Title

Title: Case Studies Toyota
Celebrated its founding year as it turn to 75th anniversary of the company had compiled the progress in the business of manufacturing vehicle. Toyota had sought a variation of achievement through the years for the production of automobile operating business with a vision upon a great deal of serving the international community.

Review/Analysis of the Case
Analysis of Findings

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Top leading brands for manufacturing car as the variation of design for each country as to exceed a ladder of success almost decade now. But as they suggesting to changing plants from eight different models at the same time, bringing huge increases in productivity and market responsiveness.
And It become a relentlessly innovates for assembly line makes thousands of operational changes in the course of a single year. Toyota employees see their purpose as threefold: making cars, making cars better, and teaching everyone how to make cars better. The company encourages problem solving, always looking to improve the process by which it improves all other processes.
On the way they listen to the customers one way to achieve the goal for success. It’s the right thing to do because they value the customers and listen to the things can give them a greater change to market for example: After four years of carefully listening to teens, for instance, they learned that the Scion’s target age group of 16- to 21-year-olds wanted personalization. Then they builds the car “mono-spec” at the factory, with just one well equipped trim level, and lets customers choose from over 40 customization elements at dealerships, from stereo components to wheels and even floor mats.
Toyota markets the Scion at music events and has showrooms where “young people feel comfortable hanging out and not a place where they just go stare at a car,” likely said by Scion the Vice President Jim Letz.
Furthermore the tagline for the Lexus global strategy is “Passionate Pursuit of Perfection.” Dealerships offer white-glove treatment, though Toyota understands that each country defines perfection diversity. On the United States, being perfection and luxury mean comfort, size, and dependability. The Culture of European had to be luxury means attention to detail and brand heritage.
Meanwhile for Toyota maintains a consistent Lexus visual vocabulary, logo, font, and overall communication, the advertising varies by countries they manufacturing.

TITLE

TITLE :- “SCHOOL CHILDREN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM USING IOT”
Area/Domain:
Automation
IOT Technology
Embedded System
Introduction:
Children are our most precious resource, but as children, they are lack of skills to protect themselves. So it is our responsibility, as parents, teachers and as a person, to safeguard children and to teach them the skills to be safe. Today, most of students are traveling to school by school buses or school vans. Parents think that their kids are safe when they travel by school bus. But are they really safe? There are many common problems such as students getting kidnapped out of school, bus getting delayed in traffic and your kid is last one to get down in bus and is alone in bus. This project is introduced to overcome these problems. This system will send a text SMS to the parent containing longitude, latitude of location of school bus, children attendance status and also driver phone number .Once parent receives the SMS, then by using those data and Google maps the user could easily track the bus. School management has web-based database-driven application that provides information about location of boarding and leaving, boarding and leaving status, RFID number, time and date
This system has ability to uniquely identify the students. The users only need to place their RFID tag on the RFID reader. They do not need to go through the long list to look for their name. Hence, it is a very time efficient system. Entry will be taken if the encoded tagged ID scanned, matches the tagged ID stored in the memory. Otherwise, an error message will be displayed. In recent years, RFID is one of the automatic identification technologies. There is a wide research and development in this area trying to take maximum advantage of this technology, and in coming years many new applications and research areas will continue to appear. RFID system has been successfully applied to different areas as diverse as transportation, healthcare, agriculture, and hospitality industry to name a few. RFID also brings about some concerns, mainly the security and privacy of those who work with or use tags in their everyday life which is proposed in .RFID is used to uniquely identify tagged objects or people. RFID systems have been widely used in many application areas such as inventory control, product tracking through manufacturing and assembly, parking lot access and control, Bank Locker Security System, Automatic Toll Collection System (ATCS), Library Management system (LMS), Attendance Management System etc. The aim of this paper is to monitor students location by using RFID for administration.

