Title

Title : Monoclonal antibody manufacturing via hybridoma processing
Preface : Hybridoma processing is significant for monoclonal and polyclonal antibody formation. Monoclonal antibody origination are mentioned hither solely. Amid this scheme, standard B-cell and neoplastic cell are needed. Antibody origination is B-cell’s power. Everlasting and high spreading rate are neoplastic cell’s ability. Created antibody is definite in activity. So, same antibody making strategy is indicated as hybridoma processing.(1)
The method incorporates six stages.
1. Vaccination: To begin with, mice is vaccinated. Thereafter antibody originates against the vaccination inside the mice’s body. Whereas,the content of the antibody is optimum inside the mice’s body,splenocytes are obtained by killing it. Splenocyte retains antibody manufacturing B-cell.(1)
2. Co-ordination: Cancer cell is assembled with splenocyte here. Fifty percent of PEG is applied to combine those cells. A Combined cell is directed as hybridoma cell.(1)
3. Choice: Choice is completed via HAT medium. The cells formed here are:.
*Unmixed B-cell : Which can die beneath the medium in brief time because of it’s short life.
*Unmixed cell : Which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*Hybridoma cell: It’ll live in the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.(1)
4.Screening : It is done by ELISA system. The chosen cells are shifted to ninety-six plastic well plates. One cell stays at one well. At,an underside of the plates definite antigens are adsorbed. Antibody will bind to the antigens if the cells create proper antibody. Antibody is then identified by immunoconjugate what contains 2 ingredients. One ingredient is definite for an epitope and antibody is immobilized by this component. Another one is enzyme that brings color to the well. It indicates the antibody. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is surveyed by ELISA reader.(1)
5. Cloning : Afterwards of screening,with the help of interleukin-6 system antibody cloning proceeds for additional creation and growth of antibody.(1)
6. Symbolization and savings : Antibody’s will be placed in liquid N2 media after characterization.(1)

Figure : Hybridoma Processing.(1)
Epilogue : Hybridoma processing is an evolution in the area of antibody creation. Antibody, manufactured via this system are needed in various ways like disease identification, therapy, research, clinical purpose and development etc.(1)

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References : 1)kulkarni Giriraj(2002),Biotechnology and It’s Application in Pharmacy.(6th edition),Jaypee Bros Medical Publishers.

TITLE

TITLE: EXAM MALPRACTICES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUION IN KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN
AMA International University Bahrain
College of Administrative and Financial Science
Research Submission –Ch. 1-3
3rd trimester SY 2017 -2018
Prepared by:
Lolwa Alsubaie – BH15500435
Fatima Khalifa Alqallaf – BH15500736
Reem Yaqoob – BH16500197
Key word
Malpractices:
Is the state of immoral behavior, misconduct and improper behaviorDiagnosis:
Determining the nature and cause of a particular phenomenon.Erroneous:
wrong, incorrect.

Loath:
don’t want to do something
Incurred:
Become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behavior or actions.

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Provision:
availableCheating:
Is to get something by dishonest means.Deception:
Trick or plan used to get what you want .Enterprise:
project, venture ,scheme .

Chapter 1
1. Introduction
malpractices is one of the topics of literature, psychological and educational, see forms of fraud and its effects and levels and methods. The subject of fraud has several aspects of education, economy and social ….Cheating is a form of fraud, deception and theft used by people of different levels.

It is action, not just behavior or confirmation, but it affects human ethics, learning ethics and the credibility of education and educational institutions. Some people have sex with each other (cheating) over the care of others.

There are many types of cheating methods, such as transferring a referral from a colleague, copying a project from a friend, or opening the phone during the exam.

The main objective of the study is learning and knowledge and not only success. Learning has many benefits, it affects and reflects on the student personality.

Based on the above, the phenomenon of fraud requires the study and research by specialists and professionals to resolve and address this phenomenon and reduce the effects and discuss the reasons or factors associated with the occurrence of this behavior and impact.

malpractices in job
In the case of obtaining a certificate without any educational effort, that he gets a certificate without education and knowledge, leading to failure in the field of work and causes many problems and disasters, for example: a doctor received a medical certificate by fraud and give the patient overdoses, which leads To his death, or the construction of engineers leads to the fall of the building.

malpractices in Business
That is, it uses malpractices in increasing profits and hurting consumers, which leads to poor trust among them and not dealing with them again
.1

1.1 Statement of the Problem
Why cheating in is a problem:
Exam malpractices in education or (Cheating) is a problem because Students may lose their marks, will waste time while doing the exam because they depend on cheating and may have to study again the subject, so then the students will not get more information and knowledge that will help them in their future jobs. Also Students may affect the graduation year because they may repeat the subject. Who cheats may feel depression after catching them, that’s will lead to lowers self-respect and confidence.

