The the Forastero-type cocoa trees and are

The essential raw materials used for the manufacture of chocolate are cocoa beans, milk (in milk chocolate) and sugar. Chocolate can also include emulsifiers (lecithin), salt, as well as flavourings or spice. The quality, quantity and type of ingredients used in chocolate production determine the quality and flavour of the end chocolate (Beckett, 2008). Cocoa is the most important ingredient in the production of chocolate, responsible for its unique flavour and melt-in-the-mouth properties. Cocoa beans consist of the cotyledons which are protected by the shell and broken fragments of cotyledon are called nib. It should be noted that in chocolate manufacturing, the shell is considered as a waste material. The shell can be used and sold as a fuel, compost or cocoa fibre products.
The most valuable part of the bean is nib. Cocoa liquor and cocoa butter are obtained from cocoa beans. The quality of cocoa beans depends on many factors such as the variety of the beans, cultivation and post-harvest treatments (fermentation, drying and storage). Cocoa beans are used in chocolate manufacture as ‘bulk’ beans and ‘fine’ beans. Bulk cocoas come from the Forastero-type cocoa trees and are used to produce milk chocolate, dark chocolate, cocoa mass, cocoa butter and cocoa powder. The ‘fine’ or ‘flavour’ cocoa can be used to produce special high -quality dark chocolates by certain manufacturers (Fowler, 2009; Minifie, 1980).


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