The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Pakistani dramas on married and unmarried women’s mental health and also its positive and negative effect on mood. We are three members in the group who proceeded the research work. The sample comprised N=200 in which 100 were married women having age in between 21 to 70 years and 100 were unmarried women having age in between 16 to 27 years . The data was collected from different places like universities of Lahore, different cities and societies.
We have used statistical tools to analyze the results as demographic, psychometric, correlation, regression, and t test. Result demonstrated that Pakistani dramas have deep impact on the lives of Pakistani women but the effects are more pronounced on married women, because most of them were house wives and spend much of their time at home. Some of them like to watch TV dramas with their family but mostly they like to watch dramas separately. Pakistani dramas also effect cultural values, language and life style of the generation.
As most of the dramas are following an in-between culture of west and east. Mostly they effect the minds of the viewers in a negative manner by showing the negative aspects of life. Intense drama watching may lead to a stressed condition as women wait anxiously for the next episode.
Results emphasize that a viewer must watch TV dramas in a controlled and available time and should not be addicted to them. 3 Chapter 1 1. Introduction Drama exerts a strong influence on everyday life of people. It became an important part of life and affects people behavior. Dramas are a great source of entertainment, inspiration, the stirring of emotions, and a substitute for social life for many who watch. Women watches drama for many reasons, the first reason is that they are entertained by the supposed reality that is portrayed. The second reason is that women loves watching drama because of the fact that it stirs their emotion.
Another reason is that women get inspiration from the dramas they watch (Lehmann, 2006). The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Pakistani dramas on married and unmarried woman’s mental health and also its positive and negative effect on mood. Dramas have different impact on different individuals according to their perceptual abilities.
Watching too many dramas effects the mental health of women and it also have positive and negative effect on mood (Archon, 2012). 1.1Watching Dramas and Mental Health Dramas strongly effect people’s mental health. Watching too much television causes fatigue, anxiety and depression.
Women who watches drama reported feeling anxious for the next episode. There are many researches on the consequences of watching too much television. According to a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, watching television is one of the most common leisure time activities in the US. Usually, American spend two hours and 49 4 minutes every day in watching television, and it represents over more than 50% of their everyday leisure activities (Karmakar ; Kruger, 2016).
Watching Drama is also linked with depression. And a recent study by Texas A;M revealed that people who watches too much television feels lonely and depressed. They also found that these people have of lack of self-regulation to stop, suggesting that it causes an addictive behavior (Harrington, 2001). 1.
2 Watching Dramas and Its Positive Effects Dramas can have positive impact on its viewers. There is a lot of researches about the positive influences of dramas especially on women. The positive influence of drama is that it helps to releases stress. Drama is a great source of entertainment and whenever people are stressed they watch dramas to release their stress (Brodie M, Foyer U, Readouts V, Baer N, Miller C, Flournoy R, et al. 2001). Another positive influence of drama is that it introduces you to different cultures and values of your country. It helps you to know about the culture, norms and values of other people living in your country. It also helps you to get information about different aspects of life, which may help you in future (Kudos, 2011).
1.3 Watching Dramas and Its Negative Effect Watching Dramas have many negative effect on women life. Watching too much drama is bad for health. A study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health shows that watching too much television can remarkably increase the risk of getting obesity and diabetes.
Another investigation completed at the University of Rhode Island found that drawn out TV 5 watching diminishes watcher’s feeling of self-efficacy in keeping up individual wellbeing (Archon, 2012). Drama feeds false information. It is ruining the health, which is pretty bad in itself. But other than ruining the health, it’s also ruins the perception of the people who watch. A standout amongst the most destructive impacts of watching drama is that it seems to depict or report reality, when in actuality it just permits to get a little look at what’s extremely going on (Conversion: conversion about everything, every news, 2010). Another dangerously bad effect of excessively watching dramas is the fact that it hinder the ability to think.
Women watch the drama and they think that whatever they are seeing is what the reality is. Another effect is that it wastes time. Time is precious and mostly women wastes their time on watching TV. A survey shows that people in Western world spend 5-10 hours a day watching television. Instead of living the life to the fullest, people sit in front of TV, which they have chosen as a substitute for true living (Archon, 2012). Drama have the power to influence people. It plays an important role in people’s life. It is a great source of entertainment but it also effect people life in both positive and negative way.