Cheating have many reasons like fear of failure, desire for better grade, increase his/her financial income and more of reasons that will leads to lots of effects on students like depression, losing marks and they will not get more information and knowledge for future.

Objectives
This study will be conducted to determine the common occurrence problem which is cheating, this study aims to:
To Study the reason of cheating.

To Find out the effects of cheating.

To provide suggestions based on findings.

1.2 Significance of the Study
This study contains many aspects to the phenomenon, including the reasons for Cheating, motives of cheating in exams, prevention measures and treatment of the phenomenon of cheating.

The study should be beneficial to all educational organizations in addition to government and private institutions, establishment and for the provision of well-educated market force, such as:
The Students: This study will encourage the students not to cheat and depend on their study and knowledge, also to know the consequences of cheating.
Ministry of Education: This study will encourage Ministry of Education to make campaigns, lectures or even seminars about cheating to warn the students about it and encourage them to depend on their study and knowledge.
Social worker at school: This study will encourage Social worker at school to advise students by conducting some lectures entitled Cheating and its consequences.

1.3 Scope and Limitation
The research propose is study the malpractices is the educational institutions in kingdom of Bahrain , to research specifically conduct the study in the AMA international university.
Research have only two weeks to survey the sample respondents. This may limit the number of sample to be collected.

There is scope for students not being responsive and based.

The study involve cost which may he higher than the budgeted amount.

References
1 https://www.quora.com/Why-do-some-students-cheat-during-tests-and-examsChapter 2
2. Literature Review
Gallant, Binkin, and Donohue in (2015) they said the Student cheating has always been an issue in higher education stage, but recently detection of cheating has become more easier with great development technological devices. As result, the chances of the illegal practice of cheating became significantly less.