Literature Survey:
1)
Title: RFID-based System for School Children Transportation Safety Enhancement with Attendance System
Author: Aafiya Hanafi1, Sana Pathan2, Shraddha Malik3, Dept. of Electronics and telecommunication department Anjuman College of Engineering. And Technology, India.

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Description: The existing tracking system is based on biometric features such as the Kid track biometric system in which the children scan their palms across a palm reader when they enter the bus. It uses an infrared light to image the palm unique pattern. It uses green and red LEDs to ensure the scan works. Then, the scans are sent for cross-referencing
against a secure database of pre-registered users’ patterns. Based on this, the administration can find the information of that bus, where and when it tracked the child, and where the bus was at that time. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is not automatic and difficult for young children to place their palms correctly on the scanner. This may lead to inaccurate data if the scanner did not detect a child’s palm.

2)
Title: Smart School Bus for Children Transportation Safety Enhancement with IOT Author: P.Ambedkar, P.Suresh Babu
Department of ECE (Embedded Systems), Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Tirupati, A.P, India.

Description: The existing tracking system is based on biometric features such as the Kid track biometric system in which the children scan their palms across a palm reader when they enter the bus. It uses an infrared light to image the palm unique pattern. It uses green and red LEDs to ensure the scan works. Then, the scans are sent for cross-referencing against a secure database of pre-registered users’ patterns. Based on this, the administration can find the information of that bus, where and when it tracked the child, and where the bus was at that time. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is not automatic and difficult for young children to place their palms correctly on the scanner. This may lead to inaccurate data if the scanner did not detect a child’s palm.

4.Problem Statement:
To develop an embedded based system which will help the parents and teachers to track their children’s or students position and keep the track of their daily travelling activity
5.Objective:
This project aims at providing better safety to the school children by means of monitoring their boarding and departure from the transportation vehicle i.e. bus with the help of RFID detectors. This system can be used for providing assurance to the parents about the safety of their children from the schools. Discipline can be instilled in the school children during the transportation which at times is not possible through human supervision alone. The system should provide an economic means for the school transportation system to monitor and enhance the safety of school children during transportation.

The system uses RFID tags for children detection which is not harmful since it uses frequency ranges that are safe and legally approved.
The deployment cost is reasonable.
The system is automatic and user friendly.
The system should not be harmful for human beings or the environment.
The device should hurt the child in any way.
The system should provide an option to choose between different Languages.
Children?s information should be available for authorized personal.

Specification:
Sr
No. Component Parameter
1) LPC2148
Single-chip 16-bit/32-bit microcontrollers; up to 512 KB flash
With ISP/IAP, USB 2.0 full-speed device, 10-bit ADC and DAC
2) GPS
High sensitivity -160dBm
Searching up to 65 Channel of satellites
LED indicating data output
Low power consumption
GPS L1 C/A Code
Supports NMEA0183 V 3.01 data protocol
Real time navigation for location based services
Works from +5V DC signal and outputs 9600 bps serial data
Cost range: Rs.900-1400.

3) RFID Reader
5VDC through USB (External 5V supply will boost range of the module)
Current: ;50mA
Operating Frequency: 125Khz
Read Distance: 10cm
Size of RFID reader module: 32mm(length) * 32mm(width) * 8mm(height)
Price: 1300/-
4) IOT Module 802.11 b/g/n
1Mb Flash size
Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP
Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack
Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
Integrated PLLs, regulators, DCXO and power management units
+19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode
Power down leakage current of ;10uA
Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor
SDIO 1.1 / 2.0, SPI, UART
STBC, 1×1 MIMO, 2×1 MIMO
A-MPDU ; A-MSDU aggregation ; 0.4ms guard interval
Wake up and transmit packets in ; 2ms
Standby power consumption of ; 1.0mW (DTIM3)
Access Point and Station Modes
Price: 700/-
5) LCD Display Display Mode: STN, BLUB
Display Formate: 16 Character x 2 Line
Viewing Direction: 6 O’Clock
Input Data: 4-Bits or 8-Bits interface available
Display Font : 5 x 8 Dots
Power Supply : Single Power Supply (5V±10%)
Driving Scheme : 1/16Duty,1/5Bias
Backlight?Side??LED?Yellow?
Price: 250/-
Significance:
To track daily travelling of a child so as to secure their travel as well as keep track of the children’s.