Olenick (2000) indicates that in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh the women who are regularly watching television and exposed to explicit the messages over family planning were more likely to approve it. Also, the divorced or separated women in Brazil increased after the women emancipation ideas spread through a TV channel and the circulation of concept of female pursuit 6 of happiness and stress on individualism in revealed in study of Chong and La Ferrara (2009). Therefore, studying the contribution of television Olken (2009) uncovered that more television watching lowers the participation level in social life for example neighborhood associations, school committees, and lower self-reported measures of trust. It proposes that getting to media may likewise prompt surrogate social activities or household duties. The contribution of this study is directed to explain the effect of Pakistani Dramas on married and unmarried woman’s mental health and also provide its positive and negative effect on mood. It shows that dramas have some influence in women life and it also affect their behavior and mental health. 7 CHAPTER II 2. Literature review The focal point of this study is to evaluate the Psychological implication of Pakistani dramas on married and unmarried women in Pakistan.
The effects of Television and dramas on viewer’s perceptions and emotions were explored by Gerbner and Gross, who proposed ‘cultivation theory’- a social action hypothesis of cultivation theory states that believing in reality shown on Television is directly proportional to time spent on Television viewing. People, who watch extensive Television believe that the reality portrayed on it is true (Gerbner ; Gross, 1976). Women watching dramas perceive that the story of the girl shown in the drama directly portrayed her life and she starts following the decisions the girl made in drama. On the other hand, the women showed in dramas are portrayed opposite to the real life women. A study was done on the portrayed of women in dramas and real life by.
TV has been intensely censured in the wellknown press for the way it portrays women. Restricted and stereotyped depictions of women may, as per a few essayists, develop misguided judgments among the general population about the way women are or ought to be. In another examination of this issue a study contemplate was embraced with a vast British example in the London ITV locale in which information were acquired on TV seeing practices and view of the way women are depicted on TV and convictions about how they are or ought to be, all things considered. Results demonstrated that exclusive weight of activity dramatization seeing was essentially identified with respondents’ view of women. Substantial watchers of activity dramatization content were more probable than light watchers to see women as a general rule as independent, not unruly with other unruly, not depend on attractiveness to get on, and not engrossed by sentimental undertakings. Be that as it may, substantial activity watchers 8 additionally had a tendency to trust that most women really need to end up moms, and don’t need Professions, and all the more essentially that women should be this way.
Just in a few regards were these connections consonant with those surmised by content investigators (Gunter ; Weber, 2007). A study was also done in Pakistan about the projection of positive image of women through media. The results of this study shows that Media is a viable medium to increase any philosophy so in context of sexual orientation portrayal media can assume an essential part.
Women portrayal in media and their projection through media means that the socio-social patterns any general public is following. Women projection in Pakistani media isn’t totally positive. Women are still overwhelmingly anticipated as beauty objectified or in stereotypical roles. In any case, there are clear indications of change with expanding number of female current undertakings’ news stays; women are influencing their due place in scholarly to talk (Malik ; Kiani, 2012).
Women are more vulnerable to follow the themes shown in television a study was done to investigate the Moderating Role of Gender and Compulsive Buying Tendencies in the Cultivation Effects of TV Show and TV Advertising: A Cross Cultural Study between the United States and South Korea. Cultivation effect has been one of the dominant theories in mass communication studies to explain the impact of television contents on viewers. Using crosscultural samples from the United States (n = 298) and South Korea (n = 1,136), they investigated two major research themes: (a) the direct impact of television shows (i.e., dramas and movies) and television advertising on the audience’s perceived “fear of crime” and perceived “materialistic society,” and (b) the resonance (moderating) role of gender and compulsive buying tendency on the cultivation effects. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence of cultivation effects in both cultures. The outcomes likewise propose that the cultivation impacts of TV 9 programs and TV advertisements on watchers’ apparent dread of wrongdoing and view of a materialistic culture are more grounded for females than for guys in the two societies. At long last, watchers’ impulsive purchasing inclinations are observed to be a moderator between TV promoting and impression of a materialistic culture in Korea, though such directing effect isn’t noteworthy in the United States (Kwak, Zink Han ; Dominick, 2009).
