers may able to influence the safety of a project through the provision of a safe design, ensuring the addressing of health and safety through contract documents, and specifying the use of non- hazardous construction methods, sequences and materials. Drawing focus to the practice of Prevention through Design (PtD), studies have shown that changes made at the design stage of a project have improved safety, positively influenced productivity, quality, schedule (time) and activity related costs (Gambatese et al., 2017).
The more complicated designs become, the more productivity is anticipated to be affected. This may be addressed through the use of prefabricated elements, by rationalizing designs and by enhanced management (Naoum, 2016). Economy of Construction Health and Safety Accidents in construction can result in direct or indirect costs, which together, make up the total costs of accidents. However, these costs are measured by outcomes, being a financial measure that is easily understood by all stakeholders (CIDB). Direct costs may be connected to injury treatment and the exceptional compensation of workers for injuries incurred while on duty. Direct costs may be covered by workmens compensation insurance (CIDB).
Indirect Costs are mostly suffered by the contractors themselves in the form of reduced productivity, having to redo work, replacement of the injured worker (if need be), administrative costs, costs as a result of delays, the cost of supervision and the cost of paying the salary of an employee who is not on the site (CIDB). As most tenders are awarded based on a pricing system, sums allocated to Health and Safety are often minimal, however, it can be seen that the indirect costs can add up to a significant amount. Indicating that Health and Safety provisions should be given more attention (CIDB). Productivity With the undertaking of more complex projects in the construction industry, addressing the three top project parameters namely time, schedule and performance, has led to increased focus on improving labour productivity (Chaturvedi et al, 2017). Productivity has generally been defined as the degree of output as a result of the input (Bierman et. al., 2016). The American Association of Cost Engineers defines productivity as the comparative measure of worker proficiency in comparison to a conventional standard.
According to SAFCEC (2014) the construction industry in South Africa is susceptible to changing circumstances such as low revenue, unemployment, and unpredictable tender practices, amongst other things. This highlights the importance of identifying factors which have an impression on productivity, with the intent of handling their impacts (Bierman et al., 2016). Factors Affecting Productivity Okoro et al, (2017) identified determinants of performance of construction workers as managerial dynamics, communication, construction materials and methods, workforce education and training, financial incentives/ compensation for labour, safety measures, environmental/ working conditions, workforce physical health and workforce attributes.
It was concluded that competent management and supervisors, together with high monetary incentives, frequent repair and maintenance of tools and equipment, and continued training showed an increase in productivity. Contrariwise, poor management and working conditions, and small financial incentives indicated decreased productivity levels. Chaturvedi et al, (2017) noted 4 categories of key factors influencing productivity in the Indian construction industry as labour- related, management, project specifics and safety on site. The study found that construction labour productivity is mostly affected by safety management, with management factors coming in second, followed by labour factors and lastly project specifications.
Showing that an adequate safety management system, facilitates a prominent safety culture, which in turn promotes productivity of labour. Bierman et al, (2016) identified over 50 factors affecting productivity in South Africa, subdivided into 6 main categories management, labour, consultants, site characteristics, tools and equipment, and weather. The literature review of the study indicated the top ten global factors affecting productivity as Material shortage, Labour experience, incompetent supervisor, method of working, late issue of drawings, poor communication, unforeseen events, poor site layout, constructability and rework however, the questionnaires identified the top ten factors affecting construction productivity in South Africa as late issue of drawings, illegal strike action by labour force, delayed reply on request for information, late issue of specification/ contract documentation, civil unrest, strikes by union, delayed inspection by consultant, labour skill level/ experience, constructability and foremen management skills. All factors identified, between the literature review benchmark and the questionnaires fall into 3 categories management, labour and consultants. Naoum (2016) conducted a state- of- the- art literature review on factors influencing construction productivity globally.
46 factors were identified within 5 categories, namely pre- construction activities, activities during construction, managerial and leadership factors, motivational factors, and organizational factors. These factors were then developed into a questionnaire survey and distributed amongst contracts managers and site managers. The results of the survey indicate that productivity is largely affected by pre- construction activities namely ineffective project planning delays caused by design variations and errors the communication system employed design and buildability issues, including specification documentation and the method of procurement.
