Through centuries non-violent actions have been a universal phenomenon throughout history and across social and political system. One historical figure was Mahatma Gandhi. In September 1906 he led his fellow Indians in a nonviolent protest against the policemen who wanted to keep a file on every one of them and he was put in jail for seven years; between 1921 and 1923, he was again imprisoned because he promoted civil rebellion; in 1930 he was put in jail for one year because he illegally produced salt from saltwater to protest against the government monopoly on salt production. (lifegate.com)He supported peace armies during both World Wars, was against the independence of Pakistan from India and wanted Indian religious communities (Hindu and Muslim) to coexist peacefully. That’s why he was assassinated at the age of 78, on 30 January 1948, by a militant Hindu nationalist. ( history of the states pg 101-102) In general Nonviolent action (also sometimes referred to as people power, political defiance, and nonviolent struggle) is a technique of action for applying power in a conflict by using symbolic protests, noncooperation, and defiance, but not physical violence.
Nonviolent action involve: Acts of omission ,Acts of commission or a combination of two.However, non violent action is poorly understood as a phenomenon. Many people relate it with the avoidance of facing with society problem such as: finding a solution in certain conflicting topic.In general nonviolent action appears as distinctive methods which constitute its discrete and recurrent patterns of behavior. In this case those types of methods can be analyzed as types of persuasion, noncooperation and non violent intervention.The existence of nonviolent action it needs neither presence of some particular ethical beliefs nor the willingness of the powerful toleration against active opposition. Nonviolent actions works if it gets a population which withdraw its support and obedience from the opponents. In this case, by getting key groups to withdraw the consent, nonviolent action has the power to remove a regime or opponent group.
Another definition according to Ronald M.McCarthy , nonviolent action is a technique which carries out of conflict, onr that has been conducted in many cultural and historical contexts. Nonviolent actions are more an unilateral initiative by one party to an acute conflict and does not require that the opposing party respond in kind ( Ronald M McCarthy, Christopher Kruegler, 1993). In a nonviolent resistance people need to collaborate, and decide for their own government which supports their rights and freedoms.
Hoewever the aim of non violent conflict is converting people opponent, in order to win over their mind and heart and persuade them that your point of view is right. An important element of this type of act is that to make sure that the opponent is given a face saving way of changing their mind. Although people relate just with the avoidance of violent this act is also a way of taking positive action which resist oppression or bring about change. Non violence seeks a win-win solution whenever it is possible.