A study was done on the impact of watching cable dramas shows that they effect the lifestyle of women. This examination explores the “impacts of satellite TV on the life examples of women in Lahore, Pakistan” through survey using interviews as an apparatus of information gathering. It focused on 432 women matured 18-40 years and survey satellite TV for a base two a long time. The investigation recorded the respondent’s utilization designs, level of survey, favored channels and projects, most loved watching time, control over remote and confinements on review. It crossed checked the above components with the level of survey along with demographic characteristics of the respondents. The real speculation contemplated was “more prominent the presentation to digital TV more noteworthy the effect on the lives of women.” The sub-speculation included ‘substantial watchers have more prominent impact on their exercises, family and social association designs, social practices, household and individual use, and they are more impacted by the TV characters particularly portraying western and urban Indian women than the direct and light watchers.
Both the hypothesis were proved correct through the results (Zia, 2001). Ashraf and Islam .M.U., (2014) conducted research ‘Media Activism and impact on the psychology of Pakistan society’ in the region Pakistan has been considered the most vibrant in media landscape. The number of media outlets has significant increase in 2002, the quantitative development of media outlets has emerged along with an increasing activism media.
Media relation has also played a significant role in strength of democratic institution in the country. As 10 well as the media activism have also caused tremendous collateral damage to the society capitalist media houses is the major cause of media activism. Which is overriding commercial interest in coverage of tragedian by Pakistani media. The first manifest the most in non-professionalization of the media activism. The media activism effect the people thought opinion perception. The media activism has positive as well as negative influence on the people psychology (Ashraf ;Islam.M.U.
, 2014). Ali, Khalid and Hassan, 2015 Conducted research ‘The impact of Indian dramas on language and dressing of females of village Sahiwal district Sialkot. Data collection was conducted by using a survey questionnaire 100 participant including 16-30 year’s women were selected who were viewing cable television for a minimum 2 year’s. This study recorded. The viewing refer channels favorite watching time and control over the remote. This investigate these factor with specific age marital status of the responded result indicate the Indian media trying to cultivate their culture in a society. This mean women are in village uses to their select Indian dresses as well as also used to use in the Hindi words in their conversation intentionally and unintentional (Ali, Khalid & Hassan., 2015).
A research was conducted on ‘The Effect of Acting upon the Human Mind’ acting is the wearing of a mask, apparently living the life of another person. The motive behind the research conducted is to estimate the effects of different roles on an actor’s personal life. In our research we contact four experienced factors and ask them to another a mock interview designed for the scale of research. The result show that local actors are effected very little, and there are no identity issues for them. Situations of undeveloped acting fields has been discussed to demonstrate the results in an arranged manner. 11 Different psychological theories have been reproved through the research work, Acting has a very important impact on the personal identity of a well-known person so one should be very careful in selecting the roles. So that there may be no conflict between a people’s real &fake life. The extent of acting also depends upon the time period of a role.
The longer the time period, the more different for the actor to remove the effect of the role. Emotions are also related to acting. Sometimes a person may become more understanding in personal life after playing a particular role. Experience in life shape the way that an actor approach a character. Celebrity impersonators are another who mimic or play other celebrities for the sake entertainment (Summit. 2013). 2.
1Significance of study Drama addiction is so far very dangerous as it affects the normal daily activities of women. After reviewing the literature, it is noticed that many researches are done on this topic in foreign countries. The purpose of our study is that it will help the future researchers to get knowledge from it and this study is important with a view point that it provides the level of drama addiction in Pakistan.
The negative effects such as sleep disturbance, work problem and academic condition make them aware about the control of watching dramas. This study will be helpful to determine the relationship between drama addiction and mental health problems and positive and negative affect on mood. 2.2Aims and Objectives 12 ? To investigate the effect of watching Pakistani dramas on mental health of married and unmarried women. ? To investigate the effect of marital status on addiction of Pakistani dramas in married and unmarried women.
2.3Hypothesis H1. There would be a relation in drama addiction and mental health and positive and negative effect on mood. H2. Drama addiction would predict mental health and positive and negative effect on mood. H3.