This is concurrent with multiple studies that highlight the significance of incorporating design and construction in achieving buildability and subsequently productivity. Case Study Bridge Widening- Road over River The rehabilitation of the National Route N11 included the rehabilitation and widening of a road- over- river bridge. As there was insufficient as- built information, the structure was assumed to have been designed with little extra capacity, with respect to applicable loading codes of the time. Therefore, any additional loads applicable to widenings and new designs, would require the addition of structural strengthening interventions. In this case, one of the interventions was the inclusion of 20m long shear plates attached to the soffit of the longitudinal beams. Unfortunately the steel plates proved to be quite heavy, making them difficult to install. The contractor then had to source and formally propose an alternative material to be used as a strengthening intervention, proving that it is of equivalent or less cost to the client, while still remaining structurally sufficient, and not take up extra time.
This resulted in the contractor employing an independent consultant to carry out design checks for alternative strengthening methods, and having to absorb some costs so as not to affect the client. The process of the contractor sourcing alternatives, confirming performance requirements and proving cost and time savings, encompassed approximately 18 months. This may have been avoided had the issue of the use of steel plates of that size, been addressed at the design stage. This would have allowed the contractor, as well as the designer and client the opportunity to investigate alternatives prior to commencement of construction. Conclusion From the literature review it can be seen that there are distinct links between project stakeholders, construction safety and productivity, this is due to the fact that Health and Safety is not an isolated variable and is affected by all parties involved at all stages. Enshassi et al, (2009) noted that, although multiple studies have been conducted on factors affecting construction labour productivity, there has not yet been consensus on a universal set of factors. The study performed by Bierman et al, (2016) concurs, concluding that the South African construction industry has its own unique range of factors influencing productivity in comparison to the rest of the world, however, the 3 main categories remain dominant. It has been argued that gains in construction productivity are often realised at the expense of health and safety.
However, the study trends indicate that adequate attention given to health and safety, through establishing and maintaining safety climates and cultures, impacts health and safety performance. It is therefore beneficial to understand the effects that Health and Safety management may have on construction productivity in the South African context.Research methodology The research aimed to identify the effects of health and safety practice on productivity in the construction of temporary works.
Research design The research design employed for this project was qualitative and was made up of a combination of structured and unstructured interviews and was analysed with some of them developed into case studies. Research methodology As seen in previous studies of a similar nature, the research project consisted of collecting data by means of an in- depth literature review and the carrying out of interviews. Factors forming the basis of the interviews, were determined by the literature review, an were rated according to frequency of occurrence on a 5- point Likert Scale, an instrument which has been used extensively in research projects of this nature, as it allows for the comparison of various actions, occasions, and/or situations (Smallwood and Venter, 2012). Data The data collected from the literature review included the following topics Temporary work Construction Predominant activities performed. Expected Risks. Productivity Three main categories of factors affecting construction labour productivity as Management, labour and consultants, that may be further investigated. Health and Safety Safety Climate.
Safety Culture. Data to be collected from the surveys and interviews includes Worker engagement in unsafe activities due to schedule constraints To determine the relationship between commitment to HS and productivity Recurrence of Health and Safety Inspections and Audits To determine whether management considers safety an important aspect Recommended methods of safe construction Are preferred safe construction methods reviewed, recommended or requested Table 3.1 below shows an example of the survey questionnaire to be distributed Table STYLEREF 1 s 3. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 1 Sample Questionnaire Parameters1 (Never)2 (Rarely)3 (Sometimes)4 (Often)5 (Always)Are workers stopped from performing their tasks to tend to health and safetyHow often do audits take placeHow often do inspections take placeHow often are construction methods reviewedAre employees trained on safe use of tools and equipmentDo workers report on unsafe conditions/ activitiesDo workers engage in unsafe practice due to schedule pressure Sample Selection Kiwkasi and Smallwood (2016) in investigating the roles of clients and consultants in improving HS performance distributed 400 questionnaires to Architects, Engineers, Contractors and Quantity Surveyors, of which 54 were returned usable. This is equates to a representation of 13.