To reduce human effort and manpower.

Proposed Platform and tools:
Sr. No. Platform Tools Availability
In campus Out of Campus
1 Micro Controller LPC2148 Yes  
2 GPS module Yes  
3 IOT module Yes
4 Embedded C Yes  
5 RFID READER YES
Selection Criteria for Platforms and Tools:
Micro Controller LPC2148 To Control the System
GPS module To Track position of Person
IOT module To Send the SMS ; data to server through internet
Embedded C To Run the Code
RFID To identify the child
Field Work Requirement:
Yes we require Field work for testing Purpose.

Estimated Budget and Cost:
Sr No. Component Name Rate Amount
1. Microcontroller 400 400
2. GPS 1,400 1,400
3. IOT 700 700
4. RFID Module 1,300 1,300
Total 3,800
Reference:
1. Implementation Of School ChildrenTracking System And Transportation Safety Enhancement By Using RFID Technique
A.Gowthaman 1, R.Mohanraj2, A.Anadhan3, S.Mohan 4
UG Scholars, Department of ECE1, AVS Engineering College, Salem
Assistant Professor , Department of ECE, AVS Engineering College, Salem
2. Smart Tracking System for School Buses Using Passive RFID Technology to Enhance Child Safety
Khaled Shaaban
Qatar University/Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Doha, Qatar
3. Smart School Bus for Children Transportation Safety Enhancement with IOT
P.Ambedkar1P.Suresh Babu2PG Scholar, Department of ECE(Embedded Systems), Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering,Tirupati, A.P,India1
4. RFID-based System for School Children Transportation Safety Enhancement with Attendance System
Aafiya Hanafi1, Sana Pathan2, Shraddha Malik3, Ruhisana Ali4Akbar Nagani51
Student, Dept. of Electronics and telecommunication department Anjuman College of Engineering. And Technology, India
5. College Buses And Students Monitoring System With IOT
Abhilash Kanakanti1D Narendar [email protected]
[email protected] Scholar, Dept of ECE, CVSR college of Engineering (Anurag group of institutions) Autonomous, Venkatapur(V),G hatkesar(M),Rangareddy, Telangana, India.

Name and Signature of Students:
Sr. No. Name of Student PRN Roll Number Signature of Student
Bhoite Vrushali Vijay 2015 4502 Mahamulkar Komal Vasant 2016099877 4522 Shivankar Shalaka Shivaji 2016099814 4531 Prof. Pawar S.M. Prof. Jamdade A.S. Prof. Natu
Guide Project Coordinator Head of Department

Title

Title: Understanding theories of relationships and social networks
1.1 Key principles of relationship theories – Stage theories in general describe how we go through distinct stages as we develop. Thus, rather than gradually changing, we typically make sudden shifts to different plateaus of perception and behaviour. Relationships go through a series of stages as they mature. Levinger’s model has ABCDE stages.A = Acquaintance/attraction. We meet other people and feel an initial attraction, often based on physical beauty and similarity.B = Build-up. We become increasingly interdependent as we reveal more and more about our private selves. We get irritated by one another, but the more pleasant aspects may well keep the relationship going.C = Continuation/consolidation. Longer-term commitments are made
– strength coming from partner allowing a person to explore ways to expand into new territories.- trust.- goals are the same, even though the ways of expressing them may be different.- each brings healing into the other through depth and security.- the relationship causes person to create a new dynamic based on the future rather than on what has been known in the past.

