TITLE: They are in excessive number for us


  Title: The design and implementation of passwords management system based on blowfish cryptographic algorithm Year & Publication: IEEE, 2009.Journal: Computer Science-Technology and Applications, 2009. IFCSTA’09.

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International Forum on, Volume 2, Pages 24—28. Author: Wang, Mingyan and Que, Yanwen  EmailID: [email protected]

cn, [email protected] Concept:In this modernera, particularly all over the Internet, it is very easy to discover that wehave a lot of username and password pairs to save and remember for your privatedata, and this number is increasing day by day. They are in excessive numberfor us to recollect and it is also dangerous to record them on a scratchpad/hardcopy. To tackle this issue, the author has designed and implemented aunique Password Management System (PMS) which can easily deal with ourusernames and passwords for various websites and logins. We can save the pairssafely and productively with full reliability using this unique system. Thiscore and the basic strength of this system lie in the Blowfish Algorithm.

Thisalgorithm was designed and developed by Bruce Schneier in 1993. It is basicallya symmetric block cipher.Prosof this work:·        Securitylevel of the algorithm used:Theblowfish algorithm is secure then many other cryptographic algorithms andtechniques. This is because the algorithm helps strongly to resist anypossibility of cyber-attack, which is a very desirable property.  Also the security level of this encryptionalgorithm is high because of the variable key size (128-448 bits) it uses forexecuting encryption.

Blowfish is immune against differential related-keyassaults, since the entire ace key includes many round keys that areparticularly free, making such assaults exceptionally confused or infeasible.Such self-sufficiency is very fortunate. ·        Speedof access: ThePassword Management System developed here is very fast in terms of accessingthe stored data because it works on the Blowfish algorithm. This algorithm isquick and reasonable for various platforms and this is the reason why it has ahigh estimation of use in the field of data security.·        Reliabilityof the system:Thedata in the repository of the PMS is put away in the form of “ciphertext” whichis why it cannot be perused by any other viewer.

Now, if the user/viewer wantsto use the database or the stored data he /she have to mention or pass thevalid identification which thereby makes the system secure and reliable. Thisis only possible because the system has been developed using the blowfishalgorithm and is a basic utilization of this algorithm.·        Scalability:Thesystem is widely scalable as it is extended to the World Wide Web (Internet)with the help of web services. Also the underlying algorithm used here is alsoscalable because of high encryption rate, moderate memory usage, highcomputational efficiency and satisfying hardware performances.·        Applicationof the PMS:Thedeveloped system can be used for working of various embedded system requirednowadays.

·        Flexibilityof the algorithm:Thealgorithm used is flexible and so is the developed system. This is because ituses variable size key, which lies from 64 bits to 448 bits. The key lengthshould be multiple of 32 bits.

 Consof this work:·        Vulnerableto cyber-attacks:Thesystem has been developed using the blowfish algorithm which contain fewclasses having weak keys. Exactly, there are 4 rounds of the algorithm whichare exposed to 2nd order differential attacks. So, the system isvulnerable to attacks because of the large no. of weak keys.

·        KeyLength:Thelength of the key used for encryption should be multiple of 32 bits.·        Memoryusage:Thememory used by the system for security is large, which makes a limitation ofthis system. 2.

  Title: New Encryption Standard and Particular Case of Blowfish Algorithm    Year & Publication: IEEE, 2009.  Journal: IJECCE, volume 4,number 1,pages 107–112   Author: Maganty, Chandra Sekhar and Prasanthi, K Sai  Email ID: [email protected], [email protected]

in  Concept:Thecritical part of data security today, mainly compromises of the encryptionalgorithm, which ensures the current developing web and system applications.These algorithms are utilized in many ways, such as they are used to secure theinformation in remote systems against the pernicious assaults. But securing theinformation is not free of cost, so as here, if the securing of data requiresthe use of some assets such as C.P.U time, Memory usage, Battery control, timerequired for encryption, etc. The author proposes a brand new a block cipherwhich uses a variable size secret key, and this block is called as Blowfish. Itis basically a Feistel network, which repeats the basic encryption process 16times. The size of the block is 64 bits long, with a variable size key whichcan be as long as 448 bits.

If we analyse the present circumstances andconditions of the information security, our main focus as well as the desire isto fix up the security factor that limits the impact of Cryptanalysis beingdone on Blowfish calculation.  The workproposed by the author compromises of considerable measure of exertion and animprovable viewpoint on security over the widespread network and itsapplications. In spite of the fact that there is a perplexing introductionstage required before any encryption can occur, the real encryption ofinformation is extremely effective on substantial chip. The author hasdiscussed the Prerequisitesfor a standard encryption calculation. Experimental results proved that theblowfish algorithm is more appropriate for remote networks with secure andreliable information transmission. The author focuses to make it helpful forframeworks having least arrangement by reducing the no of bits in plain text aswell as the key.

Pros of this work: ·        ImprovedSecurity:Thesecurity level of the proposed blowfish algorithm is better than theconventional blowfish algorithm because the proposed work-1.does not generate all the 18 sub keys,2.instead generate only 1 key of 64 bits in length for every four rounds and3.the original key changes with left circular shift of 5,7,9,11 and 13 bits forevery 4 rounds.Hence,here is no chance of repetition of sub-keys, enhancing the security of thealgorithm.·        ReducedVulnerability to attack:Itis dominantly seen that the hackers attack the systems, or systems with largeblock size are more pruned to attacks.

So here, we have decreased the blocksize of the plain text to 32 bits from 64 bits, increasing the reliability ofthe system.·        Reducedkey sizeThereduction in block size of plain text also affects the key size. And hence thekey size is reduced to 16 bit from 32 bits present in conventional algorithm. Cons of this work: ·        Theproposed work is less reliable then the convention algorithm for larger blocksize and hence the security is less in this case.


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