5 of the questionnaires issued. Smallwood and Venter (2012) in an investigation into the influence of project managers on construction HS in South Africa issued 584 surveys to project managers registered with 2 professional organisations. 30 responses were received, resulting in a response rate of 5.13. Musonda and Haupt (2009) reported on the contractors perception of clients attitudes to HS and, in doing so, visited 40 sites and interviewed Site managers, Site engineers and Site agents. Despite the large amounts of contractors operating in the Cape Town area, and as is evident in previous studies, there appears to be reluctance to engage in this area of research. Therefore, for the purposes of this project, a reasonable random sample of 20 contractors were identified for participation, based on their location (Cape Town) and their involvement in local, and provincial government projects.
Smaller contractors were included based on their focus on the construction of temporary works specifically. This allowed for equal probability for participation from any individual and/ or company. The questionnaires and interviews were aimed at Health and Safety Officers, Site Supervisors/ Foremen and Project Managers/ Directors, as they have a direct influence on establishing and implementing Health and Safety plans, as well as maintaining a safe site. Analysis and presentation of results Data received from the surveys will be analysed using the Relative Importance Index (RII) method as it allows various factors to be compared with one another. This is similar to what has been done in previous studies of this nature, and thus also renders results comparable to other literature. ( STYLEREF 1 s 3.
SEQ Equation ARABIC s 1 1) Where n1 number of responses never n2 number of responses rarely n3 number of responses sometimes n4 number of responses Often n5 number of responses always N Number of Questions Conclusion This chapter provided a description of the design methodology chosen to be employed for this project, the data to be collected as well the method of analysis that was used. Results This chapter will illustrate the data collected from the survey questionnaires deployed. Of the 20 construction companies approached for participation in the study, 6 were willing to comply, indicating a 30 response rate. Demographic Information The study was aimed at Health and Safety officers, site supervisors/ foremen and project managers/ directors, as they have a direct influence on health and safety practice on site. Table 4.1 indicates the response rate, participants current employment designation and number of years of experience. Table STYLEREF 1 s 4.
SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 1 Demographic information of participants PositionExperience (years)Number of RespondentsHealth and Safety Officer5 – 93Site manager/ Foreman/ Agent0 – 51102Director101Total7 Factors affecting Productivity Participants were asked to identify the top factors they believed to have an influence on productivity, due to the varying nature of work undertaken, a large variety of factors were identified. Table 4.2 shows the factors stated to affect productivity and the number of times it appeared by respondents. Due to the variety of factors identified, they were designated into broader themes based on their overarching influencing factor. A total of 27 different factors were identified, and subsequently divided into 5 main overarching themes namely Management, Safety, Consultants, Labour and Location. Table STYLEREF 1 s 4.
SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 2 Local factors affecting productivity. No.FactorThemeHSO (3)Foreman/ Agent/ Manager (3)Director (1)Total (7)1Adequate resources provided (manpower, machinery, etc.)Management2352Correct program in place and followedManagement3253Correct skilled labour usedLabour22154Safety CultureSafety2245Supervision on siteManagement2136tool and machinery availabilityManagement1237Time ScheduleManagement11138Good Relationship between principal contractor and clientManagement229Human factor regarding work and production – AttitudeLabour11210Drawing RevisionsConsultant11211Procedures/ Risk assessments per taskManagement11212construction materials planning and managementManagement11213CommunicationManagement11214FinanceManagement11215Inclement weatherManagement11216Area of work (known for unrest or not)Location1117Publics involvement in projectLocation1118Discipline on siteLabour1119Temporary work/ design drawingsConsultant1120Work redone due to poor initial constructionLabour1121Quality ControlManagement1122Training QualityManagement1123Language barrierLocation1124Delays due to engineerConsultant1125security issuesLocation1126approvals/ inspectionsManagement1127Cultural Differences and challenges in teamsLabour As can be seen in figure 4.1 below, of the 27 factors identified, the most recurrent overall influential theme was Management at 62 followed by Labour related factors at 17, and consultants, safety and Location influenced factors at 7. Figure STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 1 Prevalence of themes affecting productivity. Table 4.
