The al. (2001, p. 765) link resilience to

Thepatterns and models of sustainability and resilience have different significantimpacts on urban form both in its research and practice, which attempts toframe principled approaches regarding the delicate relationships between thebuilt, the natural and the social environments.Theterm ‘resilience’ is increasingly being used in different contexts, from psychological,physical, social, ecological, city, and community to individual resilience.

Furthermore,’Resilience’ is now being used in land use planning context by interchangeablyused the term resilience planning with sustainability.Resiliencehas been closely linked with sustainability for more than a decade whichprovides a major theoretical contribution to understand the possible sources ofsustainability (Fiskel 2006, Folke 2006). Carpenter et al.

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(2001, p. 765) linkresilience to sustainability, as the term “resilience” is often used todescribe the characteristic attributes of a system that are related to sustainability.Walker and Salt (2006, p. xiii) define resilience as “the capacity of a systemto absorb disturbance and still retain its basic function and structure”. By understandingurban resilience and urban sustainability, as two concepts that promote adiversity of solutions to social-ecological problems, implies that urbanplanning needs to incorporate them to further transform cities (Wilkinson2012). Incorporating resilience to reinforce system dynamics is the key to achievefuture desired sustainability states. Theconcept of resilience is gaining increasing importance across different literatureson cities and climate change.

However, there are still conflicts among thedifferent literatures about how to define and measure resilience. It isacceptable that resilience is a good thing but defining it depends on thechoices made. So there is a need to be specific about the choices involved inincreased resilience, first by asking what should be resilient – the builtenvironment, infrastructure or the urban form.  Resilienceis mostly discussed as bouncing back from a disturbance. However, the recent moreecological concept of resilience is not only about recovery and bouncing backfrom a disturbance but also the ability to adapt, often termed as adaptivecapacity.

In this context resilience is the capacity of a system to experienceshocks while maintaining its function, structure, and, therefore, identity.Theconcept of urban resilience, as defined by Holling (1987) is “the ability of acity to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its functions and structure”.Urban Resilience has been defined as the amount of disturbance an urban system can absorb while retainingits state, and the extent to which the system can build and increase itscapacity for adapting the changes (Folke et al 2004). Although resilience hasbeen explored in many complex social-ecological systems (Folke et al 2004) ithas only recently been applied in the context of cities (Ernstson et al 2010).

“AResilient City is one that has developed capacities to help absorb futureshocks and stresses to its social, economic, and technical systems andinfrastructures so as to still be able to maintain essentially the samefunctions, structures, systems, and identity.” Furthermore,the cities must be focused onsustainable development agenda, as amongthe Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,the Goal 11 “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient andsustainable” also emphasize on the resiliency and sustainability of the cities.The planning and design professions of cities need to be challenged tofind new patterns, new technologies, new economic models, new public services, andmore to plan and implement the strategies which eventually increase the resiliencecapacities of our cities. However, in order toincrease the capacities of cities for resilience, the cities will need to adoptsuch urban planning and building design approaches which increase theirabilities to better adapt and respond to social, physical, ecological andeconomic stresses.Toincrease the capacity of cities for resilience, it is widely accepted thatcities must be at focus in the sustainable development agenda as the urbanforms of cities affect their overall environment performance and management. Therefore,sustainable urban form can be defined as the form which enables the city to functionwithin its natural and manmade carrying capacities that is user friendly to thecommunity and also promotes social equity through involving them in thedecision making processes. Hence, urban form is a spatial composition ofelements, and if it is based on sustainable concepts, can lead to theresilience and sustainability of cities.

Theconcept of resilience offers a means to tackle the long-term growth of the urbanform and to explore the changes and their effectiveness on different approachesregarding planning, design, operation, management, value and governance, sustainabilitydebate, and climate change, which helped to focus consideration on fragilitiesand the need to create resilience across these scales.ProblemStatementThere is a strong relationship betweendensity, form, sustainability and resilience (Heng and Malone-Lee 2009). Therehas also been an interacting relationship between urban form and the peopleexisting within the urban form – the public realm or the streets. It is therelationship between the public realm and the city that has defined how citieslook and also how they function. When this relationship breaks down and failsto function, cities die or whither. On contrary, when this relationship persists,the cities become resilient. As a result, the study of urban form ultimatelybecomes a study of urban resilience – the Resilient City.

Urbanresilience is a critical element of sustainable development. Investing inresilience contributes to long-term sustainability by ensuring currentdevelopment gains and safeguarded future generations’ needs. Urban resilienceis a systemic property and needs to be examined as an interconnected concept ofurban sustainability, however in order to understand the different dimensions ofurban resilience and how they relate to each other in making adaptive citiesand systems is also related to the overall urban planning.  Theissue of urban resilience is one of increasing urgency for the World Bank Groupand is completely associated with the development objectives of the broaderdevelopment community. Investment decisions taken now will have long-termimpact for development in the future and prove to be critical in preventingcities from unsustainable development pathways, or being exposed toincreasingly intense and frequent urban shocks and stresses. As the cities are homes to the future,with more than 60% of world population living in cities, the focus is on how tomake them more sustainable in terms of consumption, living conditions andsocio-environmental paths. Among the developed countries, Europe is in generalin a good position for developing the new tools and strategies needed towards apositive transition to resilient and sustainable urban areas.