There would be difference in drama addiction in married and unmarried women. Drama Addiction Mental Health Problem Positive and Negative Affect Schedule 13 Chapter III 3. Method 3.1Research Design Correlational research design was used to find the Psychological Implications of Pakistani Dramas on married and unmarried women. 3.
2Sample The sample was consist of N=200 women (n=106 married, n=94 unmarried). The married women was approached from different cities of Pakistan and the unmarried from the universities of Lahore. The age range of married women was 21 to 60 years and the age range of unmarried women was 17 to 25 years. Two fifty women were approached but fifty refused to participate in the research. The unmarried women refused to participate due to their hectic work schedule.
And the married women refused because they did not want to disclose the personal information. The response rate of the sample was 89%. As eleven questionnaires were not filled properly.
The mean age of married women is 35.03 and standard deviation is 10.65 and mean age of unmarried women is 20.63 and standard deviation is 2.08. The mean of the married women job is 1.82 and standard deviation is .38 and for unmarried is 1.
9 and .29 respectively. 3.3Selection criteria 14 The sample was selected on the basis of marital status. Both married and unmarried women were included. Only female participants were included in the research. Only those women were selected who can read and understand the Urdu language.
Table.1 Demographic characteristics of Sample(N=200) Married Unmarried V f(%) M(SD) f(%) M(SD) Age 35.03(10.65) 20.63(2.
08) Birth order 3.11(1.81) 2.77(1.73) Number of siblings 1 11(1.
1) 2 3(2.8) 6(6.4) 3 11(10.4) 19(20.
2) 4 13(12.3) 28(29.8) 5 15(14.2) 20(21.3) 6 16(15.1) 10(10.6) 7 16(15.1) 4(4.
3) 8 16(15.1) 3(3.2) 9 10(9.4) 1(1.1) 10 2(2.1) 11 15 12 6(5.
7) Number of children 3.61(2.51) 1.00(0) 00 7(6.6) 1 11(10.
4) 2 16(15.1) 3 22(20.8) 4 21(19.8) 5 9(8.
5) 6 5(4.7) 7 4(3.8) 8 1(.9) 9 1(.9) 10 2(1.9) 11 1(.9) 12 2(1.9) Family System Nuclear 58(54.
7) 72(76.6) Joint 47(44.3) 21(22.
3) Job 1.82(.38) 1.9(.29) Yes 18(17.
0) 9(9.6) No 86(81.1) 85(9.04) 16 Table 1 shows the frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviations of sample characteristics.
The table shows that the most participants were from nuclear families and they did not do a job. 3.4Assessment measures 3.4.
1Drama Addiction Scale The Facebook addiction scale (Andreessen, & colleagues) is a 6 item scale. Andreessen and colleagues suggest that scoring “often” or “very often” on at least four of the six items may suggest the respondent is addicted to dramas. They also found that high scores on the BDAS were linked to going to bed very late and getting up very late. The Facebook addiction scale was changed into Drama addiction scale for research purpose. This scale was translated in national Pakistani language Urdu. The translated version of the scale by Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used.
The reliability of this scale is 94.5%. 3.4.2Mental Health Inventory The Mental Health Inventory (MHI) is a method for evaluating mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, behavioral control, positive effect, emotional ties and life satisfaction. This instrument helps in the measure of overall emotional functioning. The Mental Health Inventory includes 38 items in which the respondent uses a 6-point Likert-style response and it can generally be done without help.
The test takes approximately 5-10 minutes to administer. According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Mental Health Inventory has a reported .93 Cronbach alpha rating. The reliability of its subscales are .78, .59, .
51, .73, .55, and .31 respectively. This 17 scale was translated in national Pakistani language Urdu. The translated version of the scale by Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used. 3.
4.3Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS (Watson, Clark, and Telligent, 1988) is a 20 item scale. Often used to measure both positive and negative affect on mood. There are two subscales of PANAS, Positive PANAS and Negative PANAS.
The reliability of positive PANAS is.78 and negative PANAS is .79. This scale was translated in national Pakistani language Urdu.