3 below, shows the top 10 factors identified, believed to be influencing productivity, management factors constitute 60, followed by Labour at 20 and safety and consultants at only 10 each. Thus indicating that Management related factors have the most influence on productivity. Table STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 3 Top 10 Local factors affecting productivity. No.
FactorTheme1Adequate resources provided (manpower, machinery, etc.)Management2Correct program in place and followedManagement3Correct skilled labour usedLabour4Safety CultureSafety5Supervision on siteManagement6tool and machinery availabilityManagement7Time ScheduleManagement8Good relationship between principal Contractor and clientManagement9Human factor regarding work and production – AttitudeLabour10Drawing RevisionsConsultant Although only identified by half of the respondents as a factor affecting productivity, when asked if health and safety was a considerable factor, there was consensus among all participants that it is. Table 4.4 below indicates the number of respondents regarding Health and Safety a considerable factor. Table STYLEREF 1 s 4. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 4 Respondents noting Health and Safety as a considerable factor No of responsesYes7No Health and Safety In attempting to assess the level of compliance with health and safety regulations and the current safety culture, respondents were requested to rate the frequency of occurrence of scenarios. Table 4.3 indicates the mean scores for each scenario Table STYLEREF 1 s 4.
SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 5 Frequency of occurrence of the scenarios Health and SafetyScenario How often1 (never)2 (Rarely)3 (sometimes)4 (Often)5 (always)MS1are workers stopped from performing their tasks to tend to health and safety31123,292do audits take place254,713do inspections take place254,714are construction methods reviewed11144,145are employees trained on safe use of tools and equipment254,716do workers report on unsafe conditions/ activities164,867do workers engage in unsafe practice due to schedule pressure1422,14 Figure 4.3 below demonstrates the mean scores attained for the stated scenarios, relative to each other, as a percentage of responses received. As is shown by the highest score achieved at 4.
86, employees are always reporting on unsafe conditions or activities, and therefore they rarely tend to engage in unsafe behaviours or practice due to schedule pressures, as is evident in the low score of 2.14. This shows how both employees and management share the responsibility of ensuring a safe site and is conducive behaviour to fostering and maintaining a strong safety culture. Figure STYLEREF 1 s 4.
SEQ Figure ARABIC s 1 1 Percentage consensus on behaviours exhibited in certain scenarios. Conclusion This chapter illustrated the results obtained by the study and the analysis thereof. These results will be further discussed in the following chapter. Discussion This chapter presents the discussion on the results presented in Chapter 4, and will summarise the evaluation and interpretation thereof in relation to the literature and objectives set out by the study. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of current health and safety practices on the productivity of temporary works construction. In order to achieve this, the following objectives were set out To determine factors affecting productivity To determine what health and safety practices are currently in place It was expected that the completion of this study would draw attention to the effects of Health and Safety management on constructing temporary works, and how this might be addressed through considering construction safety at the design stage. The following outcomes were expected The relationship between HS management and productivity.
The effectiveness of current health and safety practices on managing productivity, and possible areas for improvement. Productivity Okoro et al, (2017) concluded that competent management and supervisors, together with high monetary incentives, frequent repair and maintenance of tools and equipment, and continued training showed an increase in productivity. Chaturvedi et al, (2017) determined that construction labour productivity is mostly affected by safety management, with management factors coming in second, followed by labour factors and lastly project specifications. Bierman et al, (2016) identified the top ten factors affecting construction productivity in South Africa as late issue of drawings, illegal strike action by labour force, delayed reply on request for information, late issue of specification/ contract documentation, civil unrest, strikes by union, delayed inspection by consultant, labour skill level/ experience, constructability and foremen management skills, noting that the top ten factors fall into 3 main categories Management, labour and consultants. This study produced concurrent results showing that the biggest influence on productivity is management related factors, with the factors recorded most times being management of resources and having in place and following the correct program. The top ten recorded influencing factors being management of resources, correct program in place and followed, Labour skill level, safety culture, supervision on site, availability of machinery and tools, time schedule, good relationship between client and principal contractor, human factor regarding work- staff attitude/ morale, and drawing revisions. Table 5.1 below indicates the comparison between factors identified by contractors in South African context (Bierman, et al.