Identifying those at risk for being reported for cheating is a first step in developing preventive measures. Previous research has attempted to do this through the use of self-report surveys, but such research takes considerable time and resources to carry out and suffers from low response rates and social desirability bias. To address this constraint in existing research, this study links current data from records of other-reported cheating to university registration data in order to examine 6 cheating risk factors recognized in previous research: maturity level, sex, score average, major, international student status, and fright of punishment. The results of the study suggest that international and transfer students, particularly those who are men, in high-risk majors (like computer science, economics and engineering), and have lower grades are in particular need of preventative education. Likewise, those faculty who teach in computer science, engineering and economics majors should do more to educate implement practices to reduce the likelihood of cheating.1
Ballantine, Guo, Larres in (2018) explain this study demonstrates the prospective for influencing business students to act ethically by directing their undergraduate learning environment. Moreover, the bond between business students’ academic cheating, as a predictor of workplace ethical behavior, and their approaches to education is explored. The three approaches to learning identified from the students’ approaches to learning literature are deep approach, represented by an intrinsic interest in and a desire to realize the subject, surface approach, characterized by rote learning and memorization without understanding, and strategic approach, associated with spirited students that aims to achieve merit grades by adopting either a surface or deep approach. Consistent with the hypothesized theoretical model, structural equation modeling revealed that the surface approach is associated with higher levels of cheating, while the deep approach is related to lower levels. The strategic approach had result in decreasing the level of cheating and had a statistically stronger influence than the deep approach. Further, a encouraging relationship reported between deep and strategic approaches illustrates that cheating is reduced when deep and strategic approaches are paired. These findings suggest that future managers and business executives can be influenced to behave more ethically in the workplace by directing their learning approaches. It is hoped that the evidence presented may encourage those involved in the design of business programs to implement educational strategies which optimize students’ approaches to learning towards deep and strategic characteristics, thereby equipping tomorrow’s managers and business executives with skills to recognize and respond appropriately to workplace ethical dilemmas.2
Elias in (2017) wrote Cheating is an epidemic in higher education. The author tested the psychological variable of academic entitlement and its relationship with the ethical perception of cheating using a sample of business students. Contrary to some previous research, the author found that millennia’s were only to some extent more academically entitled than students from other generations but overall had a low sense of entitlement. Highly entitled business students viewed cheating actions as less unethical compared with less entitled students. 3
Cavanagh in (2014) explain the online tests are a relatively efficient way to assess large amount of job candidates and are becoming more and more popular with organizations. Due to their unprotected nature, nevertheless online selection tests provide the potential for candidates to cheat, which may undermine the validity of these tests for selecting qualified candidates. The aim of this study was to test the appropriateness of utility theory as a framework for understanding decision-making in regard to cheating on an online cognitive ability test (CAT) by manipulating the probability of passing the test with cheating, the probability of being caught cheating, and the value of being caught cheating in two samples: 518 adults recruited through Amazon mTurk, and 384 undergraduate students. The probability of being caught cheating significantly affected performance on the CAT for the mTurk sample, but not for the student sample, and significantly moderated the relationship between CAT score during session one and CAT score during session two for the student sample. Neither the probability of being caught cheating, nor the value of being caught cheating significantly affected CAT performance or validity in either sample. Findings regarding the prevalence and effectiveness of cheating are discussed. 4
Elias in (2015) examined Cheating is a common issue among college students. Research illustrates that business students cheat more often than other students and that this deceitful was interrelated with future unethical workplace behavior. The current research examines some psychological determinants of business students’ cheating perception. A survey was conducted to 474 undergraduate business students in two universities. The levels of Individualism/Collectivism and the Protestant Work Ethic were measured for each respondent as well as his/her perception of various doubtful cheating behaviors. The research indicated that high Collectivists and those with a high Protestant Work Ethic were more probable to view cheating actions as more unethical than other individuals those with a lower work ethic. The results have implications for college instructors in their attempt to reduce the chances of cheating. 5
Giluka and Postlethwaite in (2015) demonstrate that the Academic dishonesty is widespread within secondary and higher education. It can include unethical academic behaviors such as cheating, plagiarism, or unauthorized help. Researchers have recognized a number of individual and contextual factors in an effort to understand the phenomenon. In the last ten years there has been rising interest in the role personality plays in explanation immoral academic behaviors. We used meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between each of the Big Five personality factors and academic dishonesty. Previous reviews have highlighted the role of neuroticism and extraversion as possible predictors of cheating behavior. However, our results showed that conscientiousness and agreeableness are the strongest Big Five predictors, with both factors negatively related to academic dishonesty. We discuss the implications of our findings for both research and practice. 6
Blau, Kunkle, Mittal, Rivera, Ozkan in (2017) studied Dealing with academic dishonesty remains an ongoing issue for business school faculty. In this study, using an online survey, the authors examined responses of 233 business school faculty from a Tier 1 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business–accredited University and measured their perceptions of undergraduate cheating and recognizing such behavior. Study results showed promise for measuring 3 types of cheating behavior scales: paper based, internet based, and direct exam. Faculty who formally reported a cheating incident perceived a higher general cheating problem, and higher levels of paper-based, internet-based, and direct exam cheating than the faculty who had never reported a student. 7
Ellis, Zucker, and Randall (2018). Examined while there is growing awareness of the existence and activities of Academic Custom Writing websites, which form a small part of the contract cheating industry, how they work remains poorly understood. Very little research has been done on these sites, perhaps because it has been assumed that it is impossible to see behind their firewalls and password protection. We have found that, with some close analysis, it is indeed possible to find couple of ‘cracks’ in these sites through which we can look to gain insights into the business activities that operate within them. We have reverse engineered the business processes that operate within some of these sites. From this we have also been able to identify three diverse business models that are supported by these sites. Our analysis supports important findings about how these sites operate that can be used to inform future strategies to detect and deter contract cheating. 8
Kupchik, and Catlaw, (2015) studies the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health data set to evaluate the long-term influence of school discipline and security on political and civic participation. We find that young adults with a history of school suspension are less probable than others to vote and volunteer in civic activities years later, telling that suspension negatively impacts the chances that youth engage in prospect future political and civil activities.These findings are consistent with prior theory and research highlighting the long-term negative implications of punitive disciplinary policies and the role schools play in preparing youth to participate in a democratic polity. We conclude that suspension undermines the development of the individual skills and capacities necessary for a democratic society by substituting collaborative trouble solving for the exclusion and physical removal of students. The research lends empirical grounds for recommending the reform of school governance and the implementation of more constructive models of discipline.9
Hsiao (2015) explain Academic cheating is a global problem the face almost all universities worldwide. Many studies on academic cheating had focused on high school students and undergraduate colleges, few studies have focused on the scope of the students with and without jobs. Therefore, this study has empirically assessed the critical cheating issues by focusing on the uncovered area by many researches (comparing undergraduate students with and without jobs). To add, this study proposes a research framework based on the extended theory of planned behavior by including ethical and affective variables from the dual-process theory, the social learning theory, the decision affect theory, and the prospect theory. The survey method with a two-stage analytical procedure was used to achieve the research purpose. So a total of 525 student samples were preceded for subsequent analysis. The results demonstrate that all antecedents considerably affected students’ cheating intention. Moreover, the hypothetical relationships were examined across three groups of students. Firstly, individuals who are jobless; secondly, part-time employees; and finally, full-time employees. The results showed that some major differences existed in the relationships between antecedents and cheating intention across the different student groups. While perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect on cheating aim among students with no jobs and with full-time jobs, unethical beliefs in the workplace have a significant effect on cheating for students who are employeed, but not for students with part-time jobs and with no jobs. Implications for practitioners and academic institutions are discussed.10
References:
1 Gallant, T. B., Binkin, N., & Donohue, M. (2015). Students at risk for being reported for cheating. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13(3), 217-228.

