The opportunity to see what is happening

The Internet of Things (IOT) has enabled the progress of anera of the smart home.  According to Lin(2012) a smart home uses modern technology to ensure a comfortable, secure andsafe energy efficient place to live.  Smarthome technology uses a network of wireless communication which controls sensors,monitors, devices and appliances so they can be operated remotely either bysmartphone, computer or laptop using the internet (Gram-Hanssen & Darby2017).  They are networked using standardisedcommunication protocols.

Many different types of household appliances anddevices can be controlled remotely such as heating, lighting and security.  Smart home technology can assess home systemsincluding temperature, humidity light and motion automatically whether theproperty is occupied or not (Jacobssen et al 2015, Wilson et al 2017).  Controlling lighting to come on at randomtimes or turn on a tv or radio when a property is empty has the added benefitof security (Jacobsson et al 2015). Smart home technology that saves energy and,therefore, money is becoming more popular (Wilson et al 2017).  In 2014, Jacobssen et al reported thathouseholders in Sweden were able to reduce their energy consumption by 20% whenthey were given feedback using a smart home system. Governments, keen to meettheir energy reduction commitments, are introducing smart home policies toincentivise householders to embrace the technology.

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  Energy suppliers and commercial enterprisesare also pushing towards smart home technology (Wilson et al 2017).  Several research studies have focussed on theworld’s requirement to save energy and how smart home technology is able tohelp with this cause (Jacobssen et al 2014, Jacobssen et al 2015, Wilson et al2017).  In a smart home environment, security  surveillance cameras take advantage of  technology developed primarily for energyconservation.

  They offer the smart homeowner the opportunity to see what is happening in their home remotely (Jacobssenet al 2015). Whilst access to purchase SHT is  becoming easier, its  uptake  is not as widespread as many government bodieswould like. Despite the benefits, people are more concerned about their privacyand security being breached (Wilson et al 2017).  This  work will focus on  ……………………………………………..   Review andAnalysisSmart ThermostatAccording to the European Union, Heating and cooling ofbuildings use half of all energy consumed in Europe.

  Smart thermostats may be a way forward formore efficient control of energy consumed in homes (Bustomante et al 2017). Smartthermostats use wi-fi to control the level of heating required.  Different models have differing capabilitiesand claims.

For instance, some offer larger houses the ability to controltemperature in different zones.  There isan added cost to this, as zoned areas require smart thermostatic valves onradiators.  Some smart thermostats can sensemovement in the home and adjust the temperature according to whether anyone isthere or not.  Others allow home ownersto control their homes remotely via smartphone, tablet etc( Egan 2017) .  It is also possible to buy models that candiscover your proximity to home using GPS from a smart phone and then eitherswitch the heating system on or off without the owner having to instruct it (Bustomanteet al 2017).  Whilst smart thermostatinterfaces can be web based or smart phone operated, Rau et al’s (2016) study foundthat users preferred the smartphone option.

There are now occupancy responsive thermostats that can controlhome heating dependent on whether it is occupied or not (Bustomante 2017).  Whilst Kleimenger et al (2014) claim they canbe a successful way to save energy, Pritoni et al 2016 say that savings cannotbe assumed in a larger building as many smart thermostats report run time basedon individual rooms and this does not always correlate with run time on thewhole building.  All manufacturers claimto save energy and the consumer money but in laboratory controlled conditions,using 4 unnamed brands of smart thermostats. Bustamante et al (2017) found that they were not all performefficiently.  Using a thermal chamber,they allowed each thermostat to learn the housing characteristics by runningthe heating system several times.  This wasto enable the thermostat to produce an algorithm so that it could regulate theset temperature.

 None of the 4thermostats were able to learn when the optimal time was to switch the heatingon to maintain the temperature required. Although some performed better than others, they all switched on too earlymeaning energy was wasted.  Smart LightingLighting can now be controlled autonomously through feedbackfrom sensors, user data, user control and Cloud services.  Smart lighting can reduce energy consumptionand increase functional lighting suited to the user’s preferences (Chew et al2017).  It can be instructed via smartphoneor other mobile device remotely and can be as simple to install as using smartbulbs along with a smartphone app and a hub connected to the user’s router (Black2017). According to Tang et al (2017) the market leaders have yet to provide a goodsystem for Lighting.

  They raisedconcerns regarding functionality, particularly in their ability to recognisedaylight. But, more worryingly, security and privacy when the system inquestion is connected to the IOT.  Hackershave been able to access smart homes so occupants lose all privacy and are ableto cause complete blackout of the home (Tang et al 2017).



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