The rise of sea level is considered one of the most dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. When temperatures increase, it results in rising temperatures which warm the ocean waters; this thermal expansion is considered the main cause of global warming resulting in a rise of sea level. When water is heated, it expands temperature and resulting in oceans taking up more space. For example, major floods in Indonesia were caused by the rise in temperatures which made their ocean waters warmer resulting in huge disasters (NCCARF, 2015).
3.4.1. Melting of glaciers and polar ice caps
Glaciers and polar ice caps are known to melt in summers; however the recent rise in temperatures have led to greater than average melting in summers. The increasing melting of Greenland’s ice is seen contributing to a rise in sea level. Rainfalls are also diminishing due to earlier springs and late winters.. The melting of glaciers in USA led them to face disastrous floods in 2018 due to a rise in high sea levels. Glaciers in India are melting so fast that researchers are predicting that most of the glaciers of the Himalayas would soon disappear by 2030 (Kennedy, 2017).
3.4.2. Coastal flooding and erosions, inland flooding
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states in their 2001 report that melting glaciers and ice caps would raise ocean levels by 0.66 meters (2.14 feet) by 2100, making coastal flooding more severe during storms, and also exposing higher locations, generally deemed safe, to coastal erosions. Specifically the countries having small islands and low-lying areas are in stress resulting in their populations requiring migration to other countries (Nobuo, 2013).