2016) and the factors identified by Health and safety officers, site agents/ foreman and project managers/directors in this study. Table STYLEREF 1 s 5. SEQ Table ARABIC s 1 1 Comparison of Factors affecting productivity No.Factors Identified – StudyTheme- StudyFactors Identified – LiteratureTheme – Literature1Adequate resources provided (manpower, machinery, etc.)Managementlate issue of drawingsConsultant2Correct program in place and followedManagementillegal strike action by labour forceLabour3Correct skilled labour usedLabourdelayed reply on request for informationConsultant4Safety CultureSafetylate issue of specification/ contract documentationConsultant5Supervision on siteManagementcivil unrestLabour6tool and machinery availabilityManagementStrikes by unionLabour7Good Relationship between principal contractor and clientManagementdelayed inspection by consultantConsultant8Good relationship between principal Contractor and clientManagementlabour skill level/ experienceLabour9Human factor regarding work and production – AttitudeLabourconstructabilityConsultant10Drawing RevisionsConsultantForeman management skillManagement Bierman et al, (2016) noted that the top factors identified to affect productivity in South Africa are quite dependant on location, this is true as the individual factors health and safety officers, site agents/ foreman and project directors in this study, and based on construction identified by in Cape Town, differ from those noted from contractors in South Africa by Bierman et al (2016), however, although they are different in prevalence, the main themes remain consistent. Health and Safety This study sought to determine the current standard of health and safety management systems employed on construction sites, by considering the following key performance indicators Worker engagement in and reporting on unsafe activities due to schedule constraints (To determine the relationship between commitment to HS and productivity) It was found that 90 of employees are always reporting on unsafe conditions or activities, and therefore they rarely tend to engage in unsafe behaviours or practice due to schedule pressures. This shows how both employees and management share the responsibility of ensuring a safe site and is conducive behaviour to fostering and maintaining a strong safety culture.
Recurrence of Health and Safety Inspections and Audits (To determine whether management considers safety an important aspect) Employees trained on safe use of equipment (To determine managements commitment to maintaining a safe site) 85 of respondents said that audits and inspections always took place, and that employees were provided with proper training on the safe use of tools and equipment, this shows that there is an importance placed on the understanding of safe practice and indicating that management provides adequate attention to the enforcement and maintenance of good health and safety climate. Recommended methods of safe construction (To determine whether safe construction methods reviewed, recommended or requested) 85 of participants recorded that construction methods were always reviewed, showing that there is constant consideration for ease of, and safe, constructability mechanisms employed on sites. This also proves that a one- size fits all approach cannot easily be applied due to the dynamic nature of construction projects. Addressing these kinds of issues at the pre- construction stage, therefore allows for the early identification of possible constructability difficulties, and allows adequate time to establish comprehensive construction and contingency plans. Conclusions and recommendations This chapter summarises the findings of the study undertaken and discussed in the previous chapter. It will also propose recommendations for further studies to be conducted. Conclusions Irrespective of the unique nature of projects, company size or employment designation, the three main themes believed to most influence productivity are management, labour and consultants.
The encouragement of healthy and strong safety cultures and climates is evident, despite the unpredictable nature or scale of work undertaken. The constant review of construction methods encourages the consideration of site and constructability safety prior to construction and allows for the involvement of all stakeholders and better planning of realistic programs. Recommendations This study considered the perceptions of Health and Safety officers, Site managers/ agents/ foreman and project Managers/ directors. It is recommended that it be expanded to include consultants and clients. Second recommendation.
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Replace this text with you own. Replace this text with you own. Replace this text with you own. Replace this text with you own. References Ayessaki, W. and Smallwood, J. (2017). Influencing Workers Performance through Health and Safety Interventions.