2 Ballantine, J. A., Guo, X., & Larres, P. (2018). Can future managers and business executives be influenced to behave more ethically in the workplace? The impact of approaches to learning on business students’ cheating behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 149(1), 245-258.

3 Elias, R. Z. (2017). Academic entitlement and its relationship with perception of cheating ethics. Journal of Education for Business, 92(4), 194-199.

4 Cavanagh, T. M. (2014). Cheating on online assessment tests: Prevelance and impact on validity (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University. Libraries).5 Elias, R. Z. (2015). The Effect of Personality Characteristics on Business Students’ Perceptions of Cheating. Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 11(1), 11-16.

6 Giluk, T. L., & Postlethwaite, B. E. (2015). Big five personality and academic dishonesty: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 59-67.

7 Blau, G., Kunkle, M., Mittal, N., Rivera, M., & Ozkan, B. (2017). Measuring business school faculty perceptions of student cheating. Journal of Education for Business, 92(6), 263-270.

8 Ellis, C., Zucker, I. M., & Randall, D. (2018). The infernal business of contract cheating: understanding the business processes and models of academic custom writing sites. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1.9 Kupchik, A., & Catlaw, T. J. (2015). Discipline and participation: The long-term effects of suspension and school security on the political and civic engagement of youth. Youth & Society, 47(1), 95-124.?
10 Hsiao, C. H. (2015). Impact of ethical and affective variables on cheating: comparison of undergraduate students with and without jobs. Higher Education, 69(1), 55-77.?
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
3.1. Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework
?McGregor Theory X and Theory Y: Vroom and Deci: 1970
?In his theory McGregor developed two distinct preconceived perceptions of how people observe human behaviour at work and organisational life. He believed that companies follow one of the two opposing approaches. He called these approaches theory X and theory Y.

?He argues that in theory X, management has the responsibility to ensure that the productive elements of the enterprise are organised such as money, materials, and people with the purpose of meeting economic ends.

?People have an inborn dislike of work and tend to avoid it whenever an opportunity arises, they are inborn selfish, indifferent to the needs of the organisation, peoples efforts need to be directed through motivation, controlling their actions and modification of their behaviour so as to fit organisational needs, they always need to be directed to take responsibility and have little or no ambition but above all everything they seek security. Due to the lazy inherent nature of human beings they are not able to perform well in their own initiative. In order to make people to achieve the organisational objectives they need to be persuaded, rewarded, coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment. The role of management is to coerce and control employees.

?If management does not have an active intervention, people tend to remain passive and resistant to the needs of the organisation.

?On the other hand theory Y stipulates that management is charged with the responsibility to organise the elements of productive enterprise such as money, materials, equipment and people with the aim of meeting economic ends. To people work is a natural thing, they are not passive or resistant to organisational needs and are always ready to express self direction when committed to the objectives because people are naturally not lazy. Unlike theory X people accept and seek responsibility at all times. However the only way management can ensure that people are committed is to provide them with the right conditions and operation methods to enable them achieve their goals through the direction of their efforts to meet objectives of the organisation.

?In the assumptions suggested in theory Y, management’s role is to develop employee’s potential and help them to release that potential towards the achievement of common goals.

?Management in accomplishing its tasks uses these assumptions as guides and this leads to a variety of possibilities which fall between two extremes. In one extreme side management can be hard or strong and on the other management can be soft or weak.