On the other hand, developing countries wantto attract the human capital for economic aspect (Suzuki et al. 2010). The lastfew decades have experienced unprecedented urban growth in the developingworld, particularly in Asia and Africa, where a three times increase in the builtup urban area (up to 0.6 million square km of cities with million pluspopulations) from year 2000 to 2030 is projected.

Developing countries see itas an opportunity for development and accept it as preferable. Long traveldistances, health, congestion and fuel emissions, inequity, pollution anddegrading environment, loss of land such as agricultural and natural assets aremajor issues seen in developing world cities due to an impact of a physicalurban form (Barrow 1995). Moreover, with the passage of time due to economicdevelopment, industrialization, rural-urban migration and allied factors hasbrought a major transformation to cities and urban centers throughout the worldand particularly in the developing countries to grow beyond their usual administrativelimits.

This growth requires the cities and urban centers to be resilient inorder toabsorb these changes and disturbance while maintaining the functions andstructure of the cities. Herethe critical question of urban resilience is that whether the old andcontemporary urban areas and their different communities are ready to face amultiplicity of challenges and uncertainties in the future. Most importantly,there is a need to determine whether the urban areas and communities, at the present,focus to adopt such means which ultimately move them from a vulnerable to a moreresilient state. Moreover, since human action contributes to the altering ofthe ecosystem locally and globally (Chapin et al.

, 2011; Folke et al., 2011),to what extent the cities should be resilient in order to contribute toenvironmental protection, and urban sustainability.Thesignificance of sustainability is internationally acclaimed and various urbanforms evolved through modern urban planning practices, but often the concernfor their negative impacts is observed as missing. Although urban form haspositive or negative impact on accessibility to facilities, travel attributes(distance and time), energy used, social equity, efficient use of land,economic benefits, liveliness, etc. But the debate on the most suitable urbanform to achieve sustainability and resilience is still unresolved.

To evolveurban sustainability and urban resilience, the relationships between urban formand the various elements of a city need to be understood. In Pakistan, the scales of urbanizationeffects to population lived in a city are alarming to resilience, sustainabilityand standard of life. As in case of Lahore, with the increasing rate ofurbanization & migration from the surrounding areas into the city, thechange in urban form and infrastructure are challenging the urban areas to beadaptive and resilient. Moreover, the urbanization in Pakistan will certainlyimpact on global sustainability as the ecological footprint.  Here the question arises to ponder on that: howto increase and improve the capacity of the urban areas so that they can absorband adopt the changes and disturbances while simultaneously bringing the citytowards a sustainable and resilient path. Since cities are constantly evolvingand at any point of time exhibit their unique character through their urbanstructure, which can be mapped and measured.

However, cities have a hiddenstructure which is to be understood only through analyzing the data, more particularlythe land use and population distribution. The scales at which urban form can bemeasured include the individual building, street, urban block, neighborhood andcity. These levels of spatial disaggregation influence how urban form ismeasured, analyzed and ultimately understood. Understanding the spatialorganization of a city allows planners to decide the course of action forfuture development and to frame strategies that are integral to the existingspatial structure; and that provide the city a resilient and sustainable path. Some of the major criteria that can be usedin a framework for assessment of urban resilience include infrastructure, urbanform, social and demographics, security, environment, economy, and institutions.Out of these, the urban form and its characteristics including density,transportation network, accessibility, mixed use land composition, andbuildings & their design have been used for the assessment of urbanresilience of the selected case study area. Thecentral premise of this study is that the urban form of a city can affect itsresilience and sustainability. This study is an attempt to measure the existingurban form of a city and to assess its potential to develop it towards moresustainable and resilient existence.

This research study proposes to focus onthe resilience of urban design and urban form of the selected areas as casestudy and to determine the final resilience of these areas using the differentindicators of urban form and GIS based Spatial Analysis.Research QuestionsFollowing are the research question for this study.·      What are thedifferent policies adopted in developed and developing countries to improve theresilience of urban areas?·      What is thecapacity of the selected case study areas in terms of urban form and itsindicators by conducting different surveys in the selected case study areas?·      What maps can begenerated based on selected indicators of urban form using GeographicInformation System?·      What is thefinal resilience of the selected case study areas by generating a combined mapfor all the urban form indicators using the GIS spatial analysis?·       Whatrecommendations can be made for improving the resilience of the urban areas?Research ObjectivesTheaim of this research is to assess the resilience of urban areas towards urban formusing the GIS Based Spatial Analysis. However, following are the specificobjectives of the research:·      To review theliterature addressing importance of city’s resilience towards urban form andrelated policies adopted in developed and developing countries to improve theresilience of urban areas.·      To determine theresilience in terms of urban form and its indicators by conducting differentsurveys in the selected case study areas.·      To generate themaps based on selected indicators of urban form using Geographic InformationSystem.