(ref: taken from https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Understand-theories-of-relationships-and-social-networks-PKJ5CFRJVC)
1.2
2.1 some of the benefits that come when having a supportive relationship are that it’s a confidence booster and increase our self -worth there is many different forms of a supportive relationship eg family, friends and partners its is our job as support workers to help individuals keep up with supportive relationships
2.2 when someone has a supportive relationship it gives off a positive effect and it’s the same when an individual has a difficult or dysfunctional but it’s the opposite effect its has a negative impact on the individual well being and in turns effect there day to day life with feeling a low self-worth and low confidence.

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2.3 having a supportive relationship has benefits like increasing self-worth and happiness if you have a partner who you can trust and they can trust you that can give you a sense of periplus having a good group of friends or close family members you can count on can stress levels and in turn make your day to day life better. Having a dysfunctional relationship will have the opposite affect e.g. can cause a low self-worth/ self-esteem and a high stress level in turn this can affect your day to day life and could affect meatal health.

3.1 every relationship has its up and downs. Normally at the start of a positive relationship everything is good, and you have a high level of self-worth as your progress within the relationship you start to trust your partner more and in turn put more presser on them if the feelings are mutual between the two parties the overall feeling will be a positive one but that is not the case some times the relationship will turn dysfunctions and this could be due to many things eg no longer in love to much stress/ pressure no trust in the relationship which will in turn cause a negative feeling and cause the partnership to come to an end
3.2
A) social factor: relationships can be made in a social factor setting eg having a big social group you can get introduced to new people but in the same sense relationships can breakdown due to social factors example having two groups or friends due to other people not getting on with each other this can cause a negative effect and cause a high level of stress due to trying to balance seeing each group equal.
B) Economic factors: if your are a low-income family house hold stress level could be at a high due to money worries around not being able to afford the best for your family e.g. healthy food witch can lead to weight gain and high blood pressure also a low self-worth due to not being able afford holiday or being in debt which leads to restless night and can have a negative affect on your life
C) cultural factors : every individual has the right to follow any religion this wish to follow and as support workers its out job not to judge of push our religious beliefs and that goes the other way round due to every one being entitled to their own beliefs but not every one sees it life this and many problems around the world is due to religion and people feel like they are being treat the same ( know saying blanket punishment) which can cause a negative effect on that individual
D) psychological factors: in other terms a person mental sate of mind if an individual has a poor level of mental health this in turn could lead to a poor level of physical health by not looking after themselves e.g. not keeping on top of their person hygrine can lead to infections which could lead to the loss of employment or even loss of their relationship with their panther
E) physical factors: when a individual have a high lever of physical health this in turn give the individual a good mental health one way to achieve both is by doing regular exercise this benefits a person health is a good way and when we exercise our bodies releases a chemical in our brain called endorphins which is class a “feel good chemical” it only takes 15mintures of exercise for our bodies to releases this chemical this is why when in times of stress or bad moods it is advised to go for a walk due to releasing the endorphins and makes you more level headed when problem solving