?Theory X is the standpoint that traditional management has taken towards the work force while many modern organisations are now taking the enlightened position of theory Y (Boeree, 2006:3).

?Mc Gregor’s theory Y is linked to the questions in the questionnaire that are concerned about training, monitoring performance, performance assessment, working conditions.

Reference:
Schiphorst, F. (2008). Motivation and Work Performance: Complexities in Achieving Good Performance.

3.1.2 Conceptual framework:
20320288925
Want to learn.

Self-reliance.

A serious person
Certificate with knowledge.

experience
Want to pass only.

Dependence on other.

A neglected man.

Certificate without knowledge.

No experience

Based on the problem we identified the motivation theory the study has developed the concept frame work of Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students.
Research methodology
In this chapter the research design is presented in detail.

Research design.

Type pf research.

The type of research used is descriptive in nature, this means we are collecting information as it is present now, this information can change in future.

3.1(b) sources of data:
there are two methods of gathering data which are:
Primary source: First time data. By contrast, are collected by the investigator conducting the research, In this study the research uses primary data for analysis
Secondary source: the information is already available, The study has used articles, journals, and websites to collect information.

3.1(c): method of data collection:
Survey 🙁 Question, Answer): The methods involved in survey data collection are any of a number of ways in which data can be collected for a statistical survey. These are methods that are used to collect information from a sample of individuals in a systematic way.

In this Research we use survey method to collect information from respondents.

Method used for gathering data in our survey is depended on the survey method.

Research Instrument:
Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

In this research a questionnaire is used to collect information from the respondents
Sampling design :
The sampling technique that can be used on probability & non probability in this study.The research used non probability technique.

Nonprobability samples: represents a group of sampling techniques that help researchers to select units from a population that they are interested in studying.

Convenience: A convenience sample is simply one where the units that are selected for inclusion in the sample are the easiest to access
Judgmental: Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where the researcher selects units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment.

3.4 Tools used in this study
The statistical tools are :Percentages analysis – Method of analyzing information obtained over an extended period by choosing a baseline period and stating the data associated with subsequent periods as a percentage of that period.

Frequency distribution – is a tabular form of statistics. Each entry in the table contains the frequency or count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval, and in this way, the table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample.

Sample size:
The sample size in this research is 100. This it got by using the Cochran formula:
n=z2(p)(q)e2Where:
Z= 1.96 , p=0.5 , q=0.5, e=0.10

Title

Title: History of Computer
Assignment Name: Discussion Question 1 -History of Computer
Course Name and Number: Computer Information Systems A ITT101
Professor: Neil Williams
Date: September 7, 2018
?
Contents
Introduction 2
Vacuum Tubes 2
Transistors 3
Integrated Circuits 3
Microprocessors 3
References 4

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes which was created in 1904 by Sir John Ambrose Fleming which was used for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous. First generation computers relied on machine language. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951 (Beal, 2010).

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Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
Transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 which replaced Vacuum Tubes but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was a higher quality than the vacuum tube, making computers begins to be smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage; it was still a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still used punched cards for input and printouts for output (Beal, 2010).

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system (Beal, 2010). The Third generation computers used the integrated circuits (IC). Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrated circuit in 1958. It was an important invention in the computer field. The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about ¼ square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive. The examples of third generation computers are IBM 370, IBM System/360, UNIVAC 1108 and UNIVAC AC 9000 (Khan, 2013) .
Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh (Beal, 2010).
References

Beal, V. (2010, August 1). Webopedia. Retrieved from The Five Generations of Computers: https://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/FiveGenerations.asp page1
Khan, J. (2013, Febraruy 16). byte-notes. Retrieved from Five Generations of Computer: http://www.byte-notes.com/five-generations-computers page1