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Hallowell, M.R. and Gambatese, J.A., 2009. Activity-based safety risk quantification for concrete formwork construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135(10), pp.990-998. Hecker, S. and Goldenhar, L. (2014). Understanding Safety Culture and Safety Climate in Construction Existing evidence and a Path Forward. Jha, K. (2012). Formwork for concrete structures. New Delhi Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Limited. Khosravi, Y., Asilian-Mahabadi, H., Hajizadeh, E., Hassanzadeh-Rangi, N., Bastani, H. Behzadan, A. 2014. Factors Influencing Unsafe Behaviors and Accidents on Construction Sites A Review. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 20(1) 111-125. Lingard, H., Cooke, T. and Blismas, N. (2010). Properties of group safety climate in construction the development and evaluation of a typology. Construction Management and Economics, 28(10), pp.1099-1112. Naoum, S. (2016). Factors influencing labor productivity on construction sites. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 65(3), pp.401-421. Nemati, K. (2007). Introduction to Concrete Formwork and Vertical Formwork Design. Okoro, C.S., Musonda, I. and Agumba, J., 2017. Identifying Determinants of Construction Worker Performance on Construction Sites A Literature Review. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 8(1), p.60. SAFCEC (South African Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors) 2014. State of the South African Civil Industry 2nd Quarter 2014. Johannesburg SAFCEC. Schwatka, N., Hecker, S. and Goldenhar, L. (2016). Defining and Measuring Safety Climate A Review of the Construction Industry Literature. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 60(5), pp.537-550. Smallwood, J. and Venter, D. (2012). The Influence of Project Managers on Construction Health and Safety in South Africa. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 2(1), p.57. Sung, W., Chen, K., Song, W. and Tsai, Y. (2003). Evaluation Method for Performance of Formwork Process of Construction Industry. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 2(2), pp.b1-b6. with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own for this sub-section. Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Table STYLEREF 5 s A. SEQ A_Table ARABIC s 5 1 Example Appendix table caption (Name, year) Flutter Model ParameterSymbolValueUnitsEffective wingspan EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.335 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Distance between mid-chord and elastic axis in semi-chords EMBED Equation.DSMT4 -0.2Reference semi-chord EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.06 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Control surface position in semi-chords EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.5Distance between aerofoil CG and elastic axis in semi-chords EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.2Distance between control surface CG and hinge axis in semi-chords EMBED Equation.DSMT4 -0.075Wing mass EMBED Equation.DSMT4 1.85 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Mass inertia of wing (about wing elastic axis) EMBED Equation.DSMT4 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Mass inertia of control surface (about hinge axis) EMBED Equation.DSMT4 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Natural plunge frequency EMBED Equation.DSMT4 5.67 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Natural pitch frequency EMBED Equation.DSMT4 6.27 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Natural control surface frequency EMBED Equation.DSMT4 5.75 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 Plunge damping coefficient EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.025Pitch damping coefficient EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.05Control surface damping coefficient EMBED Equation.DSMT4 0.05 with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own for this sub-section. Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with your ownwith your own Replace this text with your own Replace this text with STYLEREF Project Title MERGEFORMAT Your title please limit it to 8 – 12 words PAGE roman MERGEFORMAT ii PAGE MERGEFORMAT viii PAGE roman MERGEFORMAT ix STYLEREF Heading 1 MERGEFORMAT Conclusions and recommendations PAGE ArabicDash MERGEFORMAT – 30 – PAGE ArabicDash MERGEFORMAT – 4 – PAGE ArabicDash MERGEFORMAT – 29 – STYLEREF Title MERGEFORMAT References STYLEREF Heading 5 n MERGEFORMAT Appendix A STYLEREF Heading 5 MERGEFORMAT Theodorsens Function ,mRIdVcVgCahq-fewF6/glmumj6qu5uMZzVk_EMQBFE d,3ZWg4jP kIoRKL)FFXn8W1tF(, bhP_J7)gzb HaFM/cBMO-gxq11SoBC.FEB A4nd ncTlis2wMQt2UUlMEmZBwZMh9qnP.iyocce ufX b [email protected] 2R Z6 Ie.Ew3yNH([email protected]/(ycMEkC.FKCqz)l718K/[email protected]/[email protected] oHD 1M9YitYlGQ/h6/p0PIwO.n/8-wvLzTsHA KuKPqq- 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