The Mesopotamian and Indus Valley’s architectural, technological, and economic structures all developed differently from one another’s, but also had some similarities between the two. Although they have their similarities in their architectural, economical, and technological ways of life, these two civilizations have enough contrast between each other to be viewed as different societies.
.Body 1:Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization share some similarities involving architecture and the way they build their cities and villages, but have some constructive differences as well. They both retain a sort of communal bath house, where all the citizens bathe and cleanse themselves. They have these bathing houses in most villages and cities in the Indus River Valley, but in Mesopotamia, they have these only in their largest cities. Most of the houses in both of the Mesopotamian and Indus Valley Civilizations comprised of sun-dried mud bricks. This building material was quite common because these civilizations were located near rivers, and there is always a surplus of mud in wet areas, like a riverbed,etc. As stated earlier, most of the houses were made of sun-dried mud bricks, but not all.
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The rest of the residences were made of wood. These civilizations also had some differentiation between each other, which defined their civilizations. In Mesopotamia, the cities were built around distinct temples/palaces that were dedicated to a specific god or goddess. They did this so the god or goddess dedicated to that one city can protect the city from Mother Nature, etc. In the Indus River Valley, towns and cities were situated to the east of a citadel, which overlooks and protects the town. The citadel waslocated on a hill nearby so they can observe and monitor the town’s activities.
Also, the villages were situated in a more grid-like pattern instead of randomly building houses everywhere. The creation ofthese towns and cities wouldn’t have been produced without the technology invented to ease and speed up the process of construction.Body 2: The Mesopotamian and Indus Valley civilizations couldn’t have built their larger cities and major towns efficiently without the use of modern technologies. Even though these two civilizations used mostly the same techniques for construction and the movement of materials, they invented different components of those mechanisms, which distinguished the two civilizations from each other.
They both used irrigation systems to water their crops. They use this so they can water their crops, even if they are not near any river or lake. They also both contributed to mathematics.
The Mesopotamians developed numbering system using the base of 60, and divided the circle into 360 degrees. On the other hand,the Indus river valley civilization invented the first ruler. The ruler was made out of a copper bar, and the oldest one dates back to c. 2650 B.C.
Furthermore, they both used boats to transfer and trade goods using the very source that waters their crops, a river or a lake. These civilizations also had inventions that uniquely identified their creativity and ingeniousness. First off, the Mesopotamians invented the almighty wheel. This wasn’t used for transportation just yet. Instead, it was used as a pottery wheel, to make perfectly rounded pottery.
But in 3200 B.C., they finally used the wheel in chariots, so a new mode of transportation was born. On the other hand, the Indus River Valley invented the exact measurement and weighing system. In this system, they created the ruler, which was made from bars of copper, and weights, which were used on scales to show how much a certain item weighs (weights were mostly used in trade). They created new techniques in metallurgy, and produced copper, bronze,lead, and tin. Last but not least, they invented the brick, which was made out of sun-dried mud. These Technological inventions created and supported a great economy in both of these civilizations.
Body 3:Even though the Mesopotamian and Indus River Valley civilizations had a close resemblance regarding how they traded amongst each other, it’s whatthey traded that classifies them into different civilizations. Economy wise, Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley civilizations had pretty similar trading strategies and ways of becoming successful. First off, both of their economies were based off of agriculture and trade. All of the great civilizations started off by quitting their hunter-gatherer lifestyle so that they can start to farm.
After that, their populations started to increase due to the surplus of food. This is how all of the great civilizations became successful. Secondly, these two civilizations traded with each other and therefore, there was a more diverse variety of products within each of the civilizations, and most important of all, the spread of knowledge. For example, Mesopotamia first invented the wheel, and after they traded with the Indus valley civilization, they also gained knowledge of the wheel, and then used it themselves. Last but not least, they both used boats for travel and trade.
Boats helped the merchants because they can reach places by boat that couldn’t have been reached by foot. This further expanded the trading routes used by these two civilizations. These civilizations’ trading strategies might have been the same, but what they trade is what makes them unique.
The Mesopotamians were the first to invent the wheel, so therefore they were the first ones to create a cart to carry all of their goods in. They also traded precious and semi-precious stones. In return, the Indus River Valley civilization traded buttons, jewelry, and cotton. The jewelry was made from beads, buttons,and the precious stones sent from the Mesopotamians. The economic features of both river civilizations reflect on the hardworking citizens and the spread of knowledge between the river civilizations.Conclusion: The early river civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley share similarities and also have some notable differences in their architectural, technological, and economical aspects.
Both of these civilizations have plenty in common involving architecture, economy, and technology. Both Constructed building out of sun-dried mud bricks and wood. Both contributed to mathematics,Mesopotamia created a number system with a starting base of 60 and also divided the circle into 360 degrees. The Indus Valley on the other hand, invented the first ever measuring stick, or ruler. Aside From Mesopotamia creation the wheel first, both river civilizations eventually started using the wheel for hauling large amounts of trading goods to the market. These societies, although different in some aspects, have a large amount of similarity between them regarding technology, architecture, and their economies.