·      To assess thefinal resilience of the selected case study areas by generating a combined mapfor all the urban form indicators using the GIS spatial analysis.·       Todraw conclusions and make recommendations for improving the resilience of the selectedcase study areas/urban areas.Justification of theResearchAs the cities are considered to be homes to the futuregenerations, with more than 60% of world population living in cities, the focusis on how to make them more sustainable in terms of consumption, livingconditions and socio-environmental footprint. Based on recognizingenvironmental uncertainty and limited urban capacity, different urbandevelopment strategies are framed in a way that combines both resilience andsustainability. Both these concepts of resilience and sustainability areinterconnected and are vital for the present and future development of urbanareas and ultimately the countries.

Among the Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs): the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Goal 11 “Make citiesand human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable” also emphasizeon the resiliency and sustainability of the cities. Moreover, it is the extremeneed of today’s cities of the world to do city planning in a way that maximizethe capacity of the cities for both the present and future generation in allaspects.Pakistanis experiencing rapid urban growth and increase in its population. Over timeindustrialization, rural urban migration, increased urbanization, change ininfrastructure and urban form in Lahore, need the city to be resilient and capableto absorb these changes and disturbances while maintaining its functions andstructure.Therefore,a research is needed to suggest ways in order to increase the opportunities forsuch development which would improve the capacity of the city and make itresilient and sustainable as limited studies on resilience assessment have beenconducted in Lahore till now. This research will carry out the resilienceassessment with the help of indicators of Urban Form and GIS based spatialanalysis. The GIS spatial analysis will help to identify the level ofresilience in urban areas.

The findings of this research will enable theresponsible authorities to perceive and grasp the locations required forimprovement and ultimately make the city resilient and sustainable.Scope of the ResearchThisresearch mainly focuses on resilience assessment in selected housing schemes tosuggest measures for its improvement in order to achieve the sustainabledevelopment goal of making cities and humansettlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. For thisresearch thesis, two housing schemes of Lahore were selected as case studyareas. The main objective is to examine the resilience of the selected urbanareas. This research also aims at comparing the neighborhood design urban formof both schemes in order to identify which neighborhood design and urban form amongboth the schemes is more viable, friendly and conducive to resilience andsustainability.Atmacro level, literature review is carried out to find out different approachesadopted in developed and developing countries to improve the resilience of theurban areas. Limitations of theResearchNoproject can be implemented in a way at which at first conceived. This phenomenondepicts that there are some limitations in every piece of work regardless ofits scale.

·       Theforemost limitation faced in this task was the absence of past referencematerial & previous approaches as no refined study related to resilience hasbeen conducted in Lahore. ·       Selectionof case study areas and data collection from residents through questionnaireswas also set according to limited human resource.·       Timelimitation was imposed by the university, therefore; precise research has to becarried out in order to finish it in time.

·       Lackof financial resources was another drawback Framework of theResearch by Work and Time Forthe completion of research project within the estimated time, whichmaterializes from the objectives of the study, it is essential to have arational research method and a well-organized approach. The framework ofproject by work and time is shown in Figure 1.1.Report BreakupAtraditional structure was followed while writing this thesis. It is dividedinto following five Chapters.

1st chapter providesinformation about some very basic and pre-requisites of the study. Thisincludes the topics like problem statement, research questions, objectives ofthe research along with its scope and justification, limitations faced duringresearch, and framework of project by work and time.2nd chapterincludes basic concepts of resilience and its importance. It describes how GISbased spatial analysis can help in assessment of resilience of the urban areas.It also illustrates different policies adopted in developed and developingcountries to improve resilience and sustainability of urban areas.

It describesa brief review of those policy guidelines in Pakistan which promote the conceptof resilience.3rdchapter explains the detailed methodology to carry out theresearch. It describes all the data collection stages for the resilienceassessment in selected case study areas. The approach adopted to assess theresilience in terms of urban form, surveys conducted form the urban formindicators and GIS based spatial analysis is discussed in detail in thischapter.4thchapter is the second last chapter of the report. Thischapter gives comprehensive assessment of resilience in the selected schemeswith the help of supportive facts, figures and maps.

This chapter gives thedetailed outcomes drawn from the interviews with the residents in the casestudy areas.5th chapter presents theconclusions and recommendations drawn on the basis of surveys, GIS spatialanalysis and interviews with residents. In this part, main issues and problemsof the case study area regarding the resilience of urban form have beendisclosed in order to suggest applicable recommendations

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