Title

Title: Monoclonal antibody production by hybridoma technology
Introduction: Hybridoma technology plays significant action for the generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody. Here, monoclonal antibody production will be discussed only. In this way, a normal B-cell and a cancer cell are used. B-cell has antibody production capability and myeloma cell has immortality and high proliferation rate. Produced antibodies are specific in action. So, Identical antibodies production process is known as hybridoma technology.
The process includes six stages.
1. Immunization :First, mice is immunized. Then antibody is produced against the immunization in the mice’s body. When the amount of antibody is optimum in the mice. It is sacrificed and spleenocytes are taken out from it. Spleenocyte contains antibody producing B-cell.
2. Fusion :Here, the spleenocyte is fused with myeloma cell.50% polyethylene glycol(PEG) is used to fuse the cell. Fused cell is referred as hybridoma cell.
3. Selection: Selection is done in hypoxanthine aminopterine thymidine(HAT) medium. Here, mainly three types of cell are found.
*unfused B-cell: which will die in the medium in short time as it has short life span.
*unfused myeloma cell: which will die in the medium because of synthesis stoppage as it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*hybridoma cell: it will survive the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is selected by this way.
4. Screening :It is done by ELISA method. The selected cells are transferred to 96 plastic well plates. Each well contains one cell. Specific antigens are adsorbed at the bottom of the plates. If the cells produce desired antibody, it will bind to that antigens. This antibody is then detected by immunoconjugate which contains two component. One component of the immunoconjugate is specific for epitope and antibody is immobilized because of this component. Another component is enzyme which brings color to the well. After incubation enzyme activity is stopped and optical density is measured by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : After screening, cloning of the antibody can be done in interleukin-6 media for further growth and production of the antibodies.
6. Characterization and storage: After characterization the antibodies can be stored in liquid nitrogen media.

Title

Title: Topic 3
Discuss the status and future of the following major languages: Russian, French, Mandarin and Hindi.
Full Name:
Shazmin Binti Shaharin
Nur Dania
Email:
[email protected]
Due Date:

Course Code and Name
LET101
Lecturer’s Name:
Dr. Manjeet Kaur Mehar Singh

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Russian language originated from the Indo-European family and includes 8 subgroups and in this case, Russian belongs to Slavic subgroup. This subgroup is also divided into three branches which are Eastern, Western and Southern. Russian language belongs to Eastern branch along with Ukrainian and Belorussian. Indo-European family is the world’s largest family as it contains languages from Europe and Asia.
. Russian language status was stated in the The Constitution of the Russian Federation as Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Russian language is also one of the UN official languages and used in meetings of various UN organizations.Other than that, Russian language is the official language of a few other organizations. These organizations are Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Russia along side Brazil, China and India are countries recognized as the world’s biggest emerging economies. It is predicted in 2050, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu and Indonesian will dominate the business world, followed by Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Russian. (Source: U.N. World Population Prospects/British Council).

Today, Russian language is widely used around the world with the total number of Russian speakers, 265,026,130, according to ethnologue in 2018. Russian language is the official language of Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. According to UN demographic forecasts by 2050 the number of Russian residents will decrease to 110 million people, the number of ethnic Russians being only 83 million people.
Russia is a growing influential power in the world today. In the future, if United States of America’s current president, Donald Trump, is serious about building a working relationship with Russia, not only both America and Russia will benefit, but Russian economy will surge and Russia may finally emerge as a major economic power on a global scale. When this happens, this could offer business opportunities in Russia and while most Russian business people will speak English, a person gains an advantage with Russians by showing them the courtesy of learning their language and speaking it fluently. This will provide a solid foundation towards a long term business relationships.

French language also originated from Indo-European language family and belongs to Romance subgroup and is a Romance language. French language is one of the most spoken language in the world. It is ranked 6th most spoken language in the world after Mandarin with the total number of 284,952,860 french speakers around the world according to ethnologue. French is spoken in all 5 continents and is the official language of 29 countries.

The world bank has 6 official languages and it includes both Russian and French language. Other than that, French is also one of United Nation’s working languages. Moreover, French is known as the “Language of Diplomacy” as documents are always provided in French and before United Nations was founded, the League of Nations used two languages, French and English to conduct it’s business as international dialogue was needed for it’s operations. French was chosen because it was widely used in many important sectors which are business, science and international diplomacy. Furthermore, it is a language that is widely taught in educational system around the world as foreign language or second language.

French is one of the three procedural languages of the European Union and the main language used for the deliberations of the Court of Justice of the European Union. French is the sole official language of the Universal Postal Union (UPU). Moreover, it is one of the working languages of many other major international institutions such as UNESCO, WHO and FIFA. French plays an important part internationally in sports as it is the official language of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and hence of the Olympic Games.

Countries with french speakers plays an active part in the world’s economy as it accounts for about 20% of the world’s trade in goods. It is also ranked between 6th and 8th most widely used language on the internet.

Future
-As a result of population growth, the OIF estimates that the number of French speakers will rise to over 700 million by 2050, 80% of whom will be in Africa. This would take the proportion of French speakers in the world population from 3% to 8%.

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