Title

Title:
A: Non-enzymatic browning in food.
B: Enzymatic browning in food.
C: Protein Functionality.
Introduction:
A: The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring the addition of heat. Like caramelization, it is a form of non-enzymatic browning. The reactive carbonyl group of the sugar interacts with the nucleophilic amino group of the amino acid, and interesting but poorly characterized odour and flavour molecules result. The brown pigments that form are called melanoidins. Unwanted brown colors and off- odors can develop during extended storage of foods as baked products, dried egg whites and instant mashed potatoes. The Maillard reaction known as nonenzymatic browning because enzymes are not part of the reaction and its can be viewed as a sequence of three chemical reactions such as condensation, rearrangement and polymerization.
B: When foods like fruits and vegetables are cut or peeled, they release an enzyme from their cells, which is known as phenolase or polyphenol oxidase. This enzyme is highly reactive in the presence of oxygen. It catalyzes a biochemical reaction that converts the phenolic compounds present in foods to brown pigments known as melanins. This reaction is known as enzymatic oxidative browning, which renders food the typical black or brown tinge. These polyphenols are unstable and undergo oxidation when exposed to air through a series of biochemical reactions involving conversion of one substrate to a product. The most common chemical reaction taking place is the catalysis of first step of biochemical reactions involving formation of quinones from phenolic compounds, and subsequent polymerization of quinones to insoluble polymers known as melanin. This compound called melanin is responsible for the browning of fruits and vegetables, especially apples which are rich in polyphenols and highly susceptible to enzymatic browning.
C: Food protein functionality has classically been viewed from the perspective of how single molecules or protein ingredients function in solutions and form simple colloidal structures. Based on this approach, tests on protein solutions are used to produce values for solubility, thermal stability, gelation, emulsifying, foaming, fat binding and water binding to name a few. While this approach is beneficial in understanding the properties of specific proteins and ingredients, it is somewhat restricted in predicting performance in real foods where the complexities of ingredients and processing operations have a significant effect on the colloidal structures and therefore overall properties of the final food product. In addition, focusing on proteins as just biopolymers used to create food structures ignores the biological functions of proteins in the diet. These can be beneficial, as in providing amino acids for protein synthesis or bioactive peptides, or these can be detrimental, as in causing a food allergic response. This review will focus on integrating the colloidal/polymer and biological aspects of protein functionality. This will be done using foams to illustrate colloidal/polymer aspects and bioactive peptides to demonstrate biological function.
Objectives:
A: To show the effects of non-enzymatic browning on different sugar mixtures.
B: To show the effects of enzymatic browning on apples.
C: The stability of Protein Foams – Measurement.
Methods and Materials.
A: As per lab manual. – NaOh/HCL was added. NaOH was added to rise the pH accordingly and HCL was added accordingly to lower the pH.
B: As per lab manual
C: As per lab manual
Results:
A: Non-enzymatic browning in food.
A of samples @ 60°C A of samples @ 40°C
1 0.001 1 0.002
2 0.001 2 0.069
3 0.095 3 0.871
4 0.000 4 0.003
5 0.012 5 0.220
6 0.005 6 0.005
7 0.001 7 0.001

These absorbance results were read seven days after the solution were placed in the oven at 40°C and 60°C.
B: Enzymatic browning in food.
Undipped apple +++++ very severe
Dipped apple
1% citric acid +++ severe
1% ascorbic acid ++ moderate
1% EDTA + slight
1% citric acid, 1% ascorbic acid + slight

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C: Protein Functionality.
10 min 20 min 30 min 40 min 50 min 60 min
0.38g cream of tarter 2ml 4ml 6.5ml 7.5ml 10ml 11.5ml
12 drops of egg yolk 5ml 12.5ml 22.5ml 30ml 37ml 44ml
0.76g cream of tarter 8ml 20ml 23.5ml 27ml 30ml 35ml
1.56g of salt 4ml 7ml 9.5ml 12ml 12.5ml 13.5ml
30ml of water 5ml 8.5ml 12.4ml 14.5ml 17.5ml 19.5ml
50g sucrose(soft peak) 0ml 0ml 0ml 0ml 0ml 1ml
30g water + 50g sucrose 0ml 0ml 1.5ml 1.5ml 1.5ml 1.5ml
Treatment 1 0ml 2.5ml 6ml 9.5ml 11.5ml 13ml
Treatment 2 14ml 15ml 16ml 17ml 18ml 18ml
Treatment 3 0ml 0ml 0ml 0m 0ml 0ml

