The carry out lipid synthesis. Rough endoplasmic reticulum

The properties of life are comprised of order, regulation, growth and development, energy utilization, response to the environment, reproduction, and evolution. To be considered life they must all begin as a cell and work in multiple ways, but work together as one. All new cells develop from cell reproduction of existing cells. Cells are classified either as being prokaryotic, meaning they are a bacteria, or eukaryotic, that includes the membranous cell organelles, nucleus, and chromosomal proteins that make up humans, plants, or animals. The nucleus housed inside the eukaryotic cell controls the genetic materials and activities inside the cell. The DNA is replicated and transcribed to mRNA and is maintained by the nucleus. mRna is turned into proteins that are housed inside the ribosomes. For many cellular functions to take place the protein assembly is needed from the ribosomes and the enzymes.

The endoplasmic reticulum is contained inside the cells and is divided by two types, either smooth or rough. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not have ribosomes and it can carry out lipid synthesis. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is just the opposite and carries out protein synthesis.

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Plant cells also have an additional layer outside the cell membrane known as the cell wall. The internal balance of the cell remains consistent because the cell membrane controls which substances go in or out. Vesicles that come from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum are shipped by the Golgi apparatus. Plants are able to produce their own food through photosynthesis. They process from chloroplast that is obtained from the chlorophyll pigment gathered from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water to produce glucose which turns to starches. Energy for the cell is created from the mitochondria that is in both plant and animal cells where cellular respiration creates ATP. The digestive organelles, lysosomes, hydrolysis to break down the macromolecules in the cell. The plasma membrane, energy obtained from ATP, and cellular respiration help a cell to survive by isolating it from its environment.

The phospholipid bilayers, found in the plasma membrane, have proteins that are embedded and they are responsible for homeostasis through the transportation process. The proteins may also act as receptor sites or in the immune system for cell recognition. Glycolysis destroys glucose to pyruvic acid and oxidation of this acid becomes carbon dioxide and water which are the two phases of cell respiration. Glycolysis takes place in the cytosol and the remainder of the process is completed in the mitochondria, all being completed for the eukaryotic cells. Cells reproduce either through mitosis or meiosis.

Meiosis takes place for sex cells and mitosis covers all other cells and asexual reproduction. During reproduction cells copy their details and share them with a daughter cell, this is what helps us to function in daily activities and controls our growth. Meiosis will reproduce four different daughter cells and each will become germ or sex cells, thus a great diversity. Mendel’s laws included three different directions: dominance, segregation, and independent assortment. Traits are passed from parent to offspring through chromosomes containing genetic material.

The different traits come from different genes or genotypes passed to the offspring. Nucleotides is a group of molecules known to us as DNA. Nucleotides are each comprised of phosphate group, sugar group, and a nitrogen base. DNA genetic codes are determined by the order of the bases.

Nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). (Rettner, 2017) As DNA is prepared, it will coil into a double helix and can be visible under a light microscope. Each DNA is packed with small proteins known as histones and they are only found in eukaryotes. This is only so that it can store a lot of information in a tight space.

To be transferred from parent to offspring, DNA is shrunk to become chromatin. Most people contain 99% of the same bases, out of the near three billion bases of human DNA. (Rettner, 2017) People’s DNA can give insight to their heritage and possibly even a risk of diseases. If there are problems or mutations to the transferring of DNA, medical issues can arise, such as cancer. A study published in 2017, determined that random mistakes in DNA, not hereditary or environmental factors, account for two-thirds of cancer mutations in cells. (Rettner, 2017) If cells reproduce at an uncontrollable rate, they can lead to tumors developing. When cancer cells are present with a mutation if gives them an opportunity to divide and multiply at an uncontrollable rate and this can take place in the genetic level.

When cancer is moved from its place of origin, it will spread or metastasize. When the cancer begins to change locations, it can be more dangerous for the body because it attach itself to major internal organs or the brain. Testing mutations inside cells can help to confirm the cancer diagnosis. Once this is determined, you can have a test to determine how many mutated cells you are carrying.

(ACS, 2014) Cancer cells can possibly be treated by targeting the mutations with gene control or therapy. This is a more productive form of treatment over chemical treatment because of the chemotherapy damaging other parts of the body that may not be affected by cancer cells. Specific gene changes can be used to predict which patients are likely to have a better or worse outcome. (ACS, 2014) After determining these gene changes, doctors can set up a more detailed and intense treatment regimen. Gene expression panels, tests that look at gene activity, can help to determine the likelihood of cancer returning after treatment has been completed.

Drugs have been developed to target the protein made by the abnormal gene and not the gene itself. (ACS, 2014) Some of these drugs have been tested and show that that they can lead to remission if caught during early states of their disease. Doctors can now test your gene mutations to determine if a particular medicine will or will not work for your cancer treatments.


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