THEORY important to look at a client as

THEORY is defined as a belief, policy or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action.
NURSING THEORY is an organized framework of concepts and purposes designed to guide the practice of nursing.

Madeleine Leininger was the first professional nurse with a graduate preparation to complete a PhD in anthropology.

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She was the founder of Transcultural Nursing.

She developed the concept of transcultural nursing that encouraged the nurses to figure out how to deal with patients of different cultures.

She was an internationally known as an educator, an author, an administrator, a theorist, a researcher, a consultant.
Madeleine Leininger’s theory is now a nursing discipline that has become an integral part of modern nurse practices in the healthcare field.
In 1960’s and 1970’s, her concepts were integrated into nursing curricula.
In 1975, the Transcultural Nursing Society was established.
In 1991, Dr. Leininger outlined her Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality together with Sunrise Model.
She emphasized that :
The values and beliefs have a marked effect on client’s health and social life.
It is important to look at a client as a whole person from physiological, spiritual and social perspective as well as to consider client’s culture and cultural background while planning care for the client.
(Andrews ; Boyle, 2008)


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