Discussion:
A: Non-enzymatic browning in food.
This experiment is conducted mostly in pH 8 buffer rather than a more typical food pH (3-7) because non-enzymatic browning reaction undergo particularly in alkaline solution. The Hydrolyzed protein browned slower than an intact protein because most of the chain of protein break and the amount of amino acid less than its origin so that the protein can’t brown faster as intact protein. In the 3rd sample the absorbance is much higher than the rest of the samples. This sample browned the fastest due to the fact it was the only sample where no water was added, and water is a browning inhibitor. It was also observed that the 4th sample has the lowest absorbance, this may be because there was more glucose and no glycine added to this sample which may cause browning to be prohibited. It was also evident that the samples browned faster at 40°C
B: Enzymatic browning:
In this experiment it was expected that the dipped samples were going to be much less brown that the undipped apple samples. This is due to the fact that the sample that have been dipped with acid which prohibits enzyme browning. The apples that were undipped were much browner as they has no browning inhibiting characteristics. This is evident in the results obtained above. The principal of this experiment is the level of browning can be severely reduced or even inhibited by the use of samples used in this experiment epically acid. Also the following will prevent enzymatic browning:
— Reduce/prevent tissue damage
–Reduce contact with air (e.g., immerse)
–Inhibit PPO
–Include antioxidants
–Heat inactivate PPO
C: Protein functionality:
In foam formation three stages are involved. First, the soluble globular proteins diffuse to the air/water interface, concentrate and reduce surface tension. Second, proteins unfold at the interface with orientation of polar moieties toward the water; as a result of unfolding, there is orientation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups at the aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Third, polypeptides interact to form the film with possible partial denaturation and coagulation. Proteins rapidly adsorb at the interface and form a stabilizing film around bubbles which promote foam formation. The basic function of proteins in foams is to decrease interfacial tension, to increase viscous and elastic properties of the liquid phase and to form strong films. Protein foamability is correlated with its capacity to decrease surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Proteins possess the ability to absorb at the interface and reduce surface tension. Surface tension at the gas-liquid interface is affected by temperature; the higher the temperature, the lower the surface tension due to changes in protein conformation. The surface tensions of soybean protein and egg albumin were low and close to hemoglobin, but the foaming power of hemoglobin was considerably higher. Casein had a higher surface tension than lysozyme, but the foaming power of casein was significantly higher than lysozyme. Surface tensions of the protein solutions changed with time. This can be seen from the results above. In the sample with 50g of sucrose is produced the least amount liquid at the bottom whereas the 12 drops of egg yolk sample produced the most amount of liquid as there was very little amount of foam produced.
Conclusion:
A: This experiment showed that food stuff can turn a brown colour without enzymes reacting and just by heat treatment of sugars and that water acts as a browning inhibitor ad different temperatures has an effect on the browning.
B: This experiment showed that acid acts as a strong browning inhibitor.
C: Quality of protein foaming agents characterised by the volume of foam which can be formed during whipping and the stability of the foam once it has been formed.
References:
1.Name of the author(s)
2.Year published
3.Title
4.City published
5.Publisher
1) ScienceStruck. (2018). Enzymatic Browning. online Available at: https://sciencestruck.com/enzymatic-browning.
2) E. Allen Foegeding.(December 2011, Pages 1853-1864). Food protein functionality: A comprehensive approach.
3) (2018). Enzymatic Browning of Apples. online Available at: https://studymoose.com/enzymatic-browning-of-apples-essay

Title

Title: Code Comments

Questions:

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What makes code clear?

What is the most widely recognized method for recording the code?

How does the decision influence the meaningfulness of the code?

Group Member:

Muhammad Wahaaj Siddiqui

Description:

Code clarity is the simplicity with which a product designer or different experts inside the field can comprehend a composed bit of code. A code with high comprehensibility is organized in such a path, to the point that the beneficiary can comprehend the code without being acquainted with the framework or then again dialect.

Comments in code are the fundamental wellspring of documentation and does not consider compile-able code by the compiler. In this manner the primary key for understandability, meaningfulness and viability of the code shows around code comments.

I will find a project from GitHub and analyze the code according to the research questions mentioned above. I will be able to deliver the improved code and comments where there is necessary to make changes so that the code could be easily readable.

Tentative plan/ Milestones:

x

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