The translated version of the scale by Zafar and Kausar (2013) was used. 3.5Procedure: Firstly, the permission was taken from the respective author to use the assessment measure. The assessment measures that was used were translated into Urdu version. The permission letter to collect the data was provided by Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore. The data collection was started after the official permission of author and university. The married and unmarried women were requested to fill the questionnaire. The response rate was 100% although some married women hesitate in the beginning to fill the questionnaire but later on they filled the questionnaire.
The respondents were thanked for their corporation. After the data collection, the data was entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and then the results were analyzed. 18 CHAPTER IV 4.
Results In Table 2 the Psychometric Properties of Drama Addiction, Mental Health and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in Married and Unmarried Women is presented. Table 2 Psychometric Properties of Drama Addiction, Mental Health and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200) Range Variables K M S.D ? Actual Potential DA 6 12.
96 5.70 .80 6-30 6-30 Mental Health Problem ANX 9 34.53 7.28 .78 9-54 9-54 DEP 5 19.
73 4.04 .59 5-29 5-30 LBEC 10 36.
35 5.92 .51 10-49 10-60 GPA 10 33.27 7.14 .73 10-51 10-60 ET 2 5.76 2.29 .
55 2-11 2-12 LS 2 6.57 2.03 .31 2-12 2-12 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PA 9 27.55 7.04 .
78 9-44 9-45 NA 11 24.13 8.12 .79 11-54 11-55 19 Note.
K= no. of items, DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a difference in drama addiction, mental health problem and positive and negative affect schedule of Pakistani Drama in married and unmarried women. The independent sample t-test was applied to find out the difference in drama addiction, mental health problems and positive and negative affect schedule and the results are presented in Table 3. Table 3 Difference in Drama Addiction, Mental Health Problem and Positive Affect and Negative Affect of Pakistani Dramas in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200) Variables Married Women Unmarried Women t P CI M S.
D M S.D LL UL DA 13.95 6.24 11.96 4.
92 2.43 .16 .
38 3.60 Mental Health Problem ANX 35.23 6.92 33.73 7.63 1.46 .
15 -.53 3.53 DEP 20.31 3.90 19.07 4.12 2.
18 .03 .12 2.36 LBEC 37.27 5.48 35.
30 6.24 2.38 .02 .34 3.
60 20 GPA 32.91 6.96 33.67 7.
35 -.76 .45 -2.76 1.
23 ET 5.61 2.40 5.91 2.17 -.93 .35 -.94 .
34 LS 6.25 2.12 6.93 1.
87 -2.36 .02 -1.23 -.11 Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PA 27.27 7.
37 27.85 6.68 -.58 .56 -2.
55 1.39 NA 24.40 8.92 23.84 7.15 .
48 .63 -1.71 2.80 Note. DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect Results shows that there is a significant difference in mental health problem (depression, loss of behavior and emotion control and life satisfaction) of married and unmarried women.
It was hypothesized that there is likely to be a relationship between drama addiction, mental health problem and positive and negative affect schedule. Pearson product moment correlation was used to investigate the relationship between drama addiction, mental health problems and positive and negative affect. The results are shown in Table 4. 21 Table 4 Relationship in Drama Addiction, Mental Health Problem and Positive and Negative Affect of Pakistani Dramas in Married and Unmarried Women (N=200) Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DA – -.03 -.
06 .04 -.18 -.
11 .13 .11 .36** Mental Health Problem ANX -.16 – .65** .
59** -.33** -.34** -.23* -.04 -.40** DEP -.07 .70** – .
52** -.22* -.30** -.25** .
14 -.36** LBEC -.23* .68** .67** – -.12 -.23* -.07 -.07 -.25* GPA .63 -.15 -.10 .16 – .60** .45** -.15 .20* ET .03 -.05 .01 .02 .48** – .38** -.03 .13 LS -.05 -.18 -.30** .01 .67** .43** – .14 .22* Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PA -.02 .15 .09 .02 -.30** -.17 -.28** – .05 NA .08 -.47** -.38** -.30** .15 .16 .18 -.19 – Note. Results of married women are presented in above diagonal. Results of unmarried women are presented in below diagonal. DA=Drama Addiction, ANX= Anxiety, DEP=Depression, LBEC=Lose of Behavior and Emotion Control, GPA=General Positive Affect, ET=Emotional Ties, LS=Life Satisfaction, PA=Positive Affect and NA=Negative